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become yellowish by drying. It is found at Singapore, and also in the interior of Sumatra." The foSovmg is the ridiculous description of B. Lathami in Griffith's 'Animal Kingdom* (vli. 488), Greenish, quills dark; face and chin, brown." In Shaw's Zoology (ix. 28), tho B. Lathami, or " Buff-faced Bar bet" ^Latham), is described sufficiently in accordance with the specimens before me, except that the beak is stated to be "covered with bristles at the base, which are longer tfcsa the bill itself [ I ] There is a specimen of this bird," it is added, "in the British Museum, Estrre place unknown ;" and a figure is given, perched on a full-grown tree no bigger than itself, which is worthy of the taste which placed it so. I subjoin a description of three specimens before me. The form belongs evidently to the distinct family of Barbets ( Bucconida, Leach;, and, as ctfttpsxed with the true Barbets, the beak differs in being more compressed, and in having a sharp spper ridge, which instead of becoming rounded off is still sharper and more elevate to the forehead, towards, which it even rises to describe an obtuse angle in the outline; the inferior angle of &e upper mandible is continued backward to beneath the eye, and that of the lower mandible to bcTcnd the eye, combining thus with the raised vertical ridge to impart an appearance of great Jise to the beak; the tip also of the upper mandible is prolonged to overhang the lower one; tho niru*e impending the bill are reduced to minute rudiments, but the frontal and coronal plumes hire the shaft prolonged and spinous. In other respects, the external structure is essentially similar to that of .bkoco, except that the wings are rather less rounded, having the 3rd, 4th, 5th, and erea 6th primaries sub-equal and longest, and the 2nd but little shorter than the 7th. Plumage of t glatening downy character on the under parts, and colouring everywhere sombre, with some faint indications of brighter hues. Length about 6£ inches; of wing 3g inchest and tail 2 inches: bill to forehead g inch, to gape 1\ inch , and tarse rather less than § inch. Colour of the upper-parts scarry uniform dusky-brown, deepest on the crown, and everywhere slightly edged with dull green; throat dingy-reddish, and under-parts glistening dull white, margined, together with the former, TOh yellowish green; there is also a ruddy cast on the forehead and checks. The beak of one specimen is nearly suffused with dusky-black, as characteristic of the male (according to Sir St. Raffles), while in the others it is pale corneous, tinged with brown at the base. Feet as described.
Edoliui affinit, Nobis, Jante, p. 160.
LmiuM sirigatus, Eyton, P. Z. S. 1839, 103; at leas* according with the Latin definition
excepting that the head is concolorous with the rest of the upper-parts, instead of being cinereous.
It ii evidently a bird in immature plumage, and the character upon which the specific name is
founded would most assuredly disappear with maturity.
MuMptta atriceps. Nobis. Very closely allied, it would appear, to M. Borbonica : length 7 inch3 9 es, of wing 5£, and tail 5— inches; bill to forehead above } inch, and to gape 1 inch; tarse
inch; tail slightly rounded : crown and nape of the male deep glossy black ; the sides of the head, neck and breast, dark ashy passing into glossy-black on the throat, and into paler ash on the lower part of the breast and flanks; the middle of the belly whitish, and vent and lower tail-coverts rufesccBt; the rest of the upper-parts bright rufo-ferruginous, dashed with ashy brown on the intersrapolaries, and all the wing feathers dusky within, edged with ferruginous. The female is rathersmaller, her wing measuring but5| inches, and tail 2$ inches; upper-parts light olive-brown, tinged with greenish-ash on the crown and ear-coverts, the wings and tail as in the male; throat and breast pale rufescent, still lighter on the flanks and middle of the belly. The female before roe appears to have been an older bird than the male, with colours more matured: her tertiaries ud the outer webs of the nearest secondaries, are wholly rufous; while in the male the tertiaries Bare a dusky stripe along their middle, and the outer webs of ail the secondaries are only rufousedged. I thmk it probable that the whole back of the male would become uniform bright rufous, and the throat, sides of the head, and foro-part of the neck, black like the crown. Eurylaimut nasutus: Tod us nasutus, Gmefin ; Cimbyrynchus nasutus, Vigors; Eur, temniicattts,
Prinia piieaia, Nobis. This, again, appears to be an addition to the numerous species alreaJj established in tliis genus. Although the colouring is slightly different, the markings and dispotit ion of the colours closely resemble those of Timalia piieaia, Horsfield; the bill, however, being altogether different, or strictly sylvian, and scarcely at all laterally compressed. Size, also, inferior to that of T. pileata, and tail much less cuneated ; length 5 inches, of wing 2g inches, and
tail 2& inches; bill to forehead — inch, and to gape — inch; tarse also — inch. Plumageofthe
16 lo 16
upper-parts olive-brown, tinged with rufous on the wings and tail, which last is just perceptibly
barred, and has its three outermost feathers only on each side graduated; crown dark rufous (u is T. pileata), but merging posteriorly into the brown of the rest of the upper-parts, there being Do ashy on the sides of the neck; superciliary streak and the whole under-parta moderately bright pale yellow, marked with black lines on the throat and breast, more developed than those of Timalia pileata; flanks tinged with greenish-ashy. Bill dusky, and legs apparently have been greenish. Inhabits also Tcnasserim.
TficophonuerUpicepM, Nobis. Length 10 or 11 inches, wing 4£ to 4j inches, and tail 4j inches; bili to forehead I to 1 inch, and to gape 1% to 1 \ inch, having three or four tolerably strong vibrissa it the gape; tarse 1 inch: no lengthened occipital bristles, but the feathers of the crown and of the checks anterior to the ear-coverts, of very peculiar character, being short and rigid, glistening, ami of a pale gold en-fulvous colour; wings and tail dull olive-green, the former dusky on the inner web* of the feathers; rest of the upper-parts ashy-brown, laterally edged with greenish, having conspicuous whitish shafts to the feathers, excepting on the rump; under-parts similar, except that the whitish medial part of the feathers is more developed; throat white, flanked by a black line proceeding from the sides of the base of the lower mandible, and another black line passes from the upper mandible through the eye; lower tail-coverts deeply tinged with the same colour as the crown: tail slightly graduated; bill black, and legs plumbeous. This species is likewise found ss high as Tenasserim.
Copsychus macrourus, the Shahmour, male and female.
C. saularia; found likewise in Sumatra and Java, as in India general!.
Vinngo vernaru, two specimens.
I am, Sir, yours obediently,
Notes on the Bendkar, a people of Keonjur. By Lieut. S. R. Tickkll, Political Assistant, S. W. Frontier.
In the course of my last annual tour through the Kolehan district, (January and February 1842,) I came upon a set of people, whose names and history we have hitherto been quite ignorant of, (even within the Agency,) and whose existence I only then for the first time ascertained. They comprise one insulated clan or tribe, not above 250 or 300 in number, and call themselves "Bendkars." Their habits and manners, in restricting themselves entirely to hills, assimilate them to the Kurriahs, a people well known in the mountainous districts, east and west of the Kolehan, and to be met with also in Birbhoom; but they deny any affinity to, or even knowledge of, the latter.
The Bendkars inhabit a small range of hills, called Bendkar Booroo, in the north of Keonjur, and close to Jamdapeer, (the southern border of the Kolehan.) The country is exceedingly wild, being in fact one uninterrupted sea of jungle, bounded to the N. and N. E. by the cultivated lands and villages of the Hos in Kotegurh and Burpeer, but whose limits in other directions have not been, nor probably ever will be, defined. These people have no separate language, but converse either in the Ho or the Ooria dialect, a9 occasion offers. In appearance they are much the same as the Bhooians of that part of the country, tolerably fair, well-made, and not devoid of intelligence ; although from the excessive seclusion of their lives, they may be pronounced purely savage. By sending one of my chuprassees, with money and fair speeches, I was able to induce five or six of them to come into my camp in Sarndapeer. They were minutely questioned respecting their manners, customs, &c. but these appear to offer nothing particularly worthy of notice, being similar to those of other Semi-Hindoo tribes, such as the Bhoomijes, Bhooians, Sontals, &c. They worship Kalee and several tutelar Deotas; eat neither beef nor pork, drink water from a Ho's hand; but will not eat with them, nor would they touch food cooked by any Hindoo, even a Bramin. They have neither cattle, goats, sheep, nor pigs; but some keep a few head of poultry. Their houses are mere hovels formed of branches, leaves, and thatched with jungle grass, these are not built together, so as to form a village, but are scattered by ones
No. 123. New Series, No, 39. 2 E
and twos about the base of the hill. Except on some few festive occasions, such as marriages, their manners are solitary and unsociable, and the poverty and misery of their mode of living almost surpasses belief, it being a common custom for a family to leave their hut in the morning, and pick up their entire subsistence for the day by grubbing in the jungle for roots, berries, hay, leaves of some species of trees; and then return as night falls, like mere wild beasts to their dwellings. When their scanty crops of maize, goradhan, (coarse rice) chunna, (gram), &c. are ripe, they fare somewhat better, and are occasionally able to bring some of the produce of their fields down to the nearest villages to barter for cloth. Their mode of cultivation is miserable; they earth up the furrows and water courses on the hill sides, and thus form small straggling khets or fields, which are liable occasionally to be washed bodily away, and should the crop attain maturity, the poor Bendkar is obliged to share it liberally with the wild pigs, deer, pea-fowl, and a host of such marauders, who help themselves at night to it, with impunity.
These people are not required to pay rent in money or in kind; but at the requisition of the nearest Sirdar, the Keonjur Raja's Dewan at Kalkapershaud, they are liable to be called upon as tegars, or coolies, to assist in conveying the baggage of the Raja, or of any of his household in their annual visits to Juggernauth. These, a very few, are acquainted with the use of money, but the majority neither know nor value it.
The party with me consisted of three men, an old woman, a girl, and a boy; the two latter were pretty. They had never seen a " white face," nor indeed even a respectable or well-dressed native. They had never even heard the word " Saheb," nor knew its meaning. Every thing of course was therefore a novelty and a source of amazement; the tents, horses, elephants, the sepoys and suwars with me, all attracted eager attention, not a little mixed with alarm. Only one of them had ever seen a gun fired off, and the grand exhibition of a bird shot while flying past, afforded great astonishment and delight. With all this ignorance, these poor people were pleasing in appearance, clean in person, and decorous in manner. They looked on quietly and demurely at every thing, and after a visit of two days, rather joyfully took their departure, not being, I suspect, quite satisfied of their safety while in my camp, although much re-assured by dint of gentle usage and kindness. The suwars with their bushy beards and long scarlet coats, appeared to afford them much uneasiness, and must have enforced on their minds greater awe and reverence than my less imposing costume!
They burn their dead, but do not collect the ashes, nor destroy any of the deceased's property with his body, (as the Koles do.) Their marriages are simple, being merely the bridegroom taking away his bride to his house, when the parents of both sides have consented, and have both added their quota to the stock supplied for the maintenance of the couple. No crimes (at least public crimes) appear to be known among this people, and they have no chief, or person possessing any kind of authority, to punish such. The smallness of their numbers, and their confined locality is not satisfactorily accounted for, as they affirm they have been living on that hill alone for many generations. Nor to their knowledge, have their numbers been ever devastated by epidemic diseases. They are a perfectly peaceable race, never having been at issue with either Hos or Hindoos. They have arms, however, similar to those generally used in the country, which they employ in the chase.
The only specimen of their handicraft, which I procured from them, and which I beg, through you, to present to the Society, is the accompanying plough. It is used by the hand, as they have no cattle ; and is capable, as may be seen, of merely scratching up the surface of the soil. It is not handled in the manner of a hoe, or fotora, but dragged or scraped along, as far as the sweep of the arm allows : and it will be admitted, I think, that for barbarity, the instrument is unique.
Note.—The implement alluded to, is now in the Museum of the Asiatic Society. It is a rough hewn stick, nearly four feet long, which has been separated from the tree just below the off-shoot of a branch, at rather an acute angle with it, the off-shoot being cut down to about 10 inches long, and sharpened at the point, so as to take the ground like a rude pick axe: thia is made more effective by an iron spike or peg, driven through the stick an inch or so above the off-shoot, and made to correspond in length with it. The cultivator using it, would, by dragging the implement towards him, have the soil, divided by the iron peg, and the furrow formed by the thicker substance of the off-shoot behind it. iTl