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A resolution of the House of Representatives of December 18, 1873, calling for an approximate estimate of the expense of deepening and widening the navigable channels of the rivers and waters connecting Lake Huron with Lake Erie for practicable navigation for vessels drawing 20 feet of water, was referred to Majors Comstock and Weitzel, Corps of Engineers, for report thereon.

Their report will be found in Appendix D 10.

HARBORS ON LAKE ERIE.

Officer in charge, Maj. Franklin Harwood, Corps of Engineers.

1. Monroe Harbor, Michigan.-The barbor-piers were thoroughly repaired during the year and the bends of tbe channel protected froin abrasion by piling and sheathing. The entire length of the canal-banks needs like protection. This will be applied, during the coming year, as far as practicable, with the appropriation of June 23, 1874. To complete this work, 810,000, in addition, will be needed. A little anual dredg. ing at the mouth of the harbor may also prove necessary. Balance in Treasury of United States July 1, 1873...

$10,000 00 Amount in hands of officer and subject to his check, (including $668 76 percentage due on contracts not yet completed).

7,669 20 Amount appropriated by act approved June 23, 1874.

10, 000 00 Amount expended during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1874.

17,568 54 Amount available July 1, 1874..

10, 100 66 Amount required for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1876, (as revised in this Office)...

20,000 00 (See Appendix E 1.)

2. Toledo Harbor, Ohio.-The improvement, by dredging, of the approach to Toledo from Lake Erie, over the shoals in Maumee Bay, in accordance with the plan of a board of engineer-officers approved in January, 1873, was continued during the year, and a channel 15 feet deep and 100 feet wide (except for a distance of half a mile, where it is only so feet wide) has been opened from Toledo to the lake. Future appropriations will be applied to the completion of this plan.

The officer in charge submits an estimate of $325,000 for completing the work during the next fiscal year. Balance in Treasury of United States July 1, 1873.

$85, 000 00 Amount in hands of officer and subject to his check.

15, 536 34 Amount appropriated by act approved June 23, 1874

75, 000 00 Amount expended during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1874

100,017 57 Amount available July 1, 1974

75,518 77 Amount required for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1876, (as revised in this Ottice).

200,000 00 (See Appendix E 2.)

3. Port Clinton Harbor, Ohio.—The catch-sand fence referred to in my last annual report was built on the north spit at the mouth of Portage River to prevent its encroachment on the channel. It has answered its purpose excellently, but may possibly need extension from time to time. No further improvement can be effected short of the extensive project, referred to in previous annual reports, of a cut through the bar at the river's mouth and the construction of piers to confine the waters of the river to the new opening. Amonnt in hands of officer and subject to his check, (including $318.54 percentage due on contracts not yet completed)..

$4, 674 62 Amount expended during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1874.

4, 420 97 Amount available July 1, 1874..

253 65 (See Appendix E 3.)

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4. Sandusky City Harbor, Ohio. A channel 15 feet in depth and 75 feet wide has been dredged through the shoal in the bay. A further widening to 100 feet is advisable, but in order to render it accessible extensive dredging will be required on the outer bar.

The appropriation of June 23, 1874, will be expended upon this.

The officer in charge submits an estimate for continuing the work during the next fiscal year of $105,000. Balance in Treasury of United States July 1, 1873...

$20, 000 00 Amount in hands of officer and subject to his check, (including $719.61 percentage due on contracts not yet completed)...

10, 023 78 Amount appropriated by act approved June 23, 1874

25, 000 00 Amount expended during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1874..

30, 006 93 Amount available July 1, 1874...

25, 016 85 Amount required for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1876, (as revised in this Office).....

50,000 00 (See Appendix E 4.)

5. Huron Harbor, Ohio.The repairs mentioned in the last annual report hare been completed, and the harbor is now in excellent condition. It only remains to repair the piers and dredge a shoal at the base of the west pier, most of which will be done during the present Frar.

A further appropriation of $1,000 will complete the work at this barbor. Palace in Treasury of United States July 1, 1873...

$3,300 00 Amount in hands of officer and subject to his check

3,049 21 Amount appropriated by act approved June 23, 1874.,

1, 500 00 Amount expended during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1874

5, 123 26 Amount available July 1, 1874..

2,725 95 Amount required for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1876..

1,000 00 (See Appendix E 5.)

6. Vermillion Harbor, Ohio.During the fiscal year the extension of the piers was completed, as well as blasting and dredging in the channel, so that now ready access is had to the interior harbor. The appropriation of June 23, 1874, will be applied to repairs of the older parts of the pers, for the completion of which the sum of $3,000 will be required for the next fiscal year.

As the commerce of this place is rapidly growing, the widening of the channel to 100 feet, with an increase of its depth to 14 feet, is urged by those interested in its trade. It is estimated that $10,000 will suttice for this purpose, which sum is included in the estimate submitted below of the amount required for the next fiscal year. Balance in Treasury of United States July 1, 1873.

$9,000 00 Ainuunt in hands of officer and subject to his check, (including $149.60 percentage due on contracts not yet completed).

5,093 83 Amount appropriated by act approved June 23, 1874.

3, 000 00 Amount expended during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1874.

14, 083 83 Amount available July 1, 1874..

3, 000 00 Amount required for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1876, (as revised in this Office)

13, 000 00 (See Appendixes E 6 and E 7.)

7. Black River Harbor, Ohio.—The work of pier-extension was continued during the year, but with some delay, owing to the difficulty of procuring the proper timber.

During the open months of the past winter the work stood the test of severe storms, carrying with them large masses of ice, and has suffered comparatively slight damage, and that only above the water-line. Two bundred and twenty lineal feet of superstructure remain to be laid to

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complete the extension of 1873. The plan of improvement adopted is to extend the piers to 15 feet water, and there permanently close the construction ; otherwise the bar recently dredged will, in the course of time, re-form, and will require annual dredging. With the piers thus extended the harbor will be for many years accessible to deepest-draught vessels. The dredging on the bar was satisfactory, resulting in a depth of 14 feet of water. Balance in Treasury of tbe United States July 1, 1873

$14,003 78 Amount in hands of officer and subject to his check, (including $1,566.53 percentage due on contracts not yet completed).

11, 092 03 Amount appropriated by act approved June 23, 1874

20, 000 00 Amount expended during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1874

25, 551 02 Amount available July 1, 1874

18,291 89 Amount required for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1876

10, 000 00 (See Appendix E 8.)

8. Rocky River Harbor, Ohio.—Three hundred and sixty feet of pier were built at this point during the year, exhausting the appropriation. The appropriation of June 23, 1874, is, by the terms of the act, to be expended in preserving and continuing the work upon the pier.' The construction of a permanent harbor will require a large outlay. If, bowever, this barbor is to be established, it would be most economical to complete it in one season, and the officer in charge submits an estimate of $240,000 therefor. Balance in Treasury of United States July 1, 1873 .

$1,000 00 Amount in hands of officer and subject to his check

7,722 37 Amount appropriated by act approved June 23, 1874

10, 000 00 Amount expended during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1874

8,722 37 Amount available July 1, 1874

10, 000 00 Amount required for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1876, (as revised in this Office)....

30, 000 00 (See Appendix E 9.)

9. Cleveland Harbor, Ohio.—The most pressing repairs of the piers have been attended to, exhausting the appropriation. The appropriation of June 23, 1874, will be needed to put the piers in good order, which can be done during the present fiscal year.

A survey “for the construction of a harbor of refuge” at this locality was made in compliance with the provisions of the river and harbor act of March, 1873, and a report, with project and estimate of cost, was submitted to Congress January 24, 1874, and printed in Ex. Doc. No. 84, H. R., Forty-third Congress, first session. The plan submitted by the officer in charge of the survey is that of a breakwater of crib-work of 40 feet in width, resting in an average depth of water of 34 feet; to consist of two arms of 4,000 feet in length each, making an angle with each other of about 1380, the apex to be about 3,000 feet in front of the ends of the present piers of entrance, and embracing an anchorage of about 260 acres.

The bottom of the lake consists here of a loose deposit of soft blue clay, silt, and sand, no rock or firm foundation of any kind being found within a penetration of 25 feet. An approximate estimate was presented by the officer in charge, Major Harwood, of $1,000,000, as the probable maximum cost of the plan he submits.

In view of the magnitude of the undertaking and the great cost of the plan above referred to, Congress directed in the river and harbor improvement act of June 23, 1874, a survey to be made for a breakwater at Cleveland, with a view to obtaining a new estimate for four fathoms water.

The report upon

this latter survey will be submitted to Congress during its next session, Balance in Treasury of United States July 1, 1873

$1,000 00 Amount appropriated by act approved June 23, 1874

30, 500 00 Amount expended during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1874

1, 000 00 Amount available July ì, 1874

30, 500 00 (See Appendix E 10.)

10. Grand River Harbor, Ohio.—The extension of the piers was continued last season until the appropriation was exhansted, leaving to be executed the building of 270 feet of superstructure and completion of 300 feet of same at west pier, the placing of the beacon-crib, the building of 209 feet at east pier, and the completion of 91 feet of its superstructure. A freshet made a breach at the base of the east pier, which must be stopped by prolonging the pier across it. Sheath-piling is also required to protect the shore-end of the west pier. The pier being completed, the barbor will be an excellent one. Balance in Treasury of United States July 1, 1873...

$13, 664 59 Amount in hands of officer and subject to his check, (including $3,437,05 percentage due on contracts not yet completed).

9, 407 19 Amount appropriated by act approved June 23, 1874

20,000 00 Amount expended during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1874.

23, 071 78 Amount available July 1, 1874

20,000 00 Amount required for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1876...

15, 000 00 (See Appendix E 11.)

11. Ashtabula Harbor, Ohio.-A channel 60 feet wide and 14 feet deep, low stage, was completed from the harbor to the lake during the fiscal year. It should be widened to 100 feet to allow vessels to pass each other freely. Before this can be undertaken, in order to keep the present channel open, it will be necessary to stop the influx of sand from the west. To do this, the west pier must be extended lakeward to at least 14 feet water. Balance in Treasury of United States July 1, 1873

$10,000 00 Amount in hauds of officer and subject to his check.

5,997 10 Amount appropriated by act approved June 23, 1874

35, 000 00 Amount expended during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1874.

15, 973 63 Amount available July 1, 1874

35, 023 47 Amount required for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1876.

45, 000 00 (See Appendix E 12.)

12. Conneaut Harbor, Ohio.—This harbor is in good condition, requiring only minor repairs to piers, for which the present estimate is made. Balance in Treasury of United States July 1, 1873..

$400 00 Amount appropriated by act approved Juve 23, 1874

1, 500 00 Amount expended during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1874

399 55 Amount available July 1, 1874

1,500 45 Anoant required for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1876.

1,000 00 (See Appendix E 13.)

13. Erie Harbor, Pennsylvania.-Dredging in the channel and at the mouth of the harbor was continued during the fiscal year. The gales of the autumn and winter made serious attacks on existing protections to Presque Isle and the barbor, to meet which there are needed a bea protection at the north spit at the entrance, a thorough repair of the Dorth pier, and a replanting of the neck of the peninsula with willow. A small amount of dredging is also annually required at the entrance of the harbor.

The appropriation of June 23, 1874, will be expended in the above
Fork, as far as it will admit.
Balanee in Treasury of United States July 1, 1873

$8,000 00
á mount in hands of officer and subject to his check, (including $327.81 per-
centage due on contracts not yet completed)..

2,320 81

!

Amount appropriated by act approved June 23, 1874.

$20, 000 00 Amount expended during the tiscal year ending June 30, 1874.

10, 195 20 Amount available July 1, 1874

20, 125 53 Amount required for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1876.

80, 000 00 (See Appendix E 14.)

14. Dunkirk Harbor, New York.-Attheclose of the fiscal year the chan. nel was partly dredged and the breakwater prolonged westwardly to its edge, but not completely finished in superstructure. Sixty feet of under-water work was added to the easterly end. The channel can be completed and the breakwater, which is now 540 feet long, finished to 600 feet by the close of the present fiscal year. The harbor will then be an excellent one, and will become better and better as the breakwater is prolonged to the eastward.

For continuing the work during the next fiscal year the officer in charge submits an estimate of $100,000. Balance in Treasury of United States July 1, 1873..

$30, 000 00 Amount in hands of officer and subject to his check.

8,736 86 Amount appropriated by act approved June 23, 1874.

35, 000 00 Amount expended during the fiscal year ending June 30, 1874.

36, 130 56 Amount available July 1, 1874

37, 606 30 Amount required for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1876, (as revised in this Office)

50, 000 00 (See Appendix E 15.)

15. Buffalo Harbor, New York.-The damage to the breakwater by the fall and winter gales of 1872 was repaired and the work continued 100 feet, making in all 2,499 feet of completed work. The severe gale of December 4, 1873, injured the foundation of the new work, wbich has settled to the water-level, having separated it from the work of 1872, which was also damaged extensively in superstructure. Damages were repaired as far as practicable. For want of funds no further progress was made, and the work stood at the close of the fiscal year as the gale had left it. The lakeward side of the breakwater was badly cut by floating ice during the winter, and will have to be iron-plated near the waterlevel.

The gale of December 1, 1873, caused a large accumulation of sand at the head of the south or light-house pier, which required removal before the opening of navigation, and a special appropriation of $20,000 was made by Congress February 25, 1874, for this purpose. The sand was accordingly removed in time to obviate all danger to the channel.

A board of engineers was convened at Buffalo to consider and report upon a plan to prevent future encroachment of sand at the mouth of Buffalo River, and upon examination approved the project of the officer in charge of the work (Major Harwood) to build a catch-sand pier in the vicinity of the proposed south channel; this to be a pile-pier 10 feet in width covered by 6 feet of superstructure and extending to the 12-foot curve; thence prolonged in the same direction by crib-work 20 feet in width, covered with 6 feet of superstructure to a designated point. In addition to the catch-sand pier, the board anticipated that other jetties of slight construction, not to exceed 300 feet in length, might be needed at different points between the site of the one proposed and the south United States pier, to arrest the transfer of sand and prevent the abrasion of the beach during the period in which the breakwater was in course of construction.

The board directed minute and careful examination and survey to be made of the vicinity of the breakwater, with a view to ascertain by frequent borings the exact character of the bottom, haring in view a

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