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iier soakage of the waters, which give fertility to their borders, as by the effect of wind in carrying and depositing sand, and so producing barrenness over tracts which before owned a fertile soil. With every allowance, however, for a more favorable condition of the countries traversed than they now exhibit, we shall yet find in the inarches of Alexander a celerity of movement, and a promptitude of resource in difficulties of all kinds, of which it is much to be regretted, that his historians have sot given more full details for instruction at this day.

H. T. P.

Proceedings of the Asiatic Society.

(Friday Evening, 10th June, 1842.,)

The Honourable H. T. Piiinsep, Esq. President, in the Chair.

G. C. Cheap, Esq. proposed at the last Meeting, was ballotted for and duly elected a Member of the Society.

Ordered—That the usual communication of his election be made to Mr. Cheap, and that he be furnished with the rules of the Society for his guidance.

Library.

The following Books were presented:—

Bookt received for the Library of the Asiatic Society for the Meeting on the loth June, 1842. The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine and Journal of

Science. 3rd series, vol. xix. No. 127, and vol. xx. No. 128. List of the Members of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

1841, pamph.

Lassen, Zeitschrift fur die Kunde des Morgenlandes. Bd. iv. Heft. 1.

The Calcutta Literary Gleaner June, 1842. Vol. 1st, No. 4, two copies.

The Calcutta Christian Observer. New series, vol. iii. No. 30, June 1842, pamph.

Journal des Savants. Paris, Octobre 1841.

Transactions of the Zoological Society of London, 1841. Vol. ii. Part 5th.

Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, 1840. Part 8th.

The Annals and Magazine of Natural History. Jan. 1842, No. 52, vol. xiii. pamph.

Yarrell's History of British Birds. London, 1841. Vol. iii. Part 28th, pamph. Macpherson's Keport upon the Khonds of the Districts of Ganjam and Cuttack.

Calcutta, 1842. Report on the Settlement of the District of Seharanpore, compiled by E. Thornton.

October 184U. Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopoedia, Natural Philosophy, London, 1841. Vol. 1st. Wilson's Introduction to the Grammar of the Sanscrit Language. London, 18U,

1 vol.

Bulletin de la Socie'te' de Geographic 3rd Sene. Paris, 1841, Tome xv.

Read the following report submitted by the Librarian, respecting the arrangement

of Antiquities in the Museum:—

To H. Tobbkns, Esq.

Secretary, Asiatic Society. Sir,

I beg to submit to the Society the following report respecting the arrangement of the antiquities.

During the last three months I have had charge of this department of the Museum. and it has been my constant endeavour to identify the specimens, and place the collections in order.

The accompanying list which is to form the first part of the Catalogue, contains the arrangement and description of the antiquities and idols in metal and wood, and of the smaller ones in stone.

However, as little had been done to preserve the identity of the antiquities, no regular register kept, specifying the particulars, and giving a detailed description of tie respective donations, in order to enable the Society to judge on the correctness of tie catalogue, 1 hope, they will excuse me, if 1 trouble them with a statement of the reasons, which guided me respecting the identifying of the specimens.

I. Nos. 1—5. Five Egyptian idols, four of wood, and one of porcelain, presented by Lieut. Young, December, 1837, ascertained by the name of the donor, being written upon them.

Nos. 6—15. As. Res. Vol. XIV. Appd. p. 3. is mentioned a small collection of metal and porcelain images, presented by Capt. Bidwell, and as there is no other collection of this kind, we must suppose this to be the same that is mentioned in toe Researches.

II. No. 16. A copper figure dug up near Bushire, donor Capt. J. HenneL As. Journal, Vol. v. p. 241, identified by a drawing, given in the Journal.

III. Nos. 17—23. Seven brass and copper Images, presented by R. Home, Esq. hi. Res. Vol. XII. Appd. p. 23.

Among the number of these Images.a Sesha Naga is mentioned, resting on a tortoise, and as there is only one of that peculiar situation in the collection, it undoubtedly is tie same. On examining this figure, I discovered in the inside of the pedestal a cypher, made with white oil colour, and by this means 1 found out the other specimens, whies had on the very same place, cyphers of the same colour, and the same hand writing■

IV. Nos. '24—38. Fifteen brass Images from Patna and Allahabad, presented by Dr. Tytler, As. Res. Vol. XIV. Appd. p. 3; they had labels upon them, conUminf the name of the donor, and of the locality.

All of them refer to Shiva, and eight of them have a special allusion to the worshipping of the Lingam in different forms, generally Shiva, or Parvati, or both of them adoring this symbol. I must not omit mentioning, that one of them, a Shiva Lingam, worshipped by Gonesha, Nandi, Kartika. and Sesha Naga, has the crescent and the sun added, as so many more symbols of this worship.

That it is Shiva, however, who is represented in those images, and not another deity, as some at first would suppose, is evident from the trident and crescent being in all the images, though sometimes in a shape and in places which are not apparent at the first glance. These representations are singular for the number of their attributes and the rudeness of the style of the workmanship. No others in the collection exhibit the same rudeness of figure; for the different parts of the body can hardly be distinguished. From this, some would suppose them to be of great antiquity; but all these figures may be regarded as symbols which are formed not in a barbarous, but in a civilised age, and their vagueness and rudeness are designed to suggest to the mind of the wurshipper, something indefinite and mysterious in the image which he adores.

V. Nos. 31—67. 1. There are mentioned in the Asiatic Journal, Vol. XVII, p. 368, three brass Images, Lokanatha, Durga-Singhbahni, and Goutamah from Nepaul, presented by S. Bramley, Esq. Two of them bear the name of the donor, and the third, Lokanatha, though the name is wanting, has such a striking resemblance to the Goutamah, that we may safely declare it to be the one mentioned in the Journal. The second Goutamah whom I have put together with them, has also so many characteristics in common, that had there been more than three mentioned in the Journal, I should have felt myself just i tied in assigning it to the same donor.

1. Nos 48, 49, 50. Three ivory idols. I found no references to them in any periodical of the Society. They are evidently made by the same artist. On one of them "Nepal" is written with a pencil, and they are moreover so like those just mentioned, that no doubt of their coming from the same country, can arise.

3. The fourteen images under numbers 53-66, representations of Hindoo deities, workmanship, ornaments, &c. being of the same style, are evidently all from the same place, which supposition is confirmed by the labels annexed to them, which are written by the same hand: but neither the name of the donor nor the locality is written. There are seven other Images without labels; but they so strikingly resemble in every particular those just mentioned, that we may assign to them the same country.

This, I think, is Nepal, for the following reasons :—

a. All of tbem exhibit a very extraordinary similarity with those presented by Mr. Bramley. The Durga Singhbabni, above mentioned, for instance, corresponds in the principal characteristics with a Durga of this group in the form of Durga Mohishmordini; we observe the same dress, the same ornaments, the same kind of pedestal. Though the head-dress in both is somewhat different, yet again the shape of the crowns, with all their particularities, is nearly the same, and in many of the images this similarity is still more striking. To this conclusion we are also led by the similarity which is seen in the formation of the head and expression of the countenance, which is seldom found but among people of the same nation, nay, I should almost say, of the same tribe.

b. The strongest confirmation, however, is derived from the workmanship. It is true, this may be under certain circumstances identic, and the artists still belong to

different countries, if for instance they be of the same school. There ii, however nothing in Hindooism, which suggests the idea of such schools. The sects are too much in enmity with each other, the intercourse of the various countries too limited, and the artists of one place too closely adhering to their old established traditions, to authorise the supposition of a school of art, flourishing at different places. If there be a general coincidence in the workmanship of several specimens of Indian art, we ma; therefore infer on the identity of the country from which they come. Each of these conclusions require some caution, but if all the circumstances from which they are derived, combine, there can certainly be no occasion for doubt, and, on the whole, the principle, that the correspondence in minute and accidental particularities we may observe between a number of specimens of art, constitutes a sufficient reason to ideatify them in one way or another, according to the circumstances, is certainly wellfounded.

c. Another confirmation is their likeness to the three ivory idols, above mentioned. A most remarkable coincidence is especially exhibited between the ivory Durgaia the form of Tara, with another of ten arms, as behind the shoulders of both the same standards, with the same emblems upon them, may be observed.

As. lies. Vol. XV. Appd. p. 16, is recorded, that Lieut C. P. Boileau from Nepaul, presented a great variety of brass images to the Society, so that we may assign the images, just named, to him, as there is no other number of images which bears so evident signs of composing ono and the same collection, or which would prevent us from ascribing them to Nepaul.

VI. As. Hes. Vol XVI. Appd. p. 12, a donation of Images from Arracaa is mentioned, consisting of the following specimens:—

1. A wooden model of Gotama's Temple.

2. Brass model of a Temple, used in the worship of Gotama.

3. A tin statute of Buddha, affording a correct model of some of the Arracan Templet.

4. Antient brass model of a Temple, containing four images of Buddha with Nags or Serpents.

5. A brass Statue of Gotama, with an attendant in an erect posture.

6. A wooden figure of Gotama, gilt and highly ornamented.

7. A ditto ditto, plain and gilt.

All these specimens were found with labels, presenting the name of the donor ud locality. Further,

8. A wooden figure of Gotama, plain and gilt.

9. Two wooden female devotees of Gotama.

10. A wooden image of a female, called wife of Gotama.

11. Thumb of a large image of Gotama, made of solid stone.

12. A white marble statue of Gotama. •

13. An iron figure of Gotama, gilt.

As these specimens on examination were found unique, no doubt could of couiw arise about their identity.

We find at the same place mentioned the following donations by the same Gentleman :—

14. A copper figure of Gotama, highly ornamented.

15. A brass ditto, gilt.

16. A ditto ditto, highly ornamented, and holding a pot with offerings.

17. Four brass statues of Gntama, crowned, and holding offerings.
18 Ten brass figures of Gotama.
19. A stone figure of Gotama.

The first se?en statues were ascertained without difficulty, the short description given of them, being sufficient to discern them among the number of others.

Of the ten Statues of Buddha, I recognise eight from the number 75 to 82 in the list, for the following reasons :—

Three of them are much similar in their ornaments, the shape of their pedestals lo those under numbers 71—74. A striking similarity between them is the manner in which the attendants are placed on the corners of the pedestals, and all of them have the same forward bending position. This circumstance alone suffices for vindicating the placing of them under the same group; for though the same ideal of the representation of Buddha, may be observed with Buddhists of different countries, vet it is obvious from even a small collection of specimens of Buddhist art, made at different plaees, that there is a marked difference between them in little particularities, and such a correspondence being found in a number of specimens, we may safely attribute them to the same country. Moreover, could there be any doubt of this, the similarity in the forms of the face would remove it. If the identity of these three images be granted, we cannot refuse to claim the same decision for the remaining five ; for though the attendants do not accompany them, and the pedestals liiffer, still the national characteristics are too prominent to allow us forming a different opinion. The same holds good with regard to the stone figure.

In concluding this report 1 beg to observe, that many of the Members of the Society undoubtedly have a recollection of the circumstances under which some of the antiquities were laid before the Society, and with regard to those antiquities which arc not yet identified, especially the statues and sculptures, I would request them to favour me with such information, as they are able to give about them.

I have the honour to be,
Sir,

3rd June, 1842. Your obedient Servant,

E. RuEii.

I —Antiquities which have been identified.
A.—Egyptian.

1. Figure of wood.

2. Ditto ditto.

3. Ditto of Porcelain

4. A Head made of clay.

5. A Head made of wood.

Presented by Lieut. Young, (see Jour. As. So'c. Vol. VI. page 987. J 6 to 11. Porcelain figures, with Hieroglyphic characters.

12. A figure of metal, representing Isis with a Horace on her lap.

13. A ditto ditto of wood.

14. A figure of metal.

Presented by Capt. Bidwell, (see As. Researches, Vol. XIV. Appendix p. 3.)

15. A beetle made of plaister, with Hieroglyphic characters.

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