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Do.

Do.
Both dredges at work.
One dredge at work.
Both dredges at work,
One dredge at work.

Do.
Pass à Loutre One dredge at work. Steamer Lou-

isiana, bound in, grounded abreast
of first spar, above Twin Cans.
Both dredges at work.

Do.
Pass à Loutre One dredge at work. Steamer Mar-

garet, bound in, without pilot,
grounded 300 feet north of chan.
nel, with 24 feet water in channel

abreast of her.

Both dredges at work.
Pass à Loutre One dredge at work. Ship Ken-

tuckian, bound out, grounded
abreast of first spar, above Twin

Cans.
Coaling and repairing machinery

of dredges.
Both dredges at work.

Do.
One dredge at work.
Both dredges at work.
No work. Slack current.
Both dredges at work.

Do.

Do.
One dredge at work.

Do.
Slack current.

Do.
Pass à Loutre Slack cur rent. Bark Agincourt

bound in, grounded north of

channel.
Slack current.
Both dredges at work.

Do.

Do.
One dredge at work.

[graphic]

R 2.

REMOVING RAFT IN RED RIVER, LOUISIANA. The progress made on this work is shown by the following extracts from the monthly reports of the assistants in charge:

July, 1873.- Work continued by the Aid and saw-boats from raft No. 32 to No. 35, the latter above Kouns's Canal. The water continued to fall and remained too low to permit the sending of a saw-boat around through O'Rourk's Slough to the foot of raft No. 42, as proposed.

The saw-boats worked in rear of the Aid, and were kept busy sawing the drift pulled from the raft by the Aid's capstan.

Rafts 32, 33, and 34 proved to be among the most difficult of any to remove, but 35 proved to be loose and tloating, though filled with large trees. A wide channel in raft No. 41 was made by Hollister's saw-boat. This channel is a fourth of a mile long, extending above Alban’s Canal No. 2. On the 17th the party stationed at the head of Dooley's Bayou was sent down the river to begin the work of cutting the willows and impending trees, and renoving the snags between Twelve-mile Bayou and Carolina Blutts. Three men were drowned during the month.

august, 1873.-A channel has been opened from Kouns's Canal to raft No. 39. The length of channel through solid raft opened by the Aid during the month is exactly one mile.

The saw-boat at work on raft No. 41 has opened a channel in that raft a fourth of a mile in length. This raft is less compact than those below Alban's Canal No. 2.

On account of the falling water several jams that have given much trouble formed above Shreveport.

The supply-steamer Kalbangh was put in order and started for Shreveport on the oth; the nunerous jams delayed her arrival until the 15th. Nitro-glycerine is the efiective agent in opening jams, and is carried constantly on the Kalbaugh for this purpose. No fears are entertained by either the captain or crew in its use, and it is considered indispensable in keeping the river open during present stage of water. The work of cutting the impending trees and removing the snags from the river above Shreveport has reached a point above the Hotehkiss cut-off. The low stage of the river causes most of the drift to lodge on the banks; but all that which passes Shreveport is turned into Tone's Bayou as it arrives.

September.-Lieutenant Woodruff was taken sick with yellow-fever on the 15th. No yellow-tever, or unusual sickness, prevailed among the workmen engaged in the removal of the raft. Early precautions were taken to prevent the introduction among the employés of the fever raging in Shreveport, and it is possible their immunity was in a great measure due to the sanitary measures enforcell.

Work was continued on raft No. 39, through which an opening was effected by the end of the month. Contrary to expectations, this raft proved to be much harder to remove than any before operated upou. The channel, originally 10 to 12 feet deep, was filled from the bottom to the height of from 3 to 6 feet above the surface of the water with large logs interlaced, and thoroughly compacted by the smaller drift wedged into the interstices. Nitro-glycerine was, for the first time, used in connection with the work of the Aid, in the removal of this raft, and was found most effective. Caus, containing from 10 to 20 pounds of nitro-glycerine, were sunk as near the bottom of the river as possible and exploded, with the effect of breaking the long logs and a general loosening of the mass in the iminediate proximity. Small charges were also used in cutting long logs and stumps too far beneath the surface of the water to be operated on by other means.

The low stage of the water during the month has proved an important obstacle to the advance of the work. Jams are continually forming, and the services of the sopply-steamer Kalbangh have been thereby considerably angmented. They increase the difficulties presented in the navigation of the river; and in fact the greater portion of the time of the steamer is conswned in the removal of such obstructions. In this service nitro-glycerine bas proved almost indispensable, breaking up the obstructing submerged logs and snags, and liberating the drift lodged against them. These jams are composed of thoating drift, which is often piled up far above the surface of the water, and otherwise compacted by the current in narrow places, and often present almost as great obstacles to removal as original raft. Work of removal upon raft No. 41 bas continue with fair success. The work of clearing the banks of old river of willows and impending trees has progressed to near Dillard's Plantation.

Lieutenant Woodruff died on the last day of September of yellowfever. So complete was the isolation from Shreveport of the parties employed on the raft, that the first intimation received by them of the

death of Lieutenant Woodruff was conveyed through'a telegram from the New Orleans office, in which the responsibility of further personal supervision was delegated to Mr. George Woodruff, the brother of the lieutenant, who was, under the circumstances, the most competent per: son to whom such charge could be delegated. He had been the personal confidant of Lieutenant Woodruff'; was therefore thoroughly acquainted with the project for the further prosecution of tbe work; no interruption to the progress of the work therefore ensued.

October.-Raft No. 40 was removed without much difficulty; the large quantity of drift produced by the operations upon raft No. 41 was liberated by the removal of this raft in its passage down; this drift formed a jam at raft No. 28, which required the united efforts of the crews of the Aid and saw-boats for over three days to remove. The channel made through No. 41 was then improved, and the snags, &c., in the channel between this and raft No. 42 removed. On the 23d the saw-boats were towed into position, and on the following day work was commenced on the last portion of the raft remaining

A considerable addition to the raft has taken place since the time of the survey. By the end of the month the work of reinoval had extended to what was the bead of the raft in November, 1870, and there still remained to be pulled about two-thirds of a mile.

The work of removal of impending trees, &c., below Carolina Blutts has progressed favorably.

An obtruding portion of a raft immediately below Dooley's Bayou, and which seriously impeded the passage of drift, was removed, and the channel below in the vicinity improved. The steamer Kalbaugh has been employed in keeping the river open from the Aid to Shreveport, and has proved very efficient in the removal of several very large jams; it has also transported the necessary supplies from Shreveport, and performed other useful work in towing saw-boats, &c.

In breaking the jams and cutting off snags, nitro-glycerine has been found indispensable, from 60 to 75 pounds being used in a day, generally in from 2 to 5 pound charges. For instance, the 31st was almost entirely spent in an unsuccessful attempt to remove a snag under water, which stopped all drift pulled ; the last attempt for the day was made with a 7-inch premium line led to the large steam-capstan of the Aid. The capstan was “stalled.” The next morning a 5-pound charge of nitro-glycerine removed the obstruction.

Norember.—Operations upon raft No. 42 were continued until the evening of the 26th. The river at that time was rising rapidly, and at daylight on the 27th the remaining portion of the raft obstructing the channel went out, and Red River was relieved of a serious obstruction to its navigation. The most important portion of the work having been accomplished, preparation was at once made to return to the foot of the raft and improve the channel existing through the raft. Several extensive jams were encountered on the return to Carolina Bluffs, and several below this. A considerable reduction of the force was effected.

December.—The work of clearing the banks of brush and impending trees was continued below Benoit's Bayou. The Aid, followed by the saw-boats, continued to widen the channel through the raft until the rapid rise in the river, and the blockade at the head of the raft, caused by the timbers of the Fulton Railroad bridge, rendered a return to the head of the raft necessary. After the removal of the obstructions at the head of the raft, the Aid continued to work in the vicinity until the arrival of the order to suspend operations, when the Aid and saw-boats returned to Shreveport, and the crews were discharged. The property stored at Carolina Blutf's was brought to Shreveport and stored with the remainder already there.

No further work of importance was done during the remainder of the year.

During the present year it is proposed to continue the work by keeping the river above Shreveport clear of jams, clearing the banks and removing snags from the bed of the river.

The work is located in the collection-district of New Orleans, and n Red River from Shreveport up. There is no light-house near it. No commercial statistics havo yet been obtained.

A general discussion of the effects of raft-removal is in course of preparation, and will be presented in a separate report, to be rendered some time in November next.

Not having time to treat the subject as fully as I desired, I hare placed my notes in the hands of my assistant, Prof. C. G. Forshey, whose professional reputation and long acquaintance with the questions to be considered insure a valuable paper

Financial statement.

Balance in Treasury of United States July 1, 1873....
Amount in hands of officer and subject to his check.
Amount appropriated by act approved June 23, 1874
Amount expended during fiscal year ending June 30, 1874
Amount available July 1, 1874...
Amount required for the fiscal year ending June 1876

$54, 000 00 40, 141 47 50,000 00 94, 068 72 50, 072 75 20,000 00

DETAILED STATEMENT OF ORIGINAL ESTIMATED COST OF THE WORK.

1. Que stern-wheel saw-boat, fitted with ten saws on sloping sides and bow, steam-crane, two steam-capstans, with equipage complete.

$57, 950 2. Flat-boat or scow to receive water-logged raft from saw-boat

1,000 3. Stern-wheel tow-boat, with steam-capstans and steam-crane, for unloading scow of saw-boat

10,000 4. Donble-hull scow, with liftiug and sawing apparatus, and small engine for working same

15, 000 5. Stern-wheel tow-boat for same, with one steam-capstan and steam-crane, for unloading water-logged snage..

15, 000 Total machinery and boats....

98, 950

[blocks in formation]

259, 014 Subsequent expense of keeping river clear of raft and improving channel may be estimated, for first year after opening of channel, $50,000. Afterward the expense will decrease rapidly, but for several years the work of destroying raft-material and guarding against jams must continue at an annual expense of from $10,000 to $25,000. Whole amount appropriated since commencement..

$280, 000 00 Amount expended since commencement

229, 927 25

R 3

IMPROVEMENT OF TONE'S BAYOU, LOUISIANA.

In my report for last year it was stated that the dam built across the bayou during the year had been undermined and washed away; that a raft formed on the site of the dam had shared the same fate, and that a second raft was being formed.

These rafts were composed of drift from the Red River raft, run into Tone's Bayou, with the primary object of preventing its obstructing the narrow channel of Red River, below the head of the bayou ; secondarily with the hope of diminishing the volume of discharge through the bayou, and consequently increasing that through the river.

The raft last formed yet remains in place, but the water has cut under

it, so that the secondary object of formation has not produced any appreciably valuable results in the river.

It is now my opinion that the bayou should be entirely closed by an earthen dam, of the same height as the lerees along the river, if it be intended to do anything at this point to improve low-water navigation of Red River between the bayou and Alexandria. Twenty thousand dollars, I think, would construct such a dam, if the work be done at extreme low-water.

My previous reports give my views as to its probable effects; I have but to add that, in the absence of full statistics, my observation during the present low-water in Red River leads me to think that had such dam been put in during the last low-water season, it would have benefited Red River commerce this season an amount greater than its cost. My supplies for the work at “ removal of Red River raft” and “Improvement of Cypress Bayou," would have cost me about $1,000 less than they have so far.

Financial statement.

Amount in hands of officer and subject to his check....
Anjount expended during fiscal year ending June 30, 1874..
Amount available July 1, 1874....

$1,007 63

989 00 18 63

ORIGINAL. ESTIMATE.

Bill of material for proposed dam and revetment of Tone's Bayou.—Length of revet

ment 200 feet on each bank; dam substantially as in plan before furnished : 216 linear feet of 12" by 18" cypress timber, at $30 per thousand, boardmeasure

$116 64 2,504 linear feet of 12"' by 18" cypress timber, at $30 per thousand, board

901 44 65,000 feet, board-measure, of 3-inch cypress or pine plank, at $30

1,950 00

measure.

480 00

432 00 172 80

208 00

Sloping pile-reretment. 16,000 feet, board-measure, of 2" by 20'' cypress plank, at $30..... Sheet-piling along foot of sloping revetment, 14,400 feet, board-measure ;

sheet-piling 31' by 12" plank, at $30... 5,760 feet, board-measure; sheet-piling, 3'' by 12', at ends of revetment.... 5:2 piles, 10 feet long, for upper edge of slope-revetment; 52 piles, 15 feet

long, for lower end of slope-revetment, and to hold guides for sheet-piling,

at lower edge of slope; 104 piles, at $2 each.... 800 linear feet of 4" by 8" clamp-pieces to clamp upper ends of lower row

of piles, and sheet-piling at foot of slope-revetment, 2,1334 feet, board

measure, at $30.. 700 linear feet of 6'' by 6' filling-pieces to go between clamp-pieces hori

zontally between piles of the lower row, to fill space between said clamp

pieces and sheet-piling, 2,100 feet, board-measure, at $30... Plank binders for upper piles of slope-revetment, spiked on opposite sides

of the pile, and above and below the slope-plank, 800 linear feet of 3" by

10% plank, 2,000 feet, board-measure, at $30... Battens spiked across lower side of upper piles and to the ends of planks

which abut against them, each batten 3' long and 2" by 6'', 156 linear feet 2 by 6", 156 feet, board-measure, at $30...

64 00

63 00

60 00

4 68

Iron bolts.

34 00 200 00 25 00

52 18" iron screw-bolts, " diameter, 340 pounds, at 10 cents
2,000 pounds spikes, at 10 cents ..
104 cast washers, 250 pounds, at 10 cents
2,000 cubic yards of clay, at 50 cents, for ballast at bottom of dam, upper

slope ....
200 cords of riprap for bottom edge of apron of dam and ballast on revet-

ment, at $20.

1,000 00

4,000 00

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