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estimated to have a first cost of $97,500, and a subsequent annual cost of $20,000. By river and harbor appropriation bill, approved March 2, 1867, there was appropriated
$37, 500 00 By act approved July 11, 1870, there was appropriated.
10, 000 00 By act approved March 3, 1871, there was appropriated.
10, 000 00 By act approved June 10, 1872, there was appropriated.
10, 000 00 By act approved March 3, 1873, there was appropriated.
10, 000 00 By act approved June -, 1874, there was appropriated.
10, 000 00 Total......
87,500 00 Total expended to July 1, 1874..
76, 095 53 Amount available ...
11, 404 47 The only work accomplished has been the removing of bowlders, snags, and overhanging trees from Minnesota Falls to the lower rapids, except a space of about thirty-three miles extending up stream froin St. Peter.
It will be seen that only a part of the second plan proposed by Major G. K. Warren was approved by Congress, no appropriation having been made for the lock and dam at Little Rapids. I think that experience has shown that the first plan (slackwater navigation) is the only true one for the permanent improvement of this river.
Before submitting an estimate of the cost of it, the detailed surveys of the sites of the proposed locks and dams ordered by second section river and barbor bill, approved June 23, 1874, must be made.
I would respectfully recommend that the sum of $60,000 be appropriated for the proposed lock at Little Rapids, as this is common to both plans, and will very materially help navigation during low water.
While the removal of snags, bowlders, and overhanging trees is of great use to the navigation of the river, yet at low water it is now of no use, as boats cannot get above the Little Rapids.
6, 379 72 10, 000 00
9,975 25 11, 404 47 60,000 00
EXAMINATION AND SURVEY OF GALENA RIVER TO THE UPPER BRIDGE
AT GALENA, ILLINOIS.
UNITED STATES ENGINEER OFFICE,
Saint Paul, Minn., December 29, 1873. GENERAL: I have the honor to make the following report of the re. sult of the examination and survey of the Galena River, from its mouth to the upper bridge at Galena, Ill., made by Assistant J. D. Skinner, under my direction, during the months of August and September, 1873. I herewith submit Assistant Engineer Skinner's report to me. The tracings of the river, in four sheets, have this day been forwarded by express to your address. By referring to the tracings it will be seen that there is very little water flowing past the city of Galena during low water, quite insufficient to make any current which would scour out and carry
away any deposition of mud made during high water. Previous to the completion of the Illinois Central Railroad to Dunleith, on the Mississippi River, the river was kept open for navigation during low water by constant dredging. Shortly after the completion of the railroad to the Mississippi River, the dredging was discontinued, and as a consequence the river soon filled up with the washings from the high clay-banks. The opening of the cut-off between Jarris's Slough and the Galena River undoubtedly backed up the water of the latter river and stopped the current, and much of the matter suspended in the water, before carried into the Mississippi River, is now deposited above the cut-off. The parties who made the cut-off thought that, by doing so, the water in the Galena River would be deepened by one foot, and they were right as to the immediate result, but they do not seem to have considered the result of stopping the current of the river above. At the time of the survey there was no preceptible fall of the river between the city of Galena and the cut-off, a distance of about four miles. From the cut-off to the Mississippi River there was a fall of 0.937 of a foot. By reference to the map it will be seen that the only way the river can be improved is by dredging, and taking some means to collect the matter brought down by the inflowing streams from the hills before it reaches the river. Small dams across the ravines seem to be the most economical method for the latter purpose. The dredging in the river above the cut off will be expensive, owing to the long towage to dump the dredged material. Owing to the abruptness of the river banks and the great rise of water during the high-water season, vone of this material can be deposited in spoil banks, but must all be towed down and into the lower part of Harris's Slough. Were the quantity of water flowing past the city of Galena during low water sufficient for any purpose of scouring the bottom of the river, some good might be done by cleaning the cut off, but as it is not, it does not seem worth while to make all steamers moving into the Galena River, on their way up and down the Mississippi River, take a long detour by cutting them off from Harris's Slough. Some little dredging in necessary in Harris's Slough, for which Mr. Skinner has made a separate estimate. The filling up of Harris's Slough below the cut-off will throw a large volume of water through the cut-off, and will, no doubt, scour out the bars in the Galena River below it. I would recommend the last plan proposed by Assistant Engineer Skinner; that is, to dredge to a depth of 6 feet abore the cut-off, and to 4 feet below, to close Harris's Slough below the cut-off, thus throwing the whole volume of water of Harris's Slough through Galena River, and dredging a small amount at the head of Harris's Slough. Small dams of dry masonry backed with earth should be put across the three principal ravines. This would cost not less than $400,000. Half the work could be done in one season and half the next.
It is hard to say how much the general commerce of the country would be benefited by the improvement of the Galena River; but there is no doubt that its improvement might greatly stimulate the local commerce. The country about the city of Galena is filled with farms, and when the Southern Wisconsin Railroad is finished, the city would be the shipping-point for a large quantity of lead and zinc ores and metals. Should Congress deem it advisable to improve the river, the sum of $200,000 could be economically disbursed during one fiscal year. I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
F. U. FARQUHAR,
Major United States Engineers. Brig. Gen. A. A. HUMPHREYS,
Chief of Engineers, Ú. S. A.
Report of Mr. James D. Skinner, Assistant Engineer.
UNITED STATES ENGINEER OFFICE,
Saint Paul, Minn., December 27, 1873. COLONEL: I have the honor to submit the following report of a survey of the Galena River, in the State of Illinois, made by me under your direction, during the months of August and September, A. D. 1873. The main stream is formed by two forks, which have their confluence about three miles above the city of Galena.
The Illinois Central Railway follows the valley of the east fork, and the Galena and Southern Wisconsin that of the west fork. This road is graded and bridged, but not yet in operation,
Both streams take their rise in Southern Wisconsin. During low water the discharge of these united streams, measured just above Galena, is inconsiderable, amounting, by careful measurement at extreme low. water, to 15.89 cubic feet per second, or 1,372,396 cubic feet per 24 hours.
This would be altogether insufficient to supply lockage, and, not to speak of other reasons, renders the use of a lock at the cut-off, hereafter referred to, impracticable.
At and below Galena there is virturally no current, the stage of the river being entirely the result of the height of water in the Mississippi River, the back-water of which, at its extreme height, extends two miles above the city of Galena.
The distance between extreme high and low water marks is 17 feet at the levee.
The ent-off, (see map,) situated about four miles below Galena, is a connection with Harris's Slough, (a portion of the Mississippi River at a point where it approaches within 250 feet of Galena River.) Here a small ditch was cut by some steamboat-men about three years ago, and the water at that point being a foot higher than that of the latter, soon forced a deep and permanent water-way, and through that opening a large amount of Mississippi water finds its way to the mouth of Galena River, changing the cbaracter of the water, and creating a strong current below the cut-off.
The necessary effect was to raise the water of the latter stream, above the connection, at least one foot, which gain, as the latter is wholly dependent on the Mississippi for its stage of water, is permanent.
Another result has been to fill up the lower portions of Harris's Slongh, and at low water almost no water passes through it, as will be seen by reference to the map.
This can be permanently closed so as to entirely divert the water of Harris's and Key's Sloughs (see map) until it has reached a height of 10 feet above low water, (the height of the adjacent islands,) and this will greatly tend to cut out and deepen the channel, the bed of which, below the cut-off, is mostly of sand, and will render dredging in that part of the river mostly, if not wholly, unnecessary. The embankments closing this can be made from the material dredged from the upper river, which will seek a place of deposit, and will save three or four miles of towage for that portion which coinposes it. Its face can be thoroughly protected with riprap, an abundance of which is at hand, and its upper surface paved to an extent suflicient to protect the necessary portion from wash at bigh water.
The upper river is entirely different in character; the water is sluggish, muddy, and fetid ; large amounts of deposits are annually swept down by storms, &c., from the steep hillsides, which form its banks, and out of the valleys, or coulées, which at intervals extend back into the country. The natural result has been that the river has been filled by the deposits from these sources to such an extent that in low water even the smallest steamboats cannot approach nearer than two miles to Galena.
Thirty years ago, from the most reliable information to be obtained, there was a depth of water in the basin (see map) of 10 feet; now it is a mass of mud virtually alry at low water, and the deposits have reached in places a height of 5 feet above low water.
The remedy for this after the necessary dredging has been done would be, first, a dam at Meeker street bridge to collect the silt from the upper river; second, similar dams across the mouths of the coulées discharging into the river, the deposits to be removed at proper periods; this would be gladly done by the proprietors of the atijacent vineyards and farms. With these precautions a number of years would elapse before a repetition of dredging would become necessary. This, however, when required, is the only way in which navigation can be maintained to the city of Galena. I herewith snbmit an estimate of the amount of dredging to be done to put the river in a navigable condition. This is based upon a width of 100 feet for a distance of 3,500 feet below the basin; at this point a sharp bend in the river necessitates a change of the channel. This can be made by cutting through the point (see map) and the material deposited in the present channel. Here a width of 200 feet bas been given, and in all cases a slope of two upon one has been allowed for. Below this point a width of 150 feet has been given.
The estimate is based upon, 1st, a depth of 6 feet; this would be desirable in the upper river to allow for the unavoidable deposit; 2d, a depth of 4 feet throughout;
3d, a depth of 6 feet above cut-off and 4 feet below the same. Below the cut-off the river would in all probability make for itself a sufficient channel after the preliminary dredging had been done. A depth of 4 feet below the cut-off would be likely to meet the requirements of all boats that ply on tbe Upper Mississippi.
Owing to the character of the banks of the river and the causes which have filled it at present, all material dredged must either be deposited in the embankment closing Harris's Slough, at the cut-off, or towed below the mouth of the river and dumped into the Mississippi at a suitable point. The amount of excavation estimated above Green street bridge (see map) is believed to be unnecessary, as no boats have ever passed above that structure. The estimates above referred to are as follows, forty per cent. having in all cases been added to actual quantities :
Estimate of amount of dredging to be done in Galena River in order to give a channel-way from 100 to 150 feet wide, and 6 feet depth of water, as above described.
Cubic yards, In basin....
62, 325 From basin to cut-off.
484, 205 From cut-off to mouth of river.
185, 220 Total......
731, 750 Should river be dredged between Green and Meeker street bridges there will be added ......
93, 510 The same for four feet depth of water. In basin...
46, 396 From basin to cut-off.
260, 498 From cut-off to mouth of river.
48, 343 Total......
Should river be dredged as above, add......
The same for 6 feet of water above and 4 feet below the cut-off.
62,325 484, 205 48,343
4, 867 1,330
Amount of dredging necessary to render Harris's Slough navigable for boats plying to Galena.
Six feet depth above, and four below, cut-off. 594,873 cubic yards dredging, at 60 cents. 6,197 cubic yards masonry, at $3 750 cubic yards riprap, at $2
$356, 923 80 18, 591 00 1,500 00
377, 014 80
I hereto append a report on the commerce of the city of Galena, and its relations to the general business of the Mississippi River, kindly furnished me by M. Y. Johnson, esq., president of the Galena and Southern Wisconsin Railway, and a prominent business man of that place.
This gives full information on that subject. Respectfully submitting the above, I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,
JAMES D. SKINNER,
Assistant Engineer. Col. F. U. FARQUHAR,
Corps of Engineers, U. S. A.
GALENA, ILL., September 20, 1873. GENTLEMEN OF THE HARBOR AND RIVER SURVEY: You ask me to give you some statistics in regard to the business of the city of Galena. I cannot do this better than to give you a carefully-prepared statement, embraced in the foregoing memorial to Congress, with such partial reports as made by the Illinois Central Railroad Company as they appear in the monthly statements made by the company as to shipments on their road from the city of Galena, and the city weighmaster's report, made to the city council, as taken from the market-reports printed in the daily papers, viz:
The shipments during the month, as compared with the same month in 1871, will be interesting. They are as follows: JANUARY, 1872.
Pounds. Dressed hogs
.head.. 2, 940 24 489, 210 Mess-pork
barrels.. 2,765 46 884, 800 Lard
18 334, 610 Bacon.
-packages.. 394 11 206,500 Lead
- pigs.. 3,071 12 224, 100 Oats..
.sacks.. 13, 693 110 2, 269, 800 Green hides
packages.. 697 2 37, 900 Butter.
.do.. 178 1 13, 140 Cattle.
head.. 36 2 36,000 Pigs' feet
1 14,750 Zinc-ore
21 420,000 Sundries
2 26, 960
Cars. Pounds. Dressed hogs
... head.. 3, 660 33 658, 075 Mess-pork
1, 440 24 460, 800 Lard
tierces.. 457 9 153, 970 Bacon
packages.. 130 6
106, 110 Lead
- pigs.. 4,618 18 331, 720 Lumber..
M.. 251 5 100,000 Green hides.
.bundles.. 641 2 37, 060 Oats..
.sacks.. 574 4 83, 100 Wheat
.do.... 495 4 66, 280 Barley
..do.... 133 1
19, 000 Butter
- packages.. 148 1 12, 070 Cattle
head.. 184 10 180, 000 Merchandise
120,922 Two hundred and fifty cars, with 4,959,770 pounds of produce, were forwarded in January, 1872, while in the same month, in 1871, we find only 125 cars, with 2,329,107 pounds, a gain so far the present year of 100 per cent.