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outer fur quadrannulate alternately with hoary and black; but on the ruddy black of the animal biannulate only, with blackish at the base and rusty at the tip.
Remark.—Possess four skins brought from Lassa; animal common in Eastern and Central Tibet, where also Montanus is yet more frequent. Fur prized by the furriers.
11. Subgenus Viverra. V. Melanurus.
12. V. Civettoides. Possess skins of both these species, brought from the Himalayan districts, but on this side the central crests or spine of the snowy region.
13. Genus Paradoxurus, P. Nipalensis. I have one skin obtained at Kootee, but this and the last two belong properly to the Zoology of Nipal and India, not of Tibet.
14. P. Laniger. One skin from Tingree. Its purely woolly curled and thick fur indicates its northern locale on the verge of the habitat of the genus.
15. M. Canigula, Mihi, new. Hoary-necked red Weasel; structure typical so far as appears. Fur or pelage thick, short, moderately applied, softly elastic, with an inner or woolly addition, and a somewhat l inger and laxer display on the tail, which is rather more than half the length of the animal, slightly tapered and ends in the usual pointed prolongation of the terminal hair; colour, throughout cinnamon red, without black tip to the tail, but the chaifron and entire head and neck below hoary. Mystaceal bristles small, rigid, and of brown red hue; average length of the longer piles ~ inch on the body, and on the tail one inch: average length of the shorter woolly piles £ inch: colour of the latter somewhat embrowned and dusky towards the base; but towards the tips, with the entire length of the longer piles, pure cinnamon-red, like the general external hue of the animal. Snout to rump Ijj inches : head 2J, tail only 7|; tail and hair 9|.
Remark.—Common in Tibet: rarer in the Himalayan region :* pos
* M. Canigula is a new addition to the Mammalogy of Nepal; and Sorcx Numoncola is another, since my Catalogue was printed.
sess three specimens, the largest, above described, from Lassa. The young have the hoary colour much less developed, and the red hue duller. My specimens want the hind molars, so that I cannot positively assert whether the species belong to the subgenus Mustek, or to that of Martes, but I feel pretty sure to the former.*
16. M. Erminea. Common in Tibet, where the skins enter largely into the peltry trade with China. Possess one specimen in the winter robe of the species, which is found also in the Himalaya, I hear.
17. M. Auriventer, vel Kathia. Found on the Tibetan as well as Indian slopes from the spine of the snowy region. Possess a skin from Tingree.
18. M. Sub-Hemachalanus. Since this species was first described, (Journal, July, 1837.) I have obtained several specimens from Tibet, as well as from the Himalayan districts, cis et trans nivcm. The largest specimen is 15£ inches from snout to rump, head 1\, tail only 6. Tail and hair 1\. Planta 1 J. The smallest is 10| inches long, and the tail 4 more, or 5 with the hair. The former is of a bright bay or brown red with labial edge ; whole chin and spot on middle of front neck, hoary. Bridge of nose and last third of tail, brown black. The latter is of a deeper and duller hue or smoky brown, with the lower jaw and lips albescent; and the nose and end of tail blackish as before.t
Remark.—All the above Musteline animals are much prized in Tibet for their skins, which the Chinese located there cure, and in Nepal, for their ability in killing vermin, though Auriventer be the species most commonly so used. None arc ever found in Nipal, south of the Kachar, or northern region. The belly is never white in any of the species, but deep aureous in Auriventer and invariably so; concolorous with the back in the rest. The pale hue under the head and neck extends with age. The fur is rather longer in Canigula, and the tail proportionally longer.
* Id typical Martes there is an additional false molar on each side of both jam t» what is ever found on Mustela, though the dental formula of the latter exists in a large Neilgheiry Marten, which Mr. Walter Elliot shewed to me at Madras, anJ "I which the Zoological Society possess a specimen marked 308 a, in Mr. WateriiousiA printed Catalogue of the Society's Museum.—Cur. As. Soc.
t The Darjeeling Mustela described in my Report for January (ante, p. 9tU would seem to be rcfcrriblc to this species, and I now think that the white mollbng"' the shoulders was merely the commencement of a general charge to white, as in tie Ermine.— Ibid.
19. Mustek Calotis. The only specimen I have, is from the interior of Tibet. It has been recently described elsewhere.*
20 Martes Flavigula. One specimen lately came to me from the Tibetan slopes of the Heraachal, but the species is probably confined to the juita Himalayan districts; for its natural habitat is the central region of Nepal, where it represents the true Mustek^ of the northern.
21. Martes (?) Toufoeus, new, Mihi. Toufee of the peltry trade of the Chinese and Tibetans, who prize the skin very highly, next indeed to the sable. Have several fine skins from Lassa and Siling, but as they want the teeth and talons and tail, I can but conjecture from information and the specimens as they are, that the animal is a Marten. Thus judging, I should say, the Toufee has much of the size and proportions of the last or Flavigula; but its pelage is much richer and softer. In softness it equals the Vulpes Montanus, and is much fuller of fur or thicker; the longer piles being very glossy. Probable length from snout to Tent 20 to 22 inches, mean height 7. Length of head about 4^ ; of auricle or free helix 1£. Average length of the outer or hairy piles H inch, of the inner and woolly 1} inch. General colour smoky brown, darker along the spine and on the limbs, but without marks, and paled to sordid yellowish hoary on the neck and head : head palest except the mystaceal region and chin, which arc embrowned: moustache moderate and dark brown. There arc no rings on the outer or inner piles, which have both the general smoky brown hue of the exterior, only paler at the roots.
• The if. Sebirica of Pallas, described in Shan's 'Zoology,' 1,431, is another species which may perhaps turn up in Tibet.—I may also here notice a species which I believe to be now first distinguished from M. putorius viz. the Russian Pole-cat of tie English furriers, which is quite a distinct species from that of Germany and Britain. I had an opportunity of comparing many very largo bundles of skins of both animals at one of the Hudson's Bay Company's half-yearly exhibitions, those of genuine putorius, having been imported from Germany, and being quite undistinnishable from the animal of Britain. The Russian species is considerably smaller, not exceeding the Stoat or Ermine in size, with tail (vertebra) measuring 4j inches or »nh its hair 6J inches. Pelage nearly similar to that of the British Pitch or 'Pole-cat,' Ut apparently becoming nearly white in winter; and all the multitude of skins I saw nul the pale ground-tent much whiter, and more predominating, than in the very numerous examples of M. putorius examined on the same occasion. This Russian speciei may be styled M. putorinus."—Cur. As. Soc.
22. Genus Lutra, L. Aurobrunnea. This and another small species of Otter are found in Tibet, but rarely, and the vast demand caused by the Tibetan and Chinese fancy for furs is supplied from Sylhet and Dacca chiefly, and in a less degree by these mountains, in the articlt of Otter skins.
23. Ursus Isabellinus. Fragments of a skin from the further and Tibetan slopes of the Hemachal, none from the plain of Tibet, where there are said to be no Bears. The species never wanders south of the Kachar on this side the snows, and is represented in the central region of Nipal by Tibetanus, (a species unknown not only to Tibet, but to the Kachar of Nipal,) and in the southern by Labiatus.
24. Genus Sus, S. Scophra, tame. Pigs of the common Indian and also of one or two Chinese breeds are commonly kept and eaten in Tibet, except by the religionists. No wild ones exist there.*
25. Subgenus Bison, B. Poephagus. Found in the wild as well as tame state in Tibet, where the tame ones abound, and are put to all uses. In Nepal they will not live south of the Kachar.t
26. Sub-genus Bos.—Bovines other than the Yak or last named, are rare in the tame state, and unknown in the wild. There are, however, three tame breeds of Cows, chiefly kept by the rich for their milk, whilst the poor Yak is the beast of burden, of agricultural labour, and of the beef market.
27. Pantholops Hodgsonii. Common all over the open plains of Central and Eastern Tibet: never passes nor nears the Hemachal.
* In the country of the Usbegs, Wild Hogs would appear to be very numerous. "Dfscending the eastern side of the Junas Durah," writes Lieut. Wood, "our march ma rendered less fatiguing by following hog-tracks in the snow; so numerous arc tbew auimals, that they had trodden down the snow as if a large flock of sheep had been driven over it" Journey Co the Source of Oxus.— C'ur. As. Soc.
t Wild Yaks exist on the mountains towards Yarkund; but their colour and size, ■■ well as general habits, remain to be described.—Ibid.
Genus Cafba, Wild.
28. Capra Ibex.* Found on the Tibetan slopes of the Himalaya, and in the other high mountains of Tibet, north of Lassa and Digurchee, as well as towards the frontier of China. Have no specimen thence.
29. Genus Capra, tame. The shawl goats, of which there are three races, diminishing in size from the common or standard one, abound all orer Tibet, almost to the exclusion of other species. The finest breed is that of Naree or Eastern Tibet, near the snowy region : but the wool is good all along the Hemachal on both slopes, and some years ago the minister of Nepal established at Katmandoo a colony of Cashmirees to make shawls. Why not we in Kumaoon, or West of it?
Genus Ovis, Wild.
30. 31, 32. Three species, Ammon, Ammonoides and Nahdor. All are said to be found in the mountains of the interior of Tibet, as well as on the Tibetan slopes of the Hemachal, where, however, the Nahoor species is the most common ; but I have lately received a fine pair of horns, with the frontlet attached, of Ammonoides vel Ammon, (si sic decretum fteritj from the same region; viz. the Mustang district. Ammon the monster, with the monstrous horns, is, I believe, distinct and most common in, if not limited to, the Tartar regions confining with Tibet on its North. Mr. Blyth's Ovis Burrhel is no other than my Nahoor, Mr. B.'s specimen of which was dyed brown by a preservative lotion that was applied by the killer and curer of it, Lieut. Smith, 15th N. I.! !f
* C. Sateen, Nobis. Distinct from the Alpine Ibex, and still more so from that of Siberia.—Ibid.
t There is a Rowland for Mr. Blyth's Oliver, given however in all courtesie. The local Naturalist must be pardoned a smile when the Master of a Library and Museum, cmfuunding the essentials with the accessories of species, edits a new being as unskilfully as his unprovided ally of the field department.
Aote by Mr. Blyth.—Mr. Hodgson will, I trust, consent to suppress his smile, and thus further extend his courtesie to me, when 1 inform him, that I was originally induced to distinguish Ovis Burrhel from O Nahoor, in consequence of the decided
irrence in the sectional form and general aspect of the horns of these two species. 1 happened to be employing an artist to draw the specimen of O. Burrhel in the Zoological Society's Museum, when chancing to take up a frontlet of O. Nahoor that **» lying beside me, and holding it to the stuffed Burrhcl's head, I saw at a glance li»t they were distinct species, and I subsequently (as mentioned in my paper on the species of wild Sheep) met with another specimen of a Burrhel's horn, wherein the specific character was equally well marked.
The ears of O. Burrhel are also conspicuously shorter than in O. Nahoor; and the uil appears to be reduced to a mere rudiment: it has been thought, indeed, that the