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"A ridge of hills called Deh Koh, or the Black, rises about Jugdulluk, and running east by north till it meets the Cabul river, bounds the plain of Jullalabad on the north; to the south it has the high hiQ of Nungnihar; east it has the hills of Alee Baghan and desert of Buttee Kote; while its western limit is marked by ridges, which here project into the valley of the Soorkh Rood."

"The length of the Jullalabad plain is twenty-five miles, and its width does not exceed four miles. A plain situated so high up the temperate zone, with snowy mountains in sight on the north and south, producing all the vegetable productions of a more southern clime, is one of these exceptions, resulting from local influences, chat are often found to militate against received opinions regarding climate. From Jullalabad to Gundummuk, the distance is twenty-eight miles, and the difference in the elevation of the two places is 2330 feet, the former being 2170 feet above the sea, and the latter 4150. Travelling from the plain of Jullalabad, the change from a hot to a cold climate is first perceived at Gundummuk; so sudden is the transition, that natives affirm it snows on one side, while rain falls on the opposite."

The following rivers intersect Nungnihar :—
Kiyen. j. The Soorkh Rood, or red river.

2. The Gundummuk river.

3. The Kurrusso ditto.

4. The Chipreeal ditto.

5. The Hisaruk ditto.

6. The Kote ditto.

7. The river of Momund-durrah.

8. The Koshk6te.

9. Cabul river.

The Soorkh Rood rises in Bara Koh, flows through the Hisaruk district, joins the Gundummuk river at Tuttungi Mahomed Acbar, and falls into the Cabul river at Dorrounta. It is called the red river, from the colour of its water ; it is fed by tributary streams at Tootoo, Baghwanee, Tuttung, and Bala Bagh. The Soorkh Rood is not navigable.

The Gundummuk river rises in the Soofaid Koh; it is joined by

streams from Moonkhee Kheil and Koodee Kheil; it Gundummuk River. — _ ^ * n

flows by Gundummuk, and falls into the Soorkh

Rood at Killa-Alladad-Khan ; it is not navigable.

The Kurruso river rises in the Soofaid Koh, runs through the

valley of the Wuzzeeree Khoogeeanee, passes Kujja.

Behoor, and Futtihabad, and flows into the Soorkh

Rood, close to the town of Bala Bagh.

The Chipreeal river rises in the Soofaid Koh, a little about Pucheea,

flows by Agan, Chipreeal, and Heidah, and joins the

Cabul river, about four miles to the eastward of

Jullalabad at Serai-i-Khoosh Goombuz.

The Hisaruk, like the rest rises in the Soofaid Koh, above Muzeena,

runs past Hisarshaee, Burroo and Bareekal, travels on

to Chardeh, and sinks into the Cabul river at La


The Kote river rises in the Soofaid Koh, its course is by Khunder

Khanee, Buttee Kote, Chardeh, and falls into the River Kote.

Cabul river at Killa-i-Khalid-Khan.

The river of Momund Durra rises in a valley, from which it takes the

name, and which is situated among the inner ranges Momund River. . ....

of Soofaid Koh; this river flows past the Nazeean

valley, and the Sheinwaree forts of Besh Boolag, it branches into two

streams near Busawul, the larger one falls into the Cabul river at Busa

wul, and the smaller one flows in the direction of Huzarnow, and exhausts

itself on the cultivation appertaining to that place. This river forms the

limit of the Cabul valley on the south-eastern side, paying revenue to the


The Kashkote river is said to rise near the source of the Oxus, it

K hk tp R' flows through Kashgar, Chughurserai, Koonur and

Kashkote, and joins the Cabul river near the village

of Kama. During the summer, on the melting of the snow of the

Safee mountains, this river is not fordable. Timbers are floated down

from Chughurserai, Koonur, and the Safee valleys to Jullalabad.

Rafts of inflated cow hides also float down the river, bringing

grain, iron, and other articles, supplied from the Bajore and KoonuT


The Cabul river in its course receives several considerable rivers, the

Punisheer, Ghorebund, and Losrhur streams, besides Cabul River. . „

those intersecting this valley are its tributaries; in summer it flows with great violence; it is fordable only from November to ApriL Rafts of inflated hides float with the current, and convey people and goods from Jullalabad to Peshawur. Rafts cannot stem the current. On the journey down the river being accomplished, the raftsmen take the hides out of the water, allow the inflated air to escape, pack up the hides, and return with them by land, either laden on, jackasses, or upon their own shoulders.

These streams, with the exception of the Soorkh Rood, Kashkote, and Cabul rivers are more properly termed rivulets, they are chiefly fed by the melting snows of the Soofaid Koh : canals conduct their waters over the country through which they flow, and spread fertility wherever their influence extends. Several of these streams, during the summer at the period of the rice cultivation, are exhausted before they reach the Soork Rood or Cabul river, to either of which, at other seasons, they form tri

The distance of Dukka to Soorkhal, by the high road is 77| miles, ride subjoined table of routes furnished me by Captain Paton.

The low hills of Jullalabad are extremely barren, but the lofty ranges of Koond, Kurkutcha, and Soofaid Koh, are richly clad with pine, almond, and other trees, which supply the market with excellent timber.

The highest peak of Speenghir or Soofaid Koh, is stated by Lieut. Wood, at 14,100 feet above the level of the sea. The same officer talking of the people who inhabit the hilly country, says, "To see a stream well-conducted along the face of a hill twenty-five feet above the mean level of the valley below is not uncommon, and where no rivulets intersect the valleys, a running stream is procured from karhtzts, or wells. The appearance of these sequestered valleys is a mixture of orchard, field, and garden. They abound in mulberry, pomegranate, and other fruit trees, while the banks of their streams are edged with a fine healthy sward, enamelled with a profusion of wild flowers, and fragrant from aromatic herbs; near the forts they are often fringed by rows of weeping willows."

The plains of Buttee Kote, Geedee Goshta, Chardeh, Lookhee, and the country skirting the hills, afford good pasturage. The pastoral Ghilzies bring a great number of camels and sheep to these districts in

autumn, and return to Cabul in the spring.

The principal towns and villages in the valley are:— Towns and Villages. m ,

Jullalabad,—booltanpoor,—Bala Bagh,—Char Ba^h,

—Futtihabad, —Neemla, —Gundummuk, — Kirjja, — Herdah, — Besh

Boolag—Buttee Kote,—Huzaraow,—Busowal,—Lalpoora,—Gurdee,—


On the north of Nungnihar, lie the countries of Noorgul, Koonur,

Chughurserai, Bajore, Koshgar, &c. On the west, Lughman and the

Ghilzie country; on the south, Bungish and Koorum; and east, he

the Khyber and Upper Momund country.

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1. Summer Kheil, .. .. 7

2. Chardeh, 14

3. Busawul, .. • • • .. 8

4. Dukka 13


From Jullalabad to Soorkhab.

1. Futtihabad, 15

2. Sufaid Sung, .. 13

3. Soorkhab 10



1. Sooltanpoor, .. .. .. .. ..8

8. Futtihabad, 7

3. Neemlah 9

4. Gundummuk, .. .. .. .. .. 6y

5. Soorkhab, 7£



As far back as A. D. 977, we find that Nungnihar was the scene of

contention between Sabuctaei, the Tartar, who asHistory. .

sumed the title of Nasir-ood-deen, and Jeipal the

Brahmin prince. History mentions that their armies came in sight of

each other, on the confines of Limgan, now called Lughman, and the

present village of Futtihabad is said to mark the spot where a victory

was gained by Subuctagi over the Hindoo prince. His subsequent defeat

and imprisonment took place at Peshawur.

Sooltan Babur in his memoirs, thus mentions Nungnihar in the year

A. D. 1504 :—

"Nungnihar," he says, " in many histories is written Nekerhar. The residence of the darogha, or commandant of this district is Adinapoor: Nungnihar lies to the east of Cabul, thirteen farsangs of very difficult road. In three or four places there are some very short kotuls, or steep hill passes, and in two or three places, there are narrows or straits; the Khiralchi, and other robber Afghan tribes, infest this road with their depredations. There was no population along this road until I settled Kuratur below the Kurruksai, which rendered the road safe. The Gunnsil, (or region of warm temperature,) is divided from the Sersil, (or region of cold temperature,) only by the steep pass of Badam Chesmeh. Snow falls on the Cabul side of this pass, but not on the Kurruksai and Lumghanat side; the moment you descend this hill pass, you see quite another world. Its timber is different, its grains are of another sort, its animals of a different species, and the manners and customs of the inhabitants are of a different kind. Nungnihar has nine streams. Its rice and wheat are excellent; oranges, citrons and pomegranates are very abundant, and of good quality. Opposite to the fort of Adinapoor to the south, on a rising ground, I formed a Char

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