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VALUE OF COTTON EXPORTED FROM THE UNITED STATES.
per bale. 1443.
50 It is here remarkable that the value declined annually in 1844, 1845, and 1846. It then began to rise ; and we receive this year $48,000,000, or just double, for the same number of bales as was exported in 1843.
It is worthy of remark, in connection with this subject, how much a larger quantity of cotton is improved in price in the last four years as compared with the previous four years. Thus estimating the weight for 1851 at 800,000,000 pounds, the comparison of the last four years with the four previous years, under the tariff of 1842, is as follow :
Average per lh.
cts. ...7.73 ...9.10
96,393,544.... ... 1.37 This is a very gratifying rise, and if we compare the year 1844 with the year 1850, it becomes still more marked. Thus :
Weight of exports.
Average per lb.
.3.2 The value of the cotton taken by United States manufacturers in 1844 was $12,629,238. Thus the rise in the value of a less quantity exported is 40 per cent. more than the whole home consumption in 1844. If the quantity sold at home had been thrown into the sea, the planters could have afforded to lose it under such a foreign trade.
If, now, we take the number of bales consumed in the United States in the same years at the same prices, we have results as follows :
COTTON CONSUMED IN THE UNITED STATES.
12,629,238 1845 389,003.
. 17,333,663 1848
..22,07 1,497 1851.
..20,205,400 It now appears that the manufacturers in 1851 paid just double what they did
in 1845 for the raw material consumed; or, in the fourth complete year of the operation of the tariff of 1846, they paid $7,000,000, or 50 per cent. more money for a less number of bales than they bought in 1846, the fourth year of the tariff of 1842, Such a result is very bad for manufacturers, no doubt, but very good for planters, who will never be ruined by such a course. Now, it is no doubt the case that the advance in the raw materials, as is always the case, checks consumption, and that result has taken place in the last year. The low prices of 184849, added to the general prosperity of the country, greatly promoted consumption, and in 1848, 531,772 bales were taken by the manufacturers. As the prices advanced they bought less freely, but still comparatively very largely in 1850. The cloth made from that high-priced cotton in 1850 has found the shelves of retailers in 1851 ; but it has encountered diminished demand, owing to the high price in part, and manufacturers have not got back from the cloth the advance of $7,000,000 which they paid out for raw material. The main reason for this, however, is the growth of cotton mills, South and West.
It will be understood that the cotton crop is annually made up by the NewYork Shipping List from southern local reports, of all the cotton which arrives at the seaports; and it is usually very accurate. A few years since, all the cotton came to the seaports; consequently the returns so obtained embraced all the crop. As, however, cotton mills multiplied in the interior, they obtained their cotton from the plantations, and there exists no means of estimating how mnch they so take, nor how much their productions displace the cloth of the old eastern factories. The operation of those mills would be to diminish the apparent quantity of cotton taken from the seaports, and by interior competition prevent the rise in prices of the cloth made at the North. The Shipping List attempts some estimates of the quantity of cotton taken by the miles South and West, but these guesses are by no means so trustworthy as its crop figures.
The census of 1840 gave the number of cotton spindles in the south and western States; and since then the number is known to have very much increased. The Shipping Li-t, however, estimated the number in 1850 and 1851, and also the number of bales they consumed. The spindles are given as follows: Census 1840.
Shipping List. Spindles. North Carolina....
47,934. South Carolina..
36.000 32,121. diana, Kentucky, Illinois,
100,000 Total spindles...
.236,480 Cotton consumed, bales.....
60,000 These estimates are apparently arbitrary. The number of spindles in Ohio, &c., is 100,000; yet the consumption of cotton is estimated at 35,000 bales in 1849, and only 12,000 in 1850 : that is to say, 12,580 spindles in Alabama are estimated to cousume as much cotton as 100,000 in Ohio, &c., and 4,000 bales more than 36,000 spindles in Tennessee. General James calculates that 10,000 spindles require 4,500 bales, of 400 lbs. each; consequently, 286,000 spindles (including North Carolina, allowing that there has been no increase in spindles,
will take about 130,000 bales. The reason given for the small consumption of cotton South and West this year-viz: the high price of cotton-applies with much greater force to the northern factories, distant from market, than to those which are near the plantations. The truth is, that the consumption of cotton South and West has been very large; and the cloth so produced, costing less, has taken the market, and prevented the northern articles from realizing an advance corresponding to the rise in the raw material. It is the transition of the seat of manufactures from the North and East to the South and West under which northern manufacturing capital is laboring.
SCIENTIFIC. P. A. Brown, of Philadelphia, has invented a little instrument with wbich he can, at one operation, ascertain the ductility, elasticity, and tenacity of any smali fibre, such as silk, flax, hair, wool, &e. We propose to present our readers, from time to time, with the results of some of his experiments, which, we flatter ourselves, will be found interesting
We will commence with that of a hair from the head of his Excellency General George Washington. One inch of this being subjected to the trichometor.*
With 170 grains it stretched 1-90 of an inch.-Elasticity entire.
?120 it parted. The lock of hair from which the above was taken, had been extracted more than 50 years, during all which time it had been kept in the drawer of a desk, carefully wrapped in paper. It is what is generally termed gray, that is to say, colorless ; was in shape oval, and had a diameter of 1-312 by 1-500 of an inch.
It will not fail to be remarked, that this filament showed no ductility until it was subjected to a weight of 170 grains, when it stretched one-ninetieth of an inch; that by a gradual increase of the weight it as gradually stretched to 5-90, all this while returning to its original dimensions, when the weight was removed; with only 100 more grains it stretched three times as much as shown in the last experiment, say 25-90 of an inch, and suddenly lost 13.90 of its elasticity; being still further loaded, it finally stretched 35-90, being more than one-third of its original length, which was exactly one inch, and finally broke with the enormous weight of 1120 grains only.
It is very probable that when the 770 grains were put into the scale, that this hair, which had theretofore remained entire, was suddenly ruptured in some part of its structure, perhaps in its cortex.
We will here take leave to remark, that all Mr. Brown's experiments with this instrument are made with one inch of the filament, where it has that length; this we take to be an improvement upon the European mode of conducting the like experiments.
From trix, a hair, and metron, a measure.
THE ELECTIONS. The Democratic Party can well be congratulated upon the general result of the elections which have taken place. The defeat which overtook it when a portion under the lead of blind guides, went after false gods, and strove to substitute individual passions and pandemonium philanthropy for the permanent principles of human progress, is a just, and, we hope, an efficient punishment. The old federal party has had enough of power to induce a display of the cloven foot, and the people, once more, rally in their strength, to cast out the disunionist descendants of tory fathers. In Pennsylvania, the results are as follows:
8,437 In GEORGIA, the result has been as follows:
1851. President. Governor.
44,802. Cobb......56,261-Union......55,988 Taylor....
.9,852 In MISSISSIPPI, the vote stood thus ;
28,402. Quitman......30,979 State's Rights....
21,240. Foot.... .21,706 Union Majority..... 7,162....
..9,274 In Tennessee, the gubernatorial election resulted as follows:
..61,673 Brown, W..... ..60,350. Campbell.. ..63,333 The Free-soil schism of the party is now, we trust, dead and buried-having performed precisely the same service for the federalists as it did in 1820, viz.: divide the people sufficiently to give the Galphins a grab at the treasures. The election in New-York will, we trust, cap the series of triumphs, and complete that consolidation of the democracy which will ensure a great triumph in 1852.
THE OPERA. The distinguished artistes which have, during the past year, created so great a furor, won such golden opinions, and reaped so substantial a testimonial of the favor of the Knickerbockers, have, with the metropolitan stamp upon them, spread over the face of the country. Jenny Lind has renewed the excitement in her favor in the north, is proceeding west, and has again given concertsʼat Cincinnati. Catharine Hayes is filling NewEngland with Irish melody. Madame Anna Thillon attracts the eyes and charms the ears of the Pennsylvanians. Anna Bishop has sung to our New-Jersey neighbors. Madame Biscaccianti has also returned from Europe, and opens concerts at Tripler Hall; and the company of Maretzek, after completing an engagement at Baltimore, commenced a season of twenty nights at the Astor House Opera November, 3. It is also announced that Henrietta Sontag, the Countess Rossi, also intends to visit New-York this year. The great success of Miss Lind proves attractive to the artistes of the old world.
CATHARINE HAYES. Miss Catharine Hayes continued her concerts well through the month; her success increasing rather than waning, as had been prognosticated. We were prepared for this, because it was apparent to us that Miss Hayes, in point of musical ability, ranks suffi. ciently high to win the attention and admiration of an appreciative public. Her powers are extensively varied; everything, from the simple melodies of Old Ireland to the complicated arias of Meyerbeer or Rossini; the light and humorous, as well as the sad and solemn, seem only to receive added graces from her rendition. The qualities of Herr Mengis and Mr. Braham have been pretty well tested; they were but weak aids to the accomplished Cantalrice; except, perhaps, by forming a strong contrast. Miss Hayes has more lately been accompanied by Signori Marini and Badiali, our sometime favorites at Castle Garden, and Herr Miska Hauser, whose performances on the violin have attracted great attention. Miss Hayes has left the city for a time; but we believe that ere long she will return to us to fill our ears with melody and our hearts with pleasure.
BROADWAY THEATRE. Miss Laura Addison's engagement was protracted through several weeks, but not with any great degree of success. There is an absence of those striking points in her performances which more than all else denote the presence of dramatic genius. In scenes of gentleness and quiet dignity—such as portions of Juliet, and the first acts of the Patrician's Daughter, she quite realized our idea of good acting; but in scenes calling for passion, she was cold, passionless and declamatory. Miss Addison has many defects to be remedied before she can become a great actress, though without more improvement than experience brings, she will always be considered a good one. After a short engagement by the Roussetts, Madame Celeste made her appearance in the Green Bushes, so famous in London, where that lady performed it for upwards of three hundred nights. The play is weak, inconsistent, uninteresting, and only redeemed by the truly elegant acting of Madame Celeste. Years seem to have worn upon her but lightly since her last visit to this country, and to have given, if possible, more grace and ease to her performances. We cannot close our notice without paying a deserved compliment to Mr. Heister, the scene painter at the Broadway Theatre; some of the new scenery used in the Green Bushes was very tastefully painted, and the audience appreciated its beauties.
BROUGHAM'S. Since the days of yore, when the Three Graces enlivened the world with a sense of beauty, there has been a long dark lapse ; the graces have returned again, augmented in number, and are delighting the world under the semblance of the Roussett Sisters. Caroline is, indeed, a most wonderful woman—that dashing grace and haughty abandon 80 ready at her command, win her nightly applauses that Elisler might envy; and