« 이전계속 »
of the money not willed by him, will be through the Austrian Ambassador at the British Court. In some documents I found his address to be " Korasi Csoma Saudor."
I have the honor to be, &c.
Nora.—I may add to Mr. Campbell's interesting paper such confirmation as my memory enables me to give of the opinion held by the deceased philologist on the origin of the Huns, which with singular opinions on the Boodhist faitb, constituted his most favourite speculations. He on more than one occasion entered on the subject with me at great length, detailing in particular the Sanscrit origin of existing times of places and hill ranges in Hungary: my constant request at the close of •ilest conversations used to be, that he would record these speculations. He invariably refused, alluding darkly to the possibility of his, one day, having it in his power to publish to the world something sounder than speculation. In proportion as I pressed sim on the subject, he became more reserved with me on these particular questions. He seemed to have an antipathy to his opinions being published. 1 remember his firing me one day a quantity of curious speculation on the derivation of geograItical names in Central Asia. Some months afterwards, I had occasion to annotate a i theory of the nomenclature of the Oxus, and writing to him, recapitulated his opinion on the subject, and begged to be allowed to publish it by authority. His uswer was, "that he did not remember." His exceeding diffidence on subjects on which he might have dictated to the learned world of Europe and Asia, was the most surprising trait in him. He was very deeply read in general literature, independently of his Thibetan lore; but never did such acquirements centre in one who made such oodest use of them.
Note to accompany a Map of the Isle St. Martin's. By C. B. GrhknLaw, Esq., Secretary to the Marine Board.
It is some time since the annexed map of a Survey of the Island of St Martin's, south of the River Naaf on the Arracan Coast, has been prepared for publication in the Journal. It is by the late Mr. Frederick Bedford, who commanded a schooner employed on that Coast for the prevention of salt smuggling.
Hie survey of this and other islands and places on the Coast, formed no part of the established duties of Mr. Bedford's office, but he undertook them and executed them with a zeal and spirit that won for him the good opinion of his immediate superiors in the province, and with an ability which would assuredly have obtained him the future support and countenance of the Government, had he lived to carry on the further surveys which were in contemplation.
Unfortunately, however, the Osprey, the beautiful schooner which he commanded, was lost on the night of the 15th of November last in a gale of wind.*
The survey of St. Martin's Island, however, formed but a small portion of what he had already performed. He made a similar survey of Oyster Island, and of the mouth of the Myoo River, and his maps and charts formed part of a lengthened Report from the Commissioner of the province, Captain Bogle, on the propriety of establishing a regular chain of lights on the coast. I have no purpose, however, to go into that extensive question, although in connection with the increasing prosperity of the province, arising from its rapidly increasing growth and export of rice, as also with the consideration of the probable eventual establishment of a naval port at Kyouck Phyoo, it is an interesting, if not an important question.
My present remarks are necessarily confined to St. Martin's Island, and in addition to what is stated by Mr. Bedford in the sketch itself, in respect to the nature of the soil, I am enabled to add the following from the Commissioner, who says, I think justly, that this Island appears to be capable of being turned to profitable account.
Captain Bogle, after adverting to Mr. Bedford's remarks on the best position for a Light House, observes,
"It is not only as a light house station that this Island appears to be deserving of attention; as a Sanatorium for the people of Calcutta, it would I have no doubt be found invaluable; it cannot be at all subject to the evils of the climate of Arracan, for it is too far north, and is besides six miles from any land; it is about four miles long by one mile broad at the north end; it has plenty of excellent fresh water; turtle, and doubtless oysters abound; the sea around it supplies large quantities of the finest fish; the soil is in part excellent, probably well adapted to the growth of vegetables; it possesses some pretty undulating scenery, the northern portion of the Island being a perfect park; there is space
• It appears that the Osprey left the Naaf on the 15th of November, and has nd since been heard of, but as a sudden and severe gale occurred during the night, there is no doubt she foundered. H e himself had only on the 9th of the same month written, that she was as one a craft as could be, and that he considered her equal to any serricc for ten or twelve bungalows with compounds, as well as for Natives' houses. The beach affords a beautiful ride and splendid sea-bathing, and in the N. E. monsoon, the climate is superlatively fine, as it must also be in the months of March, April and May, when the sea breeze blows most refreshingly; in short, it is described as a very agreeable Island, and one which owing to its proximity to Calcutta, and its remoteness from external evils and temptations, might possibly be found a most admirable location, not only for the higher classes, but for European invalid soldiers."
I can add nothing to this very interesting, though simple notice of Captain Bogle, beyond the expression of my hope, that some parties may be found sufficiently enterprizing to make trial of the capabilities of the Island, bearing in mind, that there is a regular established intercourse between Calcutta and Arracan by means of the Amherst, and that therefore there would always be periodical opportunities of coming and going; add to which, it is to be hoped, that another vessel will shortly be sent to take the place of the ill-fated Osprey, which by her visits would help to enliven the place, and add to the means of communication.
On the Cotton called " Nurma," by Dr. Irvine, Residency Surgeon at Gwalior. Communicated by Colonel Spiers, Resident at that Court.
I have the honour to forward to you the result of my inquiries regarding the Nurma cotton, which I have only now been able to complete. I send the information I have obtained in the form of question and answer.
I beg to call your attention to the fact, that Nurma is the name applied to this cotton by the Mussulmans only; and that the real name from time immemorial is "Burari," and that it is in all probability indigenous. The Nurma is not produced as a crop at Chanderee, but is imported as required from Cholai Muhasur on the Nerbudda, where it is regularly cultivated.
A few years since, an experiment was tried at Chanderee of growing the Nurma cotton, but as the cotton yielded was not so good as that imported, and as insects and frost injured the plants, and as the cotton adhered very firmly to the seed, the ryots at once gave up their intention of cultivating the Nurma plant. This abandonment seems to have been very premature; as it is most likely that a little more care and perseverance would have insured success. The present demand for Nurma cotton is, however, so very small, the trade in fine Mamoodies being little or none, that no encouragement is afforded to the cultivators. The present supply of Nurma cotton from Cholai Muhasui at Chandcree has been five years in the godowns there, and is far from exhausted, and can be had there at three seers per Chanderee rupee.
It will be observed, that the Nurma cotton is naturally of a dirty yellowish colour; it is also gathered very carelessly; the wool adheres strongly to the seed; and the fibre though fine, is not long in the staple. It is vastly inferior to Sea Island cotton in every respect.
I take the liberty of sending another specimen of common American cotton grown by me at Gwalior last rains. This cotton, it will be seen, is finer, and in every respect better than the Nurma cotton ; the Chanderee people themselves say so, and this common American cotton can easily, under proper treatment, be introduced into India. The Norma cotton can no doubt be spread over the country in suitable places; but it will never equal the American cotton. The fineness of spinning is no criterion, as the invisible thread of Chanderee has been far Surpassed by the Manchester machine spinning, where one pound of the best cotton has been extended to 8 skeins of 180 yards each, but this degree of fineness is not a desideratum in England, and has been effected only as a curiosity.
The labour, delay, and expense of the Chanderee Mamoodie manufacture of any degree of fineness is exceedingly great. The finest Mamoodie piece of five yards costs Chanderee rupees 100; the breadth being only half a yard, while for this sum ten pieces of fine Scotch Cambric can be purchased even up-the-country of beautiful even texture, 7 yards long and a yard wide.
The greatest trouble and time is taken in collecting skeins from the different spinners of equal fineness.
1st Query.—What is the kind of cotton called Nurma; is it of this country or foreign; and if foreign, in what way has it been introduced; who brought the seed first, and from what country?
1st Answer.—Nurma cotton is foreign according to universal belief at Chanderee; has always been brought to Chanderee from Cholai Mahasur beyond Kidore on the Nerbudda; the best Nurma cotton is alone brought from that place. The Cholai Muhasur seed has on one occasion been sown at Chanderee as an experiment, and though the cotton produced was fine, it was not at all equal to the real Nurma cotton of Cholai Muhasur. The inhabitants of Chanderee have no idea of the time of the introduction of Nurma cotton into India. For the last 25 years, the present fineness of thread has been spun; formerly the thread spun was so very fine as to require a blanket on the ground moistened to receive it as it came from the wheel, when the thread was scarcely visible; and it is said, that a skein placed loosely in a saucer of water, might have been drank unknown to the person swallowing it. Mussulmans and Hindoos of all classes equally employ themselves in spinning this cotton. Nurma is the name given by the Mussulmans; the real name from time immemorial is " Burari," which would indicate Berar as the original country of this cotton; or the word may have arisen from the cotton drawing easily out into a thread, from *' burana," to draw out.
•2nd Query.—Is Nurma cotton produced in the common fields, or does it require peculiar ground and treatment?
2nd Answer.—Nurma cotton has always been imported into Chanderee, and has only once been sown there about five years ago. The Nurma seed was sown at the villages of Keerawul and Sersode, four miles from Chanderee; the cotton produced was not so good as that of Cholai Muhasur, the crop was besides injured by insects, the ryots therefore did not sow it again. It appears, however, evident, that the Nurma cotton would succeed about Chanderee, but there being very little demand, there is no encouragement. At present Cholai Muhasur supplies amply more than is required at Chanderee. As stated, three beegahs were sown at Keerawul, and two beegahs at Sersode, and the cotton produced, though fine, was like common country cotton in adhering firmly to seed, and hence was rejected by the spinners. The soils at these villages are light brown loams. In these native experiments, the Nurma seed was sown in the same way as the common country cotton. After the first rain in June, the ground was ploughed, then allowed to imbibe a heavy shower, the seed was then sown, then harrowed with the wooden "putela," then exposed to a few days' rain, after which the young plants were weeded by the hand, the