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spot. This calcareous rock is of a formation posterior to the sandstone, and it is not improbable, rests upon the latter.
Casting our eye over the plain here, and surveying the hills that rise on each side, in a manner surrounding and enclosing it, we naturally conceive the idea of an immense basin that had at one time been filled with water, and formed an extensive lake. Some river, we may suppose, had burst through the hills to the south, and diffused its waters over the plain. These, as they gradually accumulated, would at length equal the level of the range on the northern side, and force a passage to the country below.
We should thus have a lake, like that of Geneva, with a river entering at one side, and passing out at the other. In process of time, the lake filling up by the deposit of alluvium and animal recrement, a contracted channel only would be left for the stream to flow in; while the earthy contents of the basin would gradually acquire the form and solidity which they now possess. What the mere aspect of the country suggests, may be said to receive some degree of confirmation from the circumstance of the Kane actually following the course here described. It issues from the hills to the south of the plain, and descends over the rocky barrier on the opposite side, hollowing out a channel in the stone as it proceeds, and shaping it into every variety of fantastic form. These falls of the Kane, as they are called, are situate a few miles off the direct route from Lohargong to Saugor, and distant about two marches from the former. They are well worthy the notice of the passing stranger, on account of the singular forms presented by the rock which receives the river, and conceals its course for many miles; the bed of the stream above the falls also abounds with beautifully variegated pebbles which admit of a high polish, and are much sought after for ornamental purposes.
The pure calcareous formation at Lohargong, succeeded by a scissile rock, is apparently consisting of argillaceous sand, mica and lime, and may be termed a sandstone slate. It divides with great facility into thin laminae, and has a regular horizontal stratification, as is well displayed at the ford of the Kane near Kopah, where both banks of the river are composed of it. The only effect I observed this rock to have on the soil, was to render it less pervious to moisture; and thereby to cause the water to stagnate on the surface in the form of marshes and shallow pools, which were more general here than in the preceding district.
After fording the Kane, here about hundred feet wide, we reach the village of Kopah, and enter directly on the range of hills forming the southern enclosure to the Lohargong basin. These are of various heights, but though less striking in their aspect than the range of the opposite side, they often afford the most beautiful and romantic prospects. They are entirely composed of sandstone of the same general characters as that so often alluded to. I picked up some specimens with dendritic impressions on the surface,* and occasional:;, found a mass of a different shade of red marked with white dots.t but these varieties seemed to be quite accidental. The strata were horizontally disposed, with the exception of one or two points, where they shewed considerable dip. Many ferruginous pebbles are met with, which appear to contain a larger proportion of iron than the gravel at Puanah. They are of the same essential characters, however, and only differ in that particular in being rather larger. On the hill immediately above Bellary, they are found united together in great masses, exceedingly compact, and apparently quite indestructible by the operation of the elements. From Kopah to Bisseinee is a distance of eighteen miles; from Bisseinee to Jyenuggur ten or twelve; and from this last place to Bellary as much more. The whole of this tract is hilly, and presents nearly the same general features throughout. We cross many clear running streams with rocky beds, ascend and descend moderate elevations, and between these, occasionally pass over a grassy plain. Around Jyenuggur the country is cultivated, and a patch of com may now and then be met with in the early part of the route from Kopah, but with these exceptions, it is a continued jungle all the way to Bellary. On descending to this plain, the country again opens to the view, and a large plain with trees scattered thinly over it is seen extending in all directions. Having travelled by night from Bellary to the next stage, Koreah, I could not observe the appearance of the intermediate country, which was nearly as flat as the low country in Bundelcund. Between Koreah and the town of Sehorra, we find a new formation altogether, consisting principally of quartz. Some of the rocks are
pure quartz, and disposed in vertical strata. Others have a peculiar striped arrangements in the mass, and in colour, lustre, and compactness, are not unlike the limestone of Lohargong. On arriving at Sehorra, I found these two rocks composing a small hill on which the fort or gurree is built. They appear to be primitive blue slate and quartz lying in opposition,* and in almost vertical and very thin strata, each layer not exceeding four inches in breadth. In several of the schistose strata, the stone has metallic lustre, and may with ease be reduced to powder. The quartz shews nothing peculiar; it lies close on the slate in continuous strata, and veins or thin laminae may be observed intermingling with schistus. It bears, however, but a small proportion to this rock. In some specimens, the slate is striped with variously coloured materials differing in hardness. The town or village of Sehorra, where these rocks are met with, is prettily situated on two or three small gradually rising eminences, having a good deal of open grass glade, terminated by mango groves, in such a manner as to give to the whole the air of an English scene. The soil of the district around is of the same black colour as that of Bundelcund, but more clayey. It is extremely fertile, and the appearance of the surface at the time I passed, indicated that great care was bestowed on it by the ryots. For miles to the south and west, not a spot could be perceived which was not cultivated, and laid out in square pieces, with an intervening low mad dyke, similar to the paddy fields of Bengal. Rice too appeared to be a common crop here.
A few miles from Sehorra, we cross the Hirn, a stream of considerable width which falls into the Nerbudda, a little to the westward. The bed is not rocky like the Kane at Kopah, but formed entirely of sand without any gravel or pebbles. At a sweet little village named Gosulpore, which rises out of the surrounding miry soil, like an oasis from the desert, we again meet with large masses of the ferruginous concrete.f It is here more decomposed than on the hill above Bellary, and the ground on which the village stands, has evidently been formed from its debris. The natives, I was told, reduce the rock to the metallic state, and in the neighbouring town of Punnahghur work it very extensively; but not being aware of
• Sp. 'JO. t Sp. 22, 23.
this at the time of passing through the place, I could not make any enquiry as to the mode of accomplishing the reduction. I should reckon it of very difficult fusibility, with all the assistance which art can bestow. In the dark clay soil around Punnahghur is interspersed a good deal of the well-known calcareous concretion, termed knnku by the natives. It does not seem to be so pure as that found on the banks of the Ganges, but contains a greater mixture of argillaceous earth. All these combinations of lime with the other elementary earths, are of a secondary formation, and are continually going on in such soils as abound in the former. It is not easy to say, how the process of union takes place, but it would appear to be dependent on the alternate action of the sun"s rays and moisture, and to resemble very closely chemical, or electric attraction, as influenced by similar means. We meet with nothing like this calcareous concretion in the soils of Great Britain, as far as I am aware of, and whatever the cause may be which produces it, we may reasonably conclude, that its operation is limited to the hotter regions of the globe.
Between Punnahghur and Jubbulpore, we cross a small river named the Periot or Praca, (as laid down by Arrowsmith,) the bed of which abounds in every variety of agate and siliceous pebbles.
Near Jubbulpore is a low ridge of granite rocks,* in general qualities resembling that of Bundelcund, but approaching more to the gneiss formation, and at present undergoing a rapid decay. The whole district here is rocky, and presents a fine field to the geological enquirer; but my short stay only permitted me to give a cursory glance around the cantonment. Directly to the south of these, there is a formation of old rti sandstone that appears to have been extensively quarried, and exhibits the peculiarity of being arranged in vertical strata, contrary to the usual position of this rock. A large mass of a whitish clay rock, containing quartz pebbles, forms the base of the hills to the east of the plain. It has been washed down by rains to powder, and formed anew intoi boulder or cake at the surface. It probably has been formed originally from the disentegrated felspar of the neighbouring primitive rocks. The ridge lying over it, to the north and east, presents the primib'w outline, and I concluded, was composed of similar granitic blocks to those
I had observed on approaching the town from Ramnughur. At Jubbulpore, we may be said to enter upon the extensive valley of the Nurbudda, the river being distant about four miles. It is a clear mountain stream with a rocky bottom, in width here not much exceeding the Kane, but greatly deeper at the time I crossed it in the month of October.
The rock of Tetwarra Ghaut, judging from detached pieces, seems to be a species of trap, and lower down the river, I was informed, passes over a formation of primitive limestone. Some blocks of this marble I have seen. It is of a pure white colour and close structure; and for all the purposes of the statuary might be reckoned not inferior to the celebrated Parian or Carrara. The natives, aware of its excellence as a material for sculpture, employ it in making images of their gods, and various ornamental appendages to their temples.
Report made by J. Mohl, in the General Meeting of the Asiatic Society of Paris, 31st May, 1841, on the labours of the Committee during the six last months of 1840, and the six first months of 1841, translated from the French. By Dr. E. Kobe, Librarian to the Asiatic Society of Bengal.
Note By Thb Editor.—The publication of the following article, in which allusion is made in much too flattering terms to myself, might be considered presumptuous, were not my readers apprised of the feeling with u inch I peruse this complimentary notice. It is a just acknowledgment of the talents, the industry, and research of my contributors, and it is in this character only that I lay it before them. This Journal is solely dependent for its name upon those who contribute to it, and it will be gratifying to them to find, that their support has not been unattended by the applause of men of the highest literary character in Europe, recorded in the proceedings of a Society, which ranks among the most eminent of the Western world.
Though the past year has not been marked in the annals of your Society by any peculiar event, yet it must be considered as a fortunate one, as it has afforded a slow, but constant increase of your resources, relations and labours, the most evident sign of the life, and most certain presage of the continuation of a Society. Your Journal has been regu-. ktfly continued, and has been the store-house of numerous labours. The contribution of memoirs, received by your Committee of the Journal,