페이지 이미지

('Madras Journal,' No. XXV. "lib), as Ant. subquadricornutus, being characterized by larger size, and by having the anterior pair of horns scarcely developed, while the posterior pair is longer than in the preceding species. Both of these animals were known to me in England. The name Chickera, according to Mr. Elliot, is applied by all natives to the Gazella Cora of Colonel Hamilton Smith, which I have the authority of that learned naturalist for identifying with Ant. Bennettii of Sykes, rightly referred by Mr. Elliot to A. Arabica of Hemprich and Ehrenberg; though Colonel Smith's appellation takes precedence. The Museum of this Society contain! a stuffed specimen of the kid of G. Cora, and numerous heads of adults; and I hate seen many fine examples of the species, and among them a pair now living in Calcutta: nor is this the only species of true Gazelle inhabiting India. Mr. Gray has described, or at least named, a Gazella Christii, founded on a pair of horns obtained, if I remember rightly, in the Thurr, or great sandy desert north of Cutch, and deposited in the British Museum; and there is a stuffed specimen of the same species in the United Service Museum, received from Bombay, which satisfactorily establishes its existence. The G. Christii is a typical Gazella, inferior to G. Dorcas in size, and remarkable for its very pale colouring; the horns are smaller and much more slender than in G. Cora, less freely thrown out, and take the usual curve backward in this group, having the tips very abruptly bent inward. Proceeding westward, another species, the G. subgutturosa, inhabits Persia and the foot of the Caucasus; while G. Dorcas is found in Arabia in addition to G. Cora.

Respecting the present species, or Tetraceros chickera, a writer in the 'Bengal Sporting Magazine' mentions, that "it is found in the forests at the bottom of the Sivalik hills, and is considered a rare species: as the places it inhabits can only be beaten by Elephants, and this animal generally breaks cover at the distance of eighty yards, bounding off in a succession of short leaps, it is not very easily shot. The back pair of horns are about four inches, and the fore one inch and a half in length. This species," it is added, " is called Chouka or Chousinga, while Chickera is applied to either subulata or acuticornis."

Captain Brown states, in the same periodical, that—" The Shikara, a small antelope yet undescribed, is found in Humana; both sexes have horns, of a slender form without rings, and about eight inches in length; the animal is about half the site of the common Antelope [A. Cervicapra.] There is another Antelope also found in Humana, with slightly compressed horns, having rings, bending backward, and ten inches is length : both these species being unknown to naturalists." The latter is perhapi Gazella Christii, and the former doubtless identical with "an elegant small-tiled Antelope, with horns in the females, numerous about Delhi;" as noticed by another observer in the same work.

These diminutive Antelopes of India are greatly in need of elucidation. In tse Royal College of Surgeons, London, there exists a frontlet from this country, to which Prof. Blainville has assigned the name of Ant. subulata, and a single horn of another species, which he has designated A. acuticornis. These are described is Colonel Hamilton Smith's valuable treatise on the Ruminantia, published in the 4th volume of Griffith's English edition of Cuvier's 'Animal Kingdom,' and I possess original drawings of both specimens, which 1 shall take an opportunity of publishing in the Society's Journal.

Bos Gaurus.—The specimen prepared for mounting, as noticed in my last monthly Report to the Society, has since arrived, in a condition sufficiently uninjured to reuder it probable that we shall be able to set it up,—an undertaking which is now in progress.* The only portions injured are the forehead, which unfortunately has been partly denuded of its hair, and the back of the neck, which latter will however not be very observable in the staffed specimen. If we succeed to my anticipations in mounting this enormous animal, it will certainly forma highly attractive object in the Society's Museum, and it will be the first example of the species which has been thus set up in any collection, as our skeleton of the same beast is likewise the first, and I believe still the only one, that any institution can boast of. Our late Honorary Curator, Dr. Evans, took with him, however, two skeletons of female Gaours to England, but had not succeeded in disposing of them when I left that country.

Sfmis pentadactyla, Lin.: a specimen remarkable fur the unusual degree to which its hard scales have been worn down, probably from the narrowness of the rocky crevice that may be supposed to have led to its customary retreat, as those of the croup are thus ground away to the greatest extent. Moreover, the animal had lost one of its hind limbs, in consequence of which part of the weight of its body fell on the corresponding side of the tail, so that the series of lateral caudal scales on that side are so much rubbed away, that a sectional view of them is exhibited, wherein the expanded inferior surface no longer exists, and the apical point of each scale is considerably above and extends laterally beyond the side-angle. The general colour of this specimen is browner, or less glaucous, than is usual in the species.

Our Museum contains two other strongly characterized species of (presumed) Oriental Pangolin, of which one is, I suspect, undescribed.

For a long while, two species only were generally recognised of this genus,—the Long-tailed and Short-tailed Pangolins, or Manis tetradactyla and At. pentadactyla, Auctorum, which Cuvier was the first to refer distinctly to the continents of Asia and Africa respectively. The judicious Pennant, however, in the last edition of his 1 Quadrupeds,' referred to an animal killed in Tranquebar, as described and figured in the 60th Volume of the 'Philosophical Transactions,' as probably representing a distinct species, which I think there can be no reasonable doubt of. M. Desmoulins has also described one, in his ' Mammalogie,' as M. Javanica: and the Cape species has been distinguished by Mr. Smuts, in the 'South African Journal,' as M. Temsince more fully described and compared with its then known congeners by the late accomplished Secretary to the Zoological Society, Mr. Bennett, in the 'Proceedings of the Zoological Society', 1834, 81. Mr. Hodgson, next, described the Nepalese species as distinct from the currently admitted Indian one, by the appellation Af. nuritus, in the Journal of this Society, V. "234; but it is clear that he misapprehended the meaning of the description of the Indian species in Griffith's Catalogue, where the expression "eleven longitudinal series" of scales is intended to signify the central and successive lateral ranges, counting obliquely down each side of the body. The identification of Mr. Hodgson's alleged species with the ordinary Short-tailed Pangolin, Auctorum, has already been announced by Mr. Ogilby, in the Zoological Memoir annexed to Dr. Royle's 'Illustrations of the Botany, &c. of the Himalaya

'And which has succeeded beyond expectation.—E. B.

Mountains'. Unquestionably, it is the species described as Manis pentadactyla is Shaw's ' Zoology,' I. 81, and it is as clearly the Manis Indica, v. pentadactyla, Lin. of M. Lesson, in the Diet. Class. d'Hist. Nat., where the following synonyms are appended; M. brachyura, Erxl., It. macroura, Desm., and M. crassicaudata, Geoffrey: but the "Pangolin" of Buffon (.Hist. Nat., X. 187, pi. XXXIV), as distinguished from his" Phattagen," is obviously a distinct species from any now recognised; and the passage which that illustrious naturalist quotes from the traveller Desnurchais, and which has been copied by every subsequent writer on this genus, descriptive of a species called Quogelo by the Negroes of Guinea, which is said to attain to eight feet in length, of which the tail measures four, very clearly denotes another species of Pangolin as yet unknown to modern cultivators of Zoology. The differences of Buffon's "Pangolin" from the ordinary species of this country, is noticed in the first volume of the ' Asiatic Researches' (p. 376), where a figure is given of the Indian animal, and there is a notice of its anatomy in the second volume of the same work (p. 353), but containing no details elucidative of specific distinctions. Dr. Cantor informs me, that the geographic range of this species extends eastward to Chusan; and Pennant quotes Dahlman (in Act. Stockh. 1749, 265), noting its existence in China, where it is termed Chin Chian Seick, and also mentions its occurrence in Formosa. In Assam I have been informed that there are Pangolins of very large sire, in all probability a distinct species: and from the same region a still more interesting species of edentate animal may be looked for by zoologists.

With these preparatory observations, I now proceed to notice a species which appears, so far as I can find, to be undescribed; but I regret to add that I have been unable to learn its native locality. It approaches very near to the "Phattagen" of Buffon, or Long-tailed Pangolin of Africa, but has the tail considerably lea* elongated than in that species, though more so than in any other known to systematic Zoologr. I shall designate it Manis leptura. Length of the specimen thirty-nine inches, of which the tail measures eighteen, and the head four; on each foot are five clans, the innermost on the fore-feet minute: although considerably larger than two specimens before me, which I refer to At. Javanica, the claws on its fore-feet are smaller and more curved, while those on the hinder are longer: in (presumed) Javanica, the middle fore-claw, though worn at the tip, measures fully an inch and three-quarters, and lie next externally one inch and three-eighths; whereas the corresponding measuremenu in the new species are one inch three-eighths, and one inch: but on the hind foot, the middle claw of Javanica scarcely exceeds three-quarters of of an inch, and the next aternally is under five-eighths of an inch; while in the new species these measure, respectively, an inch and a quarter, and one inch: following out the comparison, the head of leptura is considerably more slender and elongated, measuring two inches and threeeighths from eye to snout, and having no trace of ear-conch; in Javanica there a i distinct ear-conch, and the distance from eye to snout is but an inch and five-eighths; the animal, however, being considerably smaller, though not in that proportion. In Javanica, the scales upon every part are comparatively uniform in sixe, and there it M abruptly marked difference of dimensions between those of the head and neck; in the new species, as in pentadactyla, those of the head are very much smaller: in the former, the lateral scales of the body are strongly carinated, while in the latter they are but very slightly so indeed: the scales on the fore-limbs are much smaller, more nume

roiu, and differently disposed, in the new species from what they are in Javanica, appearing as hexagons instead of lying in quincunx order; on the hind-limbs the same diversity exists, but is less strongly marked. Protruding from beneath every scale of Javanica are seven or eight conspicuous bristles; while in leptura one or two only can be discerned here and there, scarcely more than in pentadactyla. The number of series of scales consists in leptura of nineteen, and in Javanica of seventeen; the central row from the occiput to the tail-tip of the former consists of fifty-three, to which may be added ten upon the head. Lastly, the under-parts are less hispid in Upturn than in Javanica, and the tail is both narrower and longer. The general colour of the scales in leptura is deep rufous-brown, while those of Javanica are blackish-brown, and of pentadactyla whitish or glaucous-brown. In the specimen now presented, however, of the latter, as before remarked, the colour of the scales is darker and less glaucous than usual.*

• Since the above was written, the extremely interesting account of the ordinary Indian Pangolin, by Lieutenant Tickell, has appeared in the Journal (ante, p. 221, tt icq.), and the analogies presented by this animal and the Great Anteater (Myrmecophaga jubata) of South America, of which to interesting a notice has been published by M. Schomburgk, {P. Z. S. 1839, 24,) are worthy of being studied.

The retension of the feces was observed in both instances; and M. Schomburgh supplies us with a bint as to what food the Pangolin may not improbably be maintained upon in captivity. Of an adult Ifgrmecophaga, he writes: "It began to feed on the third day ; we gave it ants and farina; the latter, a preparation of cassada root, it never refused. The ants nests in the neighbourhood were soon exhausted, and more by way of experiment than out of persuasion that the animal would eat it, some small pieces of fresh beef were placed before it; to our greatest astonishment it ate the meat with avidity, and has since been chiefly fed on fresh beef and fish. We observed that in the coarse of three weeks it evacuated only twice, and then very copiously ; this was likewise the case with the young one; and before I noticed the same circumstance with the adult, I thought its death was partly caused by constipation." So, likewise, in Lieutenant Tickell's Pangolin, after it had fasted several days, "there was a quantity of the remains of ants in its stomach, and the rectum was full of faeces."

The Mprmecophaga " secretes a liquid substance, transparent like water, which drops almost constantly out of its nostrils and mouth; this is the more remarkable, as it used very little water." It does not appear that the same was noticed of the Pangolin.

The prodigious strength of both animals is sufficiently attested by the osseous and muscular ran formations subservient to its display.

Both raise themselves on the hind legs to reconnoitre ; but the Myrmecophaga exhibits the more usual structure having reference to this habit, as it possesses plantigrade hind-soles; while the wtightines* of the tail may be inferred to afford considerable aid to the Pangolin in enabling it to maintain those remarkable attitudes observed by Lieutenant Tickell. While the latter creature, however, would appear to be wholly incapable of active defence, the former rises on its haunches, and strikes with the sharp claws of one of its fore-feet at its enemy, while the other remains pendent, and only in cases of great danger throws itself on its back, and strikes with both fore-feet, or embraces with its fatal hug. The little two-toed Anteater has likewise been observed to defend itself by striking with one of its fore-limbs.

The very curious little animal last noticed has been ascertained to feed on the nymphs of arboreal Hymmoplera, which it seizes with great address by means of its nipper-like fore-claws; and 31. Schomburgh relates, of the Great Anteater, that—" It attempted frequently to take up objects with its paws; in which manoeuvre its long claws assisted wonderfully. • * • It climbed up the palings of its pen with great agility, never using both of its arms at a time, but first one and then the other; and if it had taken hold sufficiently with its claws, it raised the whole body, and brought up the hind-feet We may conclude from this fact upon the strength of the muscles of its fore-limbs. The great muscle of the arm, of one which we dissected, was two inches wide, and three-eighths of an inch thick.

Among the specimens procured in the neighbourhood, I shall only notice Pachysoma marginatum, which I find is of common occurrence in this vicinity.


Lieutenant Tickell's Birds consist of 120 specimens, which are referrible to eigbiy. one species, twenty-seven of which are new to the Society's M useum, and have enabled me to identify many of those described by Major Franklin and Colonel Sykes, (in the ' Proceedings of the Zoological Society' for 1831 and 1832.) I distinguish scca as are new to our Museum by an asterisk.

Palaornis Alexandrinus: female.

P. torguatus, ditto.

Falco luggur, Jcrdon, ditto.

F. tinnunculus.

Aquila Vindhiana* Franklin, P. Z. S., 1831, 114.

* Spvcatut (Vieillot) alboyularis, Tickell; genus Nisiietus, Hodgson, J A. S., V". 228. Length twenty-two inches, or rather more, of wing from bend sixteen inches, and tail ten inches; bill over curve (including cere) one inch and three-quarters to forehead, and one inch and five-eighths from point of upper mandible to gape; ttrw three inches, and feathered to the toes. General colour of the upper parts black, with a shade of brown; the nuchal feathers white at base, and the occipital prolonged to form a crest two inches and a half in length: throat, fore-neck, and breast pure white, the sides of the last having a narrow black central streak to each feather: belij, flanks, under tail-coverts, fore-part of the under-surface of the wings, and plumage of the legs, deep rufous, darkest on the lengthened tibial feathers, and streaked longitudinally with black on the sides, the posterior feathers of which (under the wing) are wholly dusky-black; rest of the wing albescent underneath, the terminal portion of the primaries, beyond the emargination of their inner vanes, barred inferiorly with black, and chiefly on the inner vanes, the outer but very faintly so; and tail brownish above, the central feathers darkest, and albescent like the wings on its under-surface, whits

"I have already remarked how fond the young one was of climbing, and this, coupled with via* I have just now related, makes me not doubt that, if circumstances should require it, they efcal trees in the wild state with the same agility.''

The mode of walking upon the knuckles, with the claws bent upwards and inwards to the leg, a common to both genera, though confined to the fore-feet in Afynnrcophaga, whereof the treoetast claws are however better protected, being received into a groove, while a callous pad projects s> increase the surface upon which the animal treads. The fossil genera Megatherium, Jiegak*v and Ccelodon, would appear to have advanced on the ground in the same manner as their receot albe>~ the Myrmecophaga, being intermediate to these animals and the Sloths, and especially, it weak! seem, approximating the diminutive two-toed Anteater; and as this South American group B represented in the Old World by the Pangolins, which likewise have enormous fossil eonffeaen. so the other great American group of Armadilloes, with their huge fossil allies (the Hoplopken*. Lund, vel. Glyptodon, Owen, &c), is represented in Africa by Oryeteropue; and who shall st?. when the fossil treasures of that grand continent shall have been exhumed, what mighty craarcra of the paat bearing that affinity to tite existing Oryeteropue, which the giant Pangolins and hart Edentata buried in other continents do to their existing analogues of the same regions, may or re more glory in the light, to uphold the classic fame of Africa as the " land of monsters ■

* I regret to add that this and several other specimens hare since been utterly destroyed sr the Dermeelet, their skins not having been poisoned, while other and poisoned skins teat were with them have totally escaped injury.—E. B.

« 이전계속 »