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men; and head, checks, car-coverts, nape and sides of the neck, bright rufous: wings underneath partly edged with pale rufous: the upper mandible cliicfly horny brown, and the lower pale yellowish; a few small black vibrissa; at the rictus, and legs and feet pale. Described from two specimens received from Bootan.
16. Keropia striata, G. Gray; Garrulus striatus, Vigors, P. Z. S., 1831, 7, and figured in Gould's Century, pi. XXXVII. I quite agree with Mr. G. Gray with respect to the propriety of arranging this bird among the Crateropodina; of Swainson, and would also locate the genus Kitta as another pseudo-corvine member of the same extensive natural assemblage.
17. Crateropus Nipalensis; Cinclosoma Nipalense, Hodgson, As. Res. XIX. 146.
18. Cr. chrysoplerus; Ianthocincla chrysoptera, Gould, Proc. Zoo/. Soc. 1835, 186.
In the "Natural History and Classification of Birds," ii. 234, Mr. Swainson has justly identified the Ianthocincla, Gould, (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1835, 47.) with his Crateropus, "published more than four years previously." Mr. G. Gray, however, in his "List of the genera of birds," (p. 27), has ranged Ianthocincla as a synonym of Garrulax, Lesson, and introduces Crateropus as a separate head; but most assuredly the Cr. Reinwardii of Swainson's 'Zoological Illustrations/ is a thorough Ianthocincla, apud Gould. Mr. Vigors referred the species described by him to his Cinclosoma, now properly restricted to the Australian form exemplified by C. punctatum, v. Turdus punctatus of Latham; and Mr. Hodgson has also described several species under the generic head Cinclosoma. The form is extensively represented on the Sub-Himalayan regions, both as respects species and individuals. Mr. Hodgson enumerates 14 species as inhabitants of Nepal, of which 5 have been described by Mr. Vigors (in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1831, 55-6, and 171). and a sixth, the Corvus leucolophus, Lin., figured as Garrulus leucolophus in Gould's Century, was judiciously assigned by him to the same group. Since then Mr. Gould has described 5 other species (in Proc. Zool. Soc. 1835, pp. 48 and 186-7), which descriptions were unknown to Mr. Hodgson at the time he prepared his paper on the genus published in As. Res. XIX, 143 et scq. (bearing date of publication 1836), wherein 8 presumed new species arc added to those of Vigors; four of them, however, appearing to me to be identical with as many of Gould's. Lastly, in the catalogue of Dr. McClelland's Assam birds (P. Z. S., 1839, 159-60), two more species arc added, on the authority of Dr. Horafield; and I now add two others, making 18 from the southern or Indian base of the Himalayan range.
The following amended list results from my analysis of the various descriptions referred to, while a study) of the labours of foreign naturalists is still necessary to establish the nomenclature in all cases.
Cr. leucolophus; Corvus leucolophus, Lin., figured in Gould's Century, pi. XVIII. A variety, or perhaps a very closely allied species, is noticed in one of my Reports (ante, X, p. 924).
Cr. albogularis, Gould, P. Z. S., 1835, 187; Cinclosoma albigula, Hodgson, As. Res., XIX, 146. In both cases the near affinity to the preceding species is remarked.*
Cr. gularis; Ianthocincla gularis, McClelland and Horsfield, Proc. Zoo/. Soc, 1839, 159 : allied to the last species.
Cr. ocellatus; Cinclosoma ocellatum, Vigors, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1831, 55, ind figured in Gould's Century, pi. XV.
Cr. capistratus; Cincl. capistratum, Vigors, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1831, 55.
Cr. variagatus; Cincl. variegatum, Vigors, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1831, 55, and figured In Gould's Century, pi. XVI.
Cr. lineatus; Cincl. lineatum, Vigors, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1831, 55.
Cr. erythrocephalus, Cincl. erythrocephalum, Vigors, Proc Zool. Soc, 1831, 171, and figured in Gould's Century, pL XVII.
Cr. squamatus; Ianthocincla squamata, Gould, Proc Zool. Soc, 1835, 48; Cincl. melanura (?), Hodgson, As. Res., XIX, 147.
Cr. chrysopterus; I. chrysoptera, Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1835, 48.
Cr. rufogularis; I rufogularis, Gould, Proc Zool. Soc, 1835, 48; Cincl.rufimenta, Hodgson, As. Res., XIX, 148.
Cr. pectoralis, Gould, Proc. Zool. Soc 1835, 186., McClelland and Horsfield, Ibid, 1839,160; Cincl. grisauris, Hodgson, As. Res., XIX, 146. Cr. Nipalensis; Cincl. Nipalense, Hodgson, As. Res. XIX, 145. Cr. monilegerus; Cincl. monilegera, Hodgson, As. Res., XIX, 147Cr. cmrulalus; Cincl. carulatum, Hodgson, As. Res., XIX, 147
* At the time of writing this, I had not identified a specimen which I find that the Asiatic Society's Museum possesses of this species. It is considerably less allied to Cr. lencolopkm than is my Cr. leucogenys.
Cr. lunaris; I. lunaris, McClelland and Horsfield, Proc. Zool .Soc 1839, 160.
Cr. puniceus, Nobis: length 8 inches, of wing from bend 3J inches, and middle tail-feathers 4 inches, the outermost 2| inches ; bill to forehead f inch, and to gape f inch; tarsi 1J inch : streak through the eye, ear-coverts, sides of the neck, exterior margins of the primaries, and of the terminal portion of the secondaries and longest ternaries, with the lower tail-coverts, glistening crimson : rest of the plumage a rich brown, rather paler beneath, and tinged with rufous on the wings; the tail dusky above, each feather tipped with rufo-ferruginous, and the lateral ones more broadly ; beneath ruddy : feathers of the crown elongated, forming a lax crest as in various other species; those on the sides of the crown margined laterally with black, forming a superciliary streak: secondaries black interiorly, and partly margined with light grey. Bill dusky, and legs apparently brown : locality uncertain.
Cr. leucogenys. Nobis. More nearly allied to Cr. leucolophus than is Cr. albogularis, but crestless, though the frontal feathers stand erect and rigid. Length lOf inches, of wing 4\ inches, and middle tail feathers 5£ inches, the outermost 1 inch shorter ; bill to forehead 1 inch, and to gape If inch; tarsi 1-J- inch. Crown, occiput, neck, and underparts, dark ash-colour; the forehead, lores, orbital region, streak from the eye backward, feathers at the base of the lower mandible, and the throat and fore-neck, black, as likewise the tip of the tail; ear-coverts white, and a little of this posterior to the black on the forehead: rest of the upper parts, with the thighs, vent, and lower tail-coverts, passing forward on the flanks, dark greenish olive-brown: primaries edged with greyish, and slightly albescent tips to the under surface of the outer tail feathers : bill dusky, and legs apparently greenish yellow. From Upper Bengal.
Besides these 18 species, two others have been described by Mr. Jerdon from the Neilghierries, as Cr. cachinnans (Madr. Jl., No. XXV, 255, and there figured), and Cr. Delleserti (Ibid, 256); but I am unaware of any having been observed on the Malabar range, nor is any species noticed in Mr. Eyton's catalogue of a large collection of birdskins from the Malay peninsula (P. Z. S., 1839, 101. et seq.); neither among the Turdi (comprising various modern genera) of Dr. Horsfield's list of Javanese birds (Lin. Trans., XIII, 147, et seq.), and the ijumatran species referred to Tardus by Sir Stamford Raffles (ibid, 309 et seq.), does there seem to be one appertaining to this genus. The Cr. Reinwardii, again, figured in Swainson's Illustrations, and which was formerly understood to have been received from some part of the Indian archipelago, has since proved to be an inhabitant of Western Africa, as noticed with three other species from that locality in the 7th Ornithological volume of the Naturalist's Library. Nevertheless, it an hardly be supposed but that many species inhabit the interior upland districts of the regions adverted to.*
CMidium, Nobis. The genus Cinclidia, Gould (P. Z. S., 1837, 236), being identical with Pellornium of Swainson, I transfer the former name (with a slight alteration) to a nearly allied form, characterized as follows. Bill shorter than the head, straight, slender, higher than broad, the ridge of the upper mandible tolerably acute, and its tip very slightly emarginated; inferior gonys ascending for the terminal half, imparting to the bill the appearance of a tendency to bend upward: aval apertures an elongate-oval fissure in the lateral nasal membrane, and partially impended by the short semi-reflected frontal feathers: gape armed with a few small setae. Wings and tail rounded, the 4th, 5th, and 6th primaries equal and longest. Legs and toes slender, the tarsi smooth and unscutellate, and very long, as is also the middle toe; claws but moderately curved, and of little more than mean length. Plumage light, soft, and full, having a scale-like appearance on the crown, breast, and belly.
19. C. frontale, Nobis. Length 71 inches, of wing from bend 3f inches, and middle tail feathers 3£ inches, the outermost J inch shorter; bill to forehead nearly f inch, and to gape j| inch; tarse l^inch; riddle toe and claw 1 - inch, and hind toe and claw § inch, the last f inch. Plumage dark fusco-cyaneous, the rump dusky; flanks somewhat ashy, and middle of the belly slightly grey-edged; lores and immediately above the beak blackish, contrasting with a bright ccerulean forehead; bend of the wing also ccerulean, but less bright; and winglet, primaries and their coverts, secondaries and tertiaries, dark olive-brown; a white *pot on the under surface of the wing, beneath the winglet: bill black, and legs dusky-brown. Darjeeling.
* My snpposcd variety of Cr. leucolophus (J. A. S., X. 924,J was received from Tenajserim.
20. Tesia (subsequently Anura) cyaniventris, Hodgson, /. A. S., 1837, 101; genus Micrura of Gould, the bird having a very distinct small tail. Aipenumial Swainson,
21. Alcopus (olim Sibia) nigriceps, Hodgson, J. A. S., 1839, 38. A specimen in nestling plumage only differs in the comparative shortness and flimsy texture of its clothing feathers, and the diminished brightness of their colouring.
22. Prosorinia (olim Cochoa) purpurea? Hodgson,/. A. S., V, 359; n. s.? Hodgsonii? Nobis. This nearly agrees with Mr. Hodgson's description, but would appear to be smaller, with the wing-speculum not white, but of the same hue as the crown: the specimen is marked male. I annex a description : length 10 inches, of wing 5£ inch, and tail 4J- inches; bill to forehead f inch, and to gape 1 - inch ; tarse 1 J- inch, middle toe and claw 1- inch, and hind toe and claw above J inch. General hue slightly purpurescent-fuscous, the tail cyaneous-grey tipped with black, and wings mottled with darker cyaneous, pale bluegrey, and deep black: forehead, crown, and occiput, pale blue-grey, the feathers here being lengthened and somewhat loosely webbed, and laterally impending a broad black superciliary streak continued backward to the occiput; lores and ear-coverts also deep black, and the whole of the under-parts uniform fuscous: outer webs of the primaries (save the first one) pale blue-grey near the base, contrasting with the winglet which is black, as is also the remainder of the primaries; secondaries and tertiaries dark cyaneous, the former broadly tipped with black to an oblique line even with the longest tertiary; there is some pale grey also on the border of the wing anterior to the winglet, and the quills and tail are wholly black underneath. Bill black, and legs dusky. Darjeeling.
This genus, originally classed by Mr. Hodgson among the Thrushes, has since been regarded by him as Ampelidous, and intermediate to Ampelis and Casmarhynchus. It appears to me to bear some relationship to the Leiotrichina. The Ampelidce possess at least one distinct oriental representative in Calyptomena, and an alleged Himalayan Pipra has been described by Mr. Burton (P. Z. S., 1836, 113). The Crotaionyx of Eyton (ibid, 1839, 104,) agrees with the two last genera in having syndactyle toes, and is perhaps also referrible to the same family; wherein the northern form Bombycilia has been generally