« 이전계속 »
from a large atone found at th» Tillage of Aurung in Cbctteesgurh, about 100 miles east of Xagpoor, to which place, however, the stone had been brought by him.
The Inscription has since been read; it is without date, but Boodhist, and of about A. D. 8B0- The following is an abstract of it:—
"There was a Raja named Surya Ghose, who on the sudden death of his infant son, being overwhelmed with grief, and conscious of the instability of the weirdly pursuits, caused a magnificent building to be erected for the refuge of Moonees, (Ascetics). Aftsr a long series of years, he had another son, who was afterwards publicly known by the celebrated name of Udayana.
"Udayana had four sons, among whom Bhabadeva was the youngest His son ni Ranakeshari, who was the last Raja of that line. He repaired the palace of tht Moonees, which had once been erected by his great-grandfather, and injured by time. Further, he caused many gardens, tanks, wells, and many charity houses to be mads throughout."
Read a letter of Mr, Stieaxo Morricand, Administrator du Musei Academique a Geneve, addressed to the late Mr. Benson, C. S. proposing to exchange specimens of Shells with him. This letter was transmitted to the Society by Dr. Wise, B. M. S.; but it was thought right that it should be referred in the irst instance to Mr. Benson's executors.
La Commission de la Bibliothym de la Villa de Berne, acknowledged the receipt of the 18th volume of the Society's Transactions through their President, Jl.i'mi Tieiiledfii.
Read a letter from G. A. Hisum, Esq. Secretary to Government, General Department, transmitting copy of a letter from the Military Board, with copy of one from Capt. Tn Fmknm Lere, and a box containing specimens of Magnetic Iroa Ore, Sulphuret of Antimony, and of Mergui Coal.
Read a letter from Lieut. H. K. Savers, S. P. H. M. Slst llegt. offering for the Journal of the Society, Recollections of H Visit to Madura, the capital of the Bullom Country, Western Africa.
for the Contributions and Presentations, thanks were accorded.
Notice of the Mammals of Tibet, with Descriptions and Plates of some new Species. By B. H. Hodgson, Esq., Bengal Civil Service.
Very little is known accurately of the Zoology of Tibet. Having lately received some valuable materials for its illustration from Digurchee and Lassa, I purpose, with the aid of these specimens, and of information procured orally and from books, to give a cursory notice of the subject.
1. Genus Felis, F. Uncia. Exactly answers Buffon's description, and is evidently the representative in high latitudes of the tropical Leopards. Equal in size to a Leopard of the largest dimensions, and distinguished not only by its long full pelage and very thick tail, thicker even than in Macrocelia, but also by its massive structure and for the comparative absence of compression in the talons, wherein there is a vague approach to Cynailurus. Length from snout to vent about four feet, and the tail about 2£ to 2£ feet. Never met with on this side the snows, and is said to be a cowardly unenterprising animal compared with the next species.*
2. Felis Macrocelis. Found on both sides of the snow in lofty Cisalpine sites as well as in Tibet; osculant in habitat, and in structure be
* There is a fine stuffed specimen of Felis uncia in the British Museum, procured, I believe, in the North of Persia, from which locality, CoL Hamilton Smith also saw a skin of this species, which he has represented in Griffith's Animal Kingdom, II, 469. I am not certain that the F. irbis, or long-haired Altaic Panther, of Humboldt and Ehrenberg is distinct from the Ounce, but have no description of the Irbis to refer lo.-t'iir. As. Soc.
No. 124. New Series, No. 40. 2 o
tween the typical pards of the south and of the north; agrees with the last in its massive form, long full fur and thick tail, which last, however, is proportionally longer and hardly so thick. Macrocelis is further distinguished remarkably by the unusual length, slendemess, and insulation of the canines. In these hills, Europeans frequently confound it with the Leopards, thereby increasing the difficulty of deciding how many true pards there be, though its dull hue, and the more chain-like linear form of its marks ought at once to prevent such mistakes. In size too it inconsiderably less than the true Leopard; but its body has a length from snout to vent of about 3£ feet, and the tail is nearly 3 feet more. I hare several skins procured in the Kachar of Nepal, in Sikim, and from Digurchee in Tibet. The animal is most fierce and destructive among the flocks.*
3. Felis Lynchus, Lynchus Europctus vel Vulgaris. Answers exactly to the common type. Is never seen in India any where on this side ol the Hemachal, but is common in Tibet. Possess two skins from Lassa, one of which exhibits dimensions in excess of those usually ascribed to the species by authors. Snout to rump 38 inches, tail 9£ inches.f
4. Felis Nepalensis, necnon Bengalensis. Possess one skin brought from beyond the snow, where however the species is rarer much than in the Cisalpine forests.
5. Felis Domesticus. The house Cat is common in Tibet. My collection exhibits from Lassa three skins, two black, and the third, fawn and white one, with 9 to 10 caudal rings on the paler ground.
6. Felis Nigripectus, Mihi, new.} Size and general proportions of Catus, structure typical. Fur very rich and soft, consisting mostly of the inner woolly piles, the longer and hairy ones being scanter; average length of the latter 1£ inch, with some few hairs as much as 2£; average length of the former or inner fleece, 1} inch. General hue rufescent pale cat-grey, like Chaus, but paler and fading into ruftscent hoary without any black tipt piles below and on the limbs: pads
* That this fine species, originally discovered in Sumatra, should also inhabit Tibet, is a remarkable circumstance.—Cur. As. Soc.
t There are four distinct species of European Lynxes; and the dimensions abo« given would seem to refer this one to F. cervaria: but 1 will prepare a monograph of the group.—Ibid.
X Clearly the F. manul of Pallas, a description of which may be found in Sb»»'< Zoology, I, 3G2, and which Mr. Hodgson has thus the merit of further establishing, inasmuch as it has been regarded as a doubtful species.—Ibid.
jiosteaUy deep rusty: whole chest and front of neck and part of belly coufluentlv sooty black, terminating forward near the eare hornwise or crescentwise: on the crown of the head several series of black dots disposed more or less linearly and lengthwise. On the checks from eyes to articulation of jaws two sub-parallel zigzag lines of jet black, five to seven straighter lines and less deep in hue laid transversly across the lower back, and blending gradually with the caudal rings, which are, including the small black tip of the tail, about nine in number. These rings of the tail are narrow, with large intervals diminishing towards its tip, as the interstices of the dorsal bars do towards the tail's base. The caudal rings are perfect all round, save the two basal ones that are deficient below, whilst the two apical ones, on the contrary, are rather wider below and nearly or quite connected there ; rings and tip of the tail black outside the arms and thighs two or three transverse Mack bars more or less freckled with the grey hairs of the body. Ears outside grey like the back, but paler: Ears small and much rounded: tail medial, thick and cylindric: mystaceal and other bristles, some black, mostly rufescent hoary: outer fur or longer piles quadrannulute from the base with hoary, blackish, pale rufous and black; but on the lower surface of the animal these piles are biannulate only with dusky at base, and the rest rufescent hoary, except on the large pectoral dark mark, throughout which the shorter piles are wholly dark, and the longer the same, save at their mere bases: Inner fur, above or generally, slaty black towards the roots; pale rusty towards the tips. Sexes alike, female less in size: Length from snout to vent 22 to 24 inches, mean height 11 to 12, length of tail 10 to 11.
Remark.—Possess three specimens, the youngest shewing the marks most clearly, which in the others are grizzled with hoary; in one sj>ecimen the tail appears thin, and shews the rings very glaringly, owing to tie outer or longer piles being wanting. Found in the wild state generally throughout Tibet, where all cat skins, tame and wild, are much prized for lining dresses, and the animals for food by the Chinese located there.*
* There is a Fetis inconspicua. Gray, suspected to be from Nipal, and described in May. Nat. Hist., N. S., 1, 577. "Grizzle-grey, black and white, slightly varied *ilh brownish streaks and waves; beneath white. Back of ears, large spots and noa-bands on the throat, belly, and outside of the legs, black. Two obscure streaks TM the cheeks, yellowish, tail elongates cylindrical, grizzled, soles grizzled."
7. Genus Cards. Tame dogs abound, and are much prized by the men for guarding the flocks and herds and houses, and by the women fot petting. For the former purpose the Tibetan mastiff is used, of which there are several varieties, black, black and tan, or red with more oi less of white. Some have the fifth toe behind. The breed at Lassa and Digurchee are the largest and best. They are good tempered, but dull and heavy, except on their night watch, and are utterly useless for sporting. Nor are any other breeds cultivated for sporting. The ladies dogs are Poodles and Terriers, many of which are pretty, and havt long soft hair. The latter flourish in Nepal; the former cannot endure our heat. The Chinese at Lassa and Digurchee fatten the Poodles for the table.
8. Genus Cuoh, C. Primsevus. The wild dogs of the Cis-Himalayan regions are found also in Tibet, but rarely. I have four skins from Lassa, but they are all of very young animals. The breed of Tibet is large, and of a pale wolf-like colour.
9. Genus Vulpes, V. Montanus. Yet commoner in Tibet than on this side of the snows. I have 8 or 9 skins from Lassa, which offer no subject for remark.
10. Vulpes Ferrilatus, Milii, new iron-grey sided Fox. Structure typical: size less than that of Montanus, but much larger than the ordinary Indian type. Possessed of the white tail-tip of the former, but not of its long and silky pelage. Fur very close, thick, porrcct almost, harsher and shorter than in Montanus, very similar to that of Indicus vel Bengalensis. Inner fleece the more abundant, woolly and wavy as usual, and about one inch long; outer piles straight, clastic, and from 1^ to 1| inch in length : Brush full, of average length, with a pelage reaching to 2$ inches long. Colour, above and on the limbs bright rusty, laterally, and the tail iron-grey; below and tip of the tail, albescent-rufous: the lateral and inferior hues divided on the flanks by a rufous line and on the neck by a blackish one: Ears outside concolorous with the upper surface of the animal or rusty: a ragw transverse black bar across the upper surface of the tail near its base: mystaceal and other bristles long, strong, and black. Sexes alike: females smaller. Snout to rump 26 inches : Tail with the hair, 12 to 13 inches. Inner fur unringed, and of the leading proximate external hue