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Rampoor is situate in latitude 81* 27' and longitude 77° 42*, on the left bank of the Sutroodra or Sutlej; although the capital of Busahir it is not near so populous as might be expected. There are several Curs here during the year, to which the Koonawurees bring blankets of various sorts, coarse shawls, wool, raisins, salt, borax and chowrees, and jTchange them for wheat, tobacco, sugar, swords, &c. The houses may be about a hundred in number, they are large, well built, and covered with thick slates of a brownish colour, which form very heavy roofs; upon a few of the houses the slates are cut into oblongs, and laid regularly, which give them a neat appearance, but by far the greater number are of all shapes and sizes, and put on without any regard to order. Under the rajah's palace, a handsome edifice at the northern angle of the town, there is a rope bridge similar to the one at Wangtoo across the Sutlej leading to Kooloo, the breadth of the river is here 211 feet, and the jhoola is elevated thirty feet above the stream, which in the rainy season is said to come within four feet of it. In December and January when the river is at its lowest, people sometimes cross upon inflated skins. We found the bed of the Sutlej by barometrical observations 3,260 feet above the level of the sea.
The site of Rampoor is low and much confined, and one of the worst that could have been fixed upon, and from its being encircled by high mountains subtending an angle of between twenty and thirty degrees, a breath of wind can scarcely ever reach it; there is little soil and no wood upon the surrounding hills, and large portions of naked rock appear on every side of the town, which being once heated, retain their warmth for a long time, so that in summer the nights are not much cooler than the days, and from there being no circulation of air, the place for several months in the year is like an oven.
7th November.—Marched to Nirt upon the left bank of the river. The distance is twelve and a half miles, and the road for the first four and a half consisted of short rocky ascents and descents to the Nouguree, a large stream coming from the eastward; we crossed it by an excellent high sango with a railing, and the rest of the way was quite plain, lying near the Sutlej.
The extreme height of the bed of the river opposite to the village is 2,912 feet, and as this is the last place where we had an opportunity of measuring it, I shall now endeavour to give some idea of the probable height of Mansurowur Lake.
The Sutlej has a variety of names, being called Sutlooj, Sutroodra, Sumudrung, Sampoo, Langzhing-kampa, Muksung, and Zung-tee in different parts of its course; Sutroodra is most commonly used, by which name it is known from its source to the plains. In the Koonawur language, the words Sampoo, Sumudrung, Kampa, Muksung and Tee, all signify river. Zung means gold, and with the addition of the latter word is applied to the stream at a sandy place near Murung, where gold dust is found. By the accounts of many people who have travelled along its bank to its source, it issues from Lake Rawunrud, called also Rawathud and Lanka, which was confidently said by every body I saw that had been there, to communicate with Mansurowur, although Mr. Moorcroft could not dicover the outlet of the latter lake; the circuit of Rawunrud was represented to be no less than seven days' journey, but it is most likely both lakes were included.
From Nirt to Sundum Sango under Numgeea, the horizontal distance by the map is seventy-two miles, although by the road it is almost 140, the difference of level of the bed of the Sutlej in this space is about 5,690 feet, which gives the fall of the river nearly eighty feet per mile in a direct line, from Numgeea to Mansurowur, which is placed agreeably to Major Hearsey, (I fancy not far from the truth, as its position with regard to Shipke agrees well with the accounts I received,) the horizontal distance is about 167 miles ; if therefore only thirty-five feet per mile be allowed for the fall of the river from Numgeea upwards, it will give the extreme height of Mansurowur or Mapang Lake above 14,000 feet, and I am inclined to think this estimate rather under the truth than otherwise, for Mansurowur is unquestionably very elevated, from the circumstance of four large rivers, and perhaps five, taking their rise in that quarter.
1st.—The Sutlej issuing from the lake itself.
2d.—The Sind or Sing-kechoo, known likewise by the name of Sindke Kampa, has its source N. E. of Mansurowur. It is described as » very large river, and the principal branch of the Indus, being frequently called Attuk even near Caroo, three marches to the eastward of which it passes, running close south of the capital of Ludak, and three or four days' journey to the northward of the valley of Kashmeer.
3d.—The Tamjoo Kampa springs from the mountains east of Mapang, and at first flows towards the eastward.
4th.—The Manja-choo, or Kampa, rises south of Mansurowur and runs S.E. The latter two rivers I conclude to be the Bruhmapootr and
I likewise heard of a fifth river (but only from the accounts of one person, which however I have not the least reason to doubt, as he travelled the road twice,) said to be crossed eight or ten marches E. N.E. of Graroo; its source is reckoned near Mapang, and it runs N. E., so is perhaps one of the great Chinese rivers.
Sth November.—Marched eight and three-quarter miles to Kotgoor, where there is cantonment for two companies of the 1st Nuseeree Battalion. The road at the beginning of this-day's journey lay close upon the left bank of the Sutlej, and then was a steep ascent of 3,500 feet, latterly winding amongst beautiful woods of oak, yew, and pine.
lOfA November.—Proceeded seven and quarter miles to Kutoo, in order to make some astronomical observations, and get the bearings and altitudes of the surrounding objects. The ascent from Kotgoor is not less than 4,000 feet, the road at first was good, but afterwards steep and rugged. Kutoo consists of two small forts upon the top of a bill, 10,600 feet above the level of the sea, connected on the N. E. with the snowy mountains. The prospect from this spot is very extensive; upwards of fifty forts, with from four to six towers each, may be distinctly counted in the Rajships of Kooloo, Sooked, and Mundee, N. W. of the Sutlej, beyond these are seen high mountains covered with eternal snow ; to the N. E. and East, appear the outer range of the great Himalaya chain, extending until it is lost in the horizon, whilst to the South and S. W. the hills decrease in height to the plains, which are clearly distinguishable at a distance.
We were detained here until the 16th, for we were involved in mist for several days, during which time we could not see half a mile on any side; the thermometer did not get above 34° in a house, with a large fire for two snowy days, and at sun rise was 28°, but when the clouds cleared away, it rose to 40° and 41* at noon.
After completing our observations, we returned on the 16th to Kotgoor, where we stayed a couple of days, and on the 19th marched to Jeemoo nine and half miles. The road for about four miles was generally good, passing many villages, and lying upon the face of a left hand range covered with dark forests of various sorts of trees to a small stream, from whence there was a steep ascent of 2,400 feet through a thicket to Nagkanda Pass, 9,000 feet high, here we found a great many hazel trees, but all the nuts were rotten; from the pass to camp, we had a moderate descent of three miles upon the slope of a grassy range that lay upon our right.
20th November.—Marched to Muteeana nine miles. The road for near six miles was good, upon the right bank of a rivulet, and crossed by many brooks to Mandunee, where there is a handsome temple built in the Chinese style; after leaving it, we crossed the Kuljehur, a stream coming from the northward that divides Koomarsaen from Keoonthul. two small states under chiefs called Ranas. Keoonthul is largest, and extends from Muteeana to the vicinity of Soobathoo. The descent to the Kuljehur was steep, and the ascent equally so, each about 1,000 feet. The mountains we passed are wooded with pines and oak in the vallies, but above produce little except grass.
22nd November.—Marched to Bunee fourteen and three-quarter miles. The road consisted of easy ascents and descents near the top of a range upon soil, and through a very highly cultivated country abounding with villages.
23rf November.—Proceeded to Simla eleven miles, and next day made a forced march of twenty-two and a half miles to Soobathoo; the latter part of the road has already been described.
Throughout the above mentioned tour, the road was surveyed with some care, and a number of points were fixed trigonometrically, which agree well together; we were very lucky in having clear weather, and always managed to get two, but most commonly three or four meridian altitudes of stars, both north and south, contained in Dr. Pond's catalogue, at every halting place except one.
We had two sextants, and a Troughton's reflecting circle having a stand, with the last of which instruments the latitudes were usually observed. We carried no less than fourteen excellent barometer tubes with u, only two of which returned in safety. The mercury was revived from cinnabar, and was well boiled in the tubes, the last indeed was a most laborious business, for we broke upwards of a dozen of tubes in the operation. The most convincing proof that the air was entirely expelled, is, that the mercury in the tubes of thirty-two and twenty-six and a quarter inches stood exactly at the same point, although the vacuum in the short ones was not more than three-quarter of an inch, and on applying a candle to the top, the mercury rose a little, whereas had there been the least air, it must have sunk from the expansion, which would have been clearly perceptible in so small a space.
The largest theodolite was constructed by Troughton, and is graduated, both vertically and horizontally,to twenty seconds; the elevations of most mountains subtending small angles were taken with it, and those above ten degrees, were observed either with the sextant or circle and artificial horizon.
At every camp we tried the height of the boiling point with two good thermometers, which very seldom indeed gave the altitude of the place 300 feet different from the barometer, and had we arrived at our ground in sufficient time to distil water, I have every reason to think the disagreement would have been less, for wherever we had an opportunity of using snow, the coincidence of the two methods was most satisfactory.
The height of the colossal Tnzheegung, whose summit is almost "22,500 feet above the level of the sea, was determined by angles of elevation between four and twenty-four degrees, taken at eight different stations, varying from 9,000 to 19,000 feet in height, and from two to about thirty miles distant from it, and allowing one-fifteen terrestrial refraction, the extreme difference between any two of the observations does not amount to 250 feet. The Kylas Peaks, besides several others, were calculated from many stations at various distances, and none of them differ above 500 feet from one another. The next highest peak to the Tnzheegung is above 21,000 feet, it was seen from Hutoo fifty-three miles distant under an angle of 1° 47', and its altitude deduced from this comes within 200 feet of what the observation at Rogee gives it, where the distance was eight miles, and the elevation about fifteen degrees.
The altitudes of our stations were calculated by M. Ramond's method above Soobathoo, where the barometer was observed five or six times a day during most part of our absence, and the height of the column was invariably measured from the surface of the mercury. By the mean of a whole year's barometrical observations, Soobathoo was found to be 4,205 feet above the level of the sea.