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Bagh, (a great garden,) in the year 914, (a. D. 1508.) It is called Bagh Vafa, (the garden of fidelity) ; it overlooks the river, which flows between the fort and the palace. In the year in which I defeated Behar Khan, and conquered Lahore and Dihalpoor, I brought plaintains and planted them there, they grew and thrived! The year before I had also planted the sugar cane in it, which throve remarkably well. It is on an elevated site, enjoys running water, and the climate in the winter season is temperate; the garden is charmingly laid out; to the south lies Soofaid Koh, which separates Bungush from Nungnihar. Nine streams descend from the mountain; the snow on its summit never diminishes. On the skirts of the hill there are many airy and beautiful situations. On the south of the fort is Adinapoor. The tomb of holy law, the father of Nuh, is in the Tooman of Alishung. In some histories, the holy law is denominated Lamek and Lamekan. The people of the country have a general practice of changing the letter Kiif into Ghain, and it seems very probable that the name Lamghan originated in that circumstance.

"The Tooman of Nungnihar, Mandcram, Dereh Noor, Dereh Kooner, Noorgie, and Cheghurserai, I gave to Nasir Mirza.

"I marched from Jumdool for the purpose of attacking Bajore. Having encamped near it, I sent a trusty man to require the Sooltan of Bajore and his people to submit, and deliver up the fort. That stupid and ill-fated people refused to do as they were advised, and sent back an absurd answer. I therefore ordered the army to prepare their besieging implements, scaling ladders, and engines for attacking the fortress. The preparations having been completed, it was luncheon time when the tower was breached, immediately on which the assailants drove the enemy before them, and entered the tower. The men of the main body at the same time also mounted by their scaling ladders, and entered the fort. By the favour and kindness of God, in the course of two or three hours, we took this strong castle, (Naogee.) As the men of Bajore were rebels to the followers of Islam, and beside their rebellion and hostility, they followed the customs and usages of the infidels, while even the name of Islam was extirpated from among them; they were all put to the sword, and their wives and families made prisoners. I bestowed the country of Bajore on Khwajeh Kilan.

"In the hill country all the inhabitants are kafirs i in Kafirstan grapes and fruits are extremely abundant, and it produces a great quantity of wine, but in making, they boil it. In the hills of this district they have the pine, the jilguzeh, the oak, and the mastic tree in great abundance.

"I embarked on a raft, and passing the Strait of Darounta, landed

higher up than Jehan-numai; we went to the Baehi 7th Jan. A. D. 1520. ° . . .

Vafa, which is opposite Adinapoor. Kiam Urdooshah,

the hakim of Nungnihar, met us as we landed from the raft."

On the events of the year 1525, Babur writes, " On the 8th of Sefer, (November 24th) in halting at Gundummuk, I had a severe defluxion,* but by the mercy of God it passed off without bad effects. On Saturday I halted at the Bagh-i-Vafa, where I was forced to wait nine days for Hoomaiun, and the army that was with him; the garden was in great glory, it is a charming place; the few days we staid there we drank a great quantity of wine. On Sunday the 17th, Hoomaiun arrived, that evening we marched, and halted at a new garden, which I laid out between Sooltanpoor and Khwajeh Rustam.

"On Wednesday, we marched thence, when I embarked on a raft, on which I proceeded down the river, drinking all the way till we reached Kosh Goombuz, where I landed and joined the camp." Babur proceeded to Peshawur, (Begram.)

In the year 1570, Jullaloodeen Mahomed Akbar Badshah, when proceeding from Cabul to India, desired Shumshoodeen Khaffee to build the towns of Jullalabad and Attack, and which were completed in two years. His son Selim, (Jehanghire,) was for some time acting governor of Jullalabad.

The historian, Abdool Kadir Budwanee, in confirmation of the above, totes, " On the banks of the Nilah, Akbar Badshah desired the town of Jullalabad to be built: about three coss from the town is the Bagh-iSufa, commonly called Char Bagh, formerly known as the Bagh-i-wufa, made by Sooltan Babur, near which was Adinapoor, the place where the governor resided." The same author says, "That Nungnihar in former times was known by the name of the Joo-i-Shaee."

During Shah Jehan's reign, that monarch made some additions to the

* A complaint very prevalent in the summer of 1840, among the British Troops at Kojja and Gundummuk.


town. The following is an inscription on a marble slab, taken from an old fort, and placed in the principal musjid of the town, shewing that the fort was built by Itimam Khan, in Shah Jehan's reign, A. D. 1638 :—

£j>j* cjUj iXywjIiXi JUic4 u*i^*j J'-" Jb)

In the year A. D. 1735, Nadir Shah sent Sooliman Yeesawul, (stick bearer,) from Cabul, at the head of a mission to Mahomed Shah of Delhi. On the fifth day, Sooliman and his party reached Jullalabad. Abaidoollah, the son of Meer Abbas of Kooner, whose power extended over the whole of Nungnihar, desired Sooliman to be slain, and he was killed with much cruelty. Nadir Shah on hearing of the treatment that Sooliman had met with, immediately left Cabul with his army, and marched to Gundummuk via Chareekur, Nijral, and Tugore; thence he sent on to Jullalabad, Sirdars Jillayer and Vyaz, with the vanguard. Abaidoollah evacuated Jullalabad, and fled to Kooner : he was pursued by the Sirdars, and fled to Swat. Many of his followers were slain, and his sister and women made prisoners, and brought to Nadir Shah.

The monarch with his main army went from Gundummuk, (where he describes the water to be good, and the air delightful,) to Behai; thence to Jullalabad, where he remained only thirty-one days, his Sirdars mean while having captured Kooner and Bajore. He proceeded vis Chara to Peshawur, where Naisir Khan, the governor, submitted without making any defence.

To enumerate all the important events which have taken plact in this district since that period, would take up too much space. ] will only briefly allude to a few of them.

On the 10th of September 1801, Shooja-ool-moolk marched frorr Peshawur to attack Cabool. At Heshpan, he founc Mahmood's force, consisting of three thousand mer drawn up, the Soorkh Rood being in their front.

Elphinstone thus describes the battle: "Shooja had at this time a. least 10,000 men, but they were Burdooranees, and though accustomed: to the battles of their clans, they were strangers to discipline and to

regular warfare. Shooja's arms were at first victorious, but his Bur

dooranee troops eager to profit by the confusion, quitted their line as

soon as they thought the victory decided, and began to plunder the

royal treasures, which Shooja had imprudently brought into the field.

Futteh Khan seized this opportunity, and charging at the head of his

Baurikzyes, completed the confusion in Shooja's army; the battle was

now decided, and Shooja escaped with some difficulty to the Khyber.

"In the year A. D. 1809, June 29th, Shah Shooja sustained another

defeat at Neemla, when opposed to Mahmood Shah *. D. 1809. ....

and his minister Futteh Khan. Akram Khan, Shah

Shooja's prime minister, was slain in this battle. Shah Shooja fled

over the mountains south of the Khybur pass to Hisaruk."

On Zuman Shah's defeat near Sireeasp, he fled to the Jullalabad valley, and stopped at Mollah Ashuk's fort, which is on the Chipreeal rivulet, about 14 miles from the town of Jullalabad, near the Soofaid Koh. "The Mullah received them hospitably, but took means to prevent their escape, and sent off a messenger to Mahmood Shah. Shah Zuman, during his confinement, secreted the Koh-i-Noor with some other jewels in the wall of his apartment, which were afterwards found cm Shooja's accession," (Elphinstone.) The poor monarch was blinded on his road to Cabul, by piercing his eyes with a lancet.

On Shah Shooja being restored to his throne, the first step he took was to release his brother Shah Zuman, and soon after Mollah Ashnk, who had betrayed him was apprehended, and suffered the punishment of his perfidy and ingratitude.

When the Baurikzye Khans gained the ascendancy over the Dooranee monarchs, Azeem Khan placed his nephew Nuwab Zuman Khan in the government of Nungnihar, and from the time of Azeem Khan's death, 1823, until the year 1834, the Nuwab enjoyed the entire government collections of the province. Dost Mahomed insisted upon a portion of them being made over to him; this the Nuwab refused. The Ameer collected a force, and marched against him, and on his approach, the Nuwab withdrew his guns to Kameh, and there took up a position near Abdoo Ruhman's fort; negociations took place between the contending parties. The Nuwab having made some slight sacrifice of his interests, Dost Mahomed returned to Cabool.

The Nuwab then commenced fortifying the town of Jullalabad, the old fortifications were nearly on a level with the ground; a great number of people were collected for the purpose, the work advanced rapidly, but ere a month had elapsed, the Ameer was again on his march to Jullalabad, and the fort was still incomplete. The Nuwab, however, determined to defend it. After three days' resistance, a mine was sprung, the town was taken by assault, and it was given up to plunder. The Nuwab was taken prisoner and displaced from power, and Sooltanpoor, and the transit duties of Cabool were made over to him for his maintenance. Dost Mahomed's brother, Ameer Mahomed, remained a short time in charge of the province He was succeeded by the Ameer's son, Mahomed Afzool, who was recalled after a few months, and succeeded by his younger brother, Akbar; he continued in charge until the arrival, in 1839, of the British troops. Mirza Aga Jan, a Kazzilbash, was then, on the part of the Shah, appointed governor, and still continues so.

There are topes and extensive ruins to be found scattered over the valley, which if explored attentively by learned antiquarians, would no doubt reward them for their labours.

There are now no perfect buildings of any size, beauty, or antiquity in the valley.

The royal gardens of Char Bagh, Baghwanee, Bala Bagh, Neemla, and Gundummuk, laid out by Sooltan Babur and Alee-murdan, and renewed by Timoor Shah and Shah Zuman, during the Baurikzye rule, were quite neglected.

The Gundummuk garden has been quite destroyed; the fine old plane trees were cut down by Sirdar Mahomed Akbar's order to build the fort of Futtung, at the confluence of the Soork Rood and Gundummuk rivers. The fort would be found strong against Afghan troops without artillery.

There is a zearut at Char Bagh, to which Moosalmans and Hindoos go to pray. The former suppose it to be the tomb of Shah Fyzoollah Wullee, the cup-bearer of Mahomed the prophet ; the Hindoos, on the other hand, imagine it to be the resting place of Hajee Ruttun, a fuqueer of great sanctity and note. There is also a large Hindoo temple in the town of Jullalabad, inhabited by a supposed descendant of Ruttun. Hindoos in great numbers come from Peshawur, and

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