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the selling price in London would admit of, as a premium rate ; after a certain sum had been disbursed, proportionate to the extent of the manufacture, the government price might then be annually and gradually decreased until it became low enough to enable the merchants of Madras to enter into competition, and make their purchases from the government sales in this country; as the government price became still further decreased, the Native bukkals upon the spot would at last, by raising their prices to the highest they could afford to give, at last take the purchases altogether into their own hands, and the purchases upon account of government might cease; while any immediate and considerable fall in price might be prevented by the government price being offered whenever the selling price fell low enough. Royacottah, 5/A October, 1841.
MANIS CRASSICAUDATA., (Auct.) M. Pentadactyla, (Ibid). Short-tailed Or Thick-tailed Manis.
I* Hindustan, generally called " Bujjerkeet."—Orissa, " Bujjer Kapta" and "Sooruj Mookhee."—By the Lurka Koles, "Armoo."—By Lieut. R. S. Tick Ell, Political Assistant, S. W. Frontier.
Dimensions and description of a male specimen brought alive into lybasa, March 18, 1842, preserved and presented to the Museum of he Society, April 1842.
Extreme length from muzzle to end of tail, .... 3 6±
"of body, 18
"of tail, 1 6
From muzzle to inner corner of eye,.... 0 2|
"Last to rim of ear, 0 1
Top of back to roots of claws,( of fore feet,)
Next ditto, 0 1|
Measured as chords
Middle ditto, 0 >
, I to the curve. Index ditto, 0 1| |
Thumb ditto, 0 Of J
Femur, 0 4
Tibia, 0 3*
Os calcis to end of foot, 0 3
Girth round body about its centre, 1 8
Breadth of tail below at base 0 4^
Length of tongue, protruded portion, ... 1 O-j
Teeth.—None. Mamnue 2, pectoral. Clavicles?
General aspect.—Body and tail thick, the latter much flattened, the section would be an obtuse angle, with curvilinear apex. Limbs short, stout, very muscular; the entire figure giving evidence of the enormous power of the animal. Head small, with elongated muzzle, a well shaped nose, (somewhat as in a dog), small mouth; eyes very small, placed far backward, and close to the ears. Ears small, with rounded helix, scarcely any tragus, exceedingly simple (externally) with a very small concha. The anterior extremities furnished with long stout claws, of which the outer ones are almost rudimentary. These claws do not expand (naturally) beyond at eight angles to the sole of the paw, the animal therefore in walking bends them in and treads on the knuckles, or rather on the roots of the claws. The five claws of the hind foot are small, barely touching the ground, and the foot resembles that of a tortoise, being oval, with a thick, cushion-like sole. General outline of the figure much hogged or curved on the back, with the tail pressed flat along the ground.
Tongue—Is flatly or sub-cylindrical ending in a depressed point, consisting of a central cylindrical part, and two outer flattened or laminous edges. The tongue can be drawn above a foot out of the mouth, but it is doubtful whether the animal can voluntarily protrude it to such a length. When so far extended, the skin of the tongue towards the root in returning appears to admit the tongue back into itself, so that the latter has the appearance out like a telescope. It is all over covered with a slightly viscid saliva.
Eye—Is small, dull, pupil circular, and as in bats or moles, barely distinguishable from the iris. A very strong opaque nictitating membrane. No eye-lashes to either lid.
Genitals (nude).—A small longitudinal slit, in the apex of a rounded soft wrinkled bag, with the anus immediately behind. Testicles internal. No apparent penis. The belly and the under-surface of the tail being on the same plane, and the latter not capable of bending upwards, it is difficult to imagine how the Manis copulates: not improbably face to face.
External Covering—The upper part of the animal, and the outside half of each limb are clothed with horny sharp-edged scales, not very regularly disposed except on the tail. The nose is bare, and excessively tender; about Jths of an inch from it commence series of scales, extending laterally to within \ an inch above each eye: these are small and hexagonal, and extend to the back of the head skirting the ears. From this point the scales of the back commence, they are looser, larger and more irregular in their order of imbrication; they are as nearly as possible disposed in eleven longitudinal rows, five on each side decreasing in size towards the belly, and one series along the dorsal line. On the tail are five series, the three central of which are regularly disposed. The scales of the lateral rows are bent or curved inwards, so that their long apices present a blunt edge along the whole length of the tail. In other words, these scales embrace or enclose the edge of the tail. The under part of the tail is flat, and covered with smaller rounded scales, which commence abruptly from a line about an inch in rear of the arms. The scales of the anterior limbs commence on a line down the middle of the inner side of the arm, from whence they diverge outwards and upwards, gradually assimilating (on the shoulder), to the order of the series on the back. The scales of the hind legs commence just below the knee, and the order of the series is downwards to the edge of the sole enveloping the outside semi-circumference of the limb. The nose, sides of the face, inside of the limbs, the entire thigh, and the whole of the under-parts to the root of the tail are naked and clothed with a soft whitish wrinkled skin. The soles of the fore-paws are smooth and flabby, (as they never touch the ground in walking.) Those of the hind feet, on which the animal rests, are black, tough, and spongy. The face is smooth, like that of a scalded pig, eyelids devoid of lashes. From be
hind the eye to the throat the skin lies in transverse folds or creases, of which the most conspicuous is formed hy a continuation as it were of the helix of the ear, extending round the jowl. On the helly the skin lies more in longitudinal wrinkles. Between and underneath the scales on all parts of the hody are brownish bristly hairs, few and scattered, here and there a solitary one visible.
Colour.—Eyes black, nose dirty reddish or flesh-colour. All the bare parts pale brownish-white, a little darker or smudged about the muzzle. The claws a pale-horn or brownish-white. The scales pale-homy or clay-colour, those on the head darker and shaded with a brownish neutral tint. Under the tail also the scales are washed with a blackish tinge. Soles of hind feet blackish.
Scales.—The shape of the scale is, for the most part, on the head, hexagonal: on the body a rounded four-sided outline. Some scales more semi-circular, others more pointed. But all or most, so jagged and broken as to be very irregular; on the tail they are more evenly semi-circular. The series on each side the tail present two planes or surfaces, being bent down along the middle, so as to cover both the upper and under-surface of the tail. The scales are generally smooth exteriorly with sharp edges, underneath they are more or less marked with transverse ugae.
General remarks on the Viscera, #c.—On opening the body, the viscera did not present the irregular or peculiar formation and arrangement which might have been expected from so singular an animal, and the general appearance of the contents of the body struck me, as far as my limited knowledge of anatomy allowed, as very like that of the human subject. The heart, large, shaped as in man, with two auricles, and two ventricles. The lungs of proportionate size, and of a remarkably bright colour. Diaphragm exceedingly thick and tough. The liver small, with two lobes, resting above the centre and right of the stomach, but not extending so far down as the latter. The gallbladder exceedingly large, equal in size to that of a sheep. Pancreas and spleen situated as in man, and well proportioned. Kidneys very large.
The stomach shewed some remarkable peculiarities. The cardiac opening and pylorus apparently both on the same side, and close to each other. In the region of each, the stomach immensely muscular, having the appearance of the gizzard of rasorial birds. The left half of the stomach thin, membranous, and distended with wind. (Esophagus very small. The different parts of the intestines not distinguishable. There appeared to be a duodenum 8 or 10 inches in length, and the rest seemed to be ileum, being of the same size throughout, slender and much convoluted, till it ended in the rectum, which is very large. No ccecum was discoverable. The stomach is very large, extending almost entirely across the abdomen. The two muscular portions above noticed, felt to the hand as hard and round as racket balls, and rather larger in size. On opening the cardiac division, it was found to be full of gravel, quartz stones nearly half an inch long, the debris of huge black ants, and a perfect bundle of intestinal worms. These were long, thin, cylindrical, semi-transparent, from one to two inches long, and pointed at either end. The muscular portion near the pylorus contained the debris of the ants, more digested and approaching the appearance of faeces, mixed and hardened by the mixture of grave^ but without the large stones. The left and largest portions of the stomach was a mere thin membranous bag, distended with wind, and here, as well as in the cardiac gizzard, and even in the oesophagus, the worms swarmed. The faeces of this animal when ejected are peculiar, being in the shape of black, shining, truncated cylinders, about i\ inches long and 1^ in diameter. Void of smell, and dry, with no appearance of having been affected by bile.
The glanduhe renales large, and communicating by a duct, through > doable glandular-looking perforated excrescence, into the urethra, not far from its mouth. No external parts of generation visible, except the opening of the urethea, which is prodigiously large. On either side, and within the skin are two well proportioned testicles; but no where could I detect the trace of a penis. Close in front of the orifice of the urethra, is a sinuosity or fall in the skin, resembling a shallow rudimentary sac. It appeared like a navel, but I could discover no communication from it inwards. These do not appear to be any secreting glands or follicles about the anus, although the animal emits a peculiar and offensive odour.
The subject from which these remarks are taken, died with its long tongue protruded, and for about 20 hours before dissolution it was unable to retract it. This prevented my being able to see the manner