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A damn'd defeat was made. Am I a coward ? Kös. most like a gentleman. Who calls me villain ? breaks my pate across ? Guil. But with much forcing of his disposition. Plucks off my beard, and blows it in my face? Ros. Niggard of question ; but, of our demandim 'Tweaks me by the nose? gives me the lie i' the Most free in his reply." throat,


As deep as to the lungs ? Who does me this ? To any pastime?
Ha !

Ros. Madam, it so fell out, that certain players Wły, I should take it: for it cannot be,

Weo'er-raughtíl on the way : of these we told him But I am pigeon-liver'd, and lack gall

And there did seem in him a kind of joy To make oppression bitter; or, ere this,

To hear of it: They are about the court; I should have fatted all the region kites

And, as I think, they have already order With this slave's offal: Bloody, bawdy villain! This night to play before him. Remorseless, treacherous, lecherous, kindless? Pol.

'Tis most truo villain!

And he beseech'd me to entreat your majesties, Why, what an ass am I? This is most brave; To hear and see the matter. That I, the son of a dear father murder'd,3

King. With all my heart; and it doth much com Prompted to my revenge by heaven and hell, Must, like a whore, unpack my heart with words, To hear him so inclin'd. And fall a cu:sing like a very drab,

Good gentlemen, give him a further edge, A scullion !

And drive his purpose on to these delights. Fie upon':. foh! About my brains !4 Humph! I Ros. We shall, my lord. have heard,

(Exeunt RosENCRANTZ and GUILDENSTERN That guilty creatures, sitting at a play,s


Sweet Gertrude, leave us too Have, by the very cunning of the scene,

For we have closely sent for Hamlet hither ; Been struck so to the soul, that presently

That he, as 'twere by accident, may here They have proclaim'd their malefactions ;

AffrontıOphelia : For murder, though it have no tongue, will speak Her father, and myself (lawful espials, 13) With most miraculous organ. I'll' have these Will so bestow ourselves, that, seeing, unseen, players

of their encounter frankly juciga; Play something like the murder of my father, And gather by him, as he is behav'd, Before mine uncle ; I'll observe his looks;

If't be the affliction of his love, or no, I'll tent him to the quick; if he do blench,

That thus he suffers for. I know my course. The spirit, that I have seen, Queen.

I shall obey you . May be a devil: and the devil hath


And for your part, Ophelia, I do wish, To assume a pleasing shape; yea, and, perhaps,

Thai your good beauties be the happy causo Out of my weakness, and my melancholy,

Of Hamlet's wildness: so shall I hope, your

virtues (As he is very potent with such spirits,)

Will bring him to his wonted way again, Abuses me to damn me: I'll have grounds

To both your honours. More relatives than this : The play's the thing, Oph.

Madam, I wish it may. Wherein I'll catch the conscience of the king,

(Exit Queen. [Exit. Pol. Ophelia, walk you here :-Gracious, so

please you, We svill bestowit ourselves :-Read on this book ;


That show of such an exercise SCENE I. A Room in the Castle. Enter King, Your loneliness.15...We are oft to blame in this,

Queen, Polonius, Ophelia, ROSENCRANTZ, 'Tis too much prov'd, that with devotion's visage, and GUILDENSTERN.

And pious action, we do sugar o'er King. And can you, by no drift of conference'

The devil himself. Get from him why he puts on this confusion ;


0, 'tis too true! how smart Grating so harshly all his days of quiet

A lash that speech doth give my conscience ! With turbulent and dangerous lunacy?

The harlot's cheek, beautied with plast'ring art, Ros. He does confess, he feels himself distracted; | Is not more ugly to the thing that helps it, But from what cause he will by no means speak.

Than is

my deed to my most painted word : Guil. Nor do we find him forward to he sounded; 0, heavy burden !

[Aside. But with a crafty madness, keeps aloof,

Pol. I hear him coming ; let's withdraw, my lord. When we would bring him on to some confession

[Exeunt King and POLONIUS. Of his true state. Queen. Did he receive you


5 A number of instances of the kind are collected by

Thomas Heywood in his Apology for Actors. I Dofeat here signifies destruction. It was frequently 6 To tent was to probe, to search a wound. used in the sense of undo or take away by our old wri. 7 To blench is to shrink or start. Vide Winter's

Thus Chapman in his Revenge for Honour :- Tale, Act i. Sc. 2. "That he might meantime make a sure defeat 8 i. e. more near, more immediately cornected. The On our good aged father's life.'

first quarto reads, I will have sounder proofs.' 2 Kindless is unnatural.

9 Folio-circumstance. 3 The first folio reads thus:

10 Slow to begin conversation, but free enough in «Oh vengeance!

answering our demands.' Who? What an ass am I? I sure this is most brave, 11 i. e. reached, overtook. That I the sonne of the Deere murthered.'

12 i. e. meet her, encounter her; affrontare, Ital. See The quarto of 1604 omits Oh vengeance, and reads, Winter's Tale, Act v. Sc. 1. a deere murthered. The quarto of 1602, that I the 13. Lawful espials ;' that is lawsul spies. 'An espiall son of my dear father.'

in warres, a scoutwatche, a beholder, a viewer.- Barei 4 It seems extraordinary that Mason and Steevens See King Henry VI. Part I. Act i. Sc. 4. An espy was could ever conceive that there was any allusion here to also in use for a spy. The two words are only found the nautical phrase, about ship. About my brains' is in the folio. nothing more than to work my brains. The common 14 Bestow ourselves' is here used for hide or place phrase, to go about a thing, is not yet obsolete. Fal. ourselves. We have the word in the same sense in a staff humours the equivocal use of the word in The subsequent scene :Merry Wives of Windsor :

-No quips now, Pistol , "Where the dead body is bestow'd, my lord, indeed I am in the waist too yards about; but I am now We cannot get from him. about no waste; I am about thrift. Steevens's quota. We now use stou, One of our old dictionaries mahce tion from Heywood's Iron Age should have taught him a discrimination between the acceptations of this word, bette! :

thus : To bestow, or lay out · to bestow, or give to *My brain about again! for thou hast found bestow, or place.' New projects now to work on.'

lá Quarto--lowliness.

inay colour




Ham. Ha, ha! are you Lonest?
Ham. To be, or not to be, that is the question:- Oph. My lord ?
Whether 'tis nobler in the mind, to suffer

Ham. Are


fair? The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune;

Oph. What means your lordship? Or to take arms against a sea of troubles,

Ham. That if you be honest and fair, your hoAnd, by opposing, end them ?--To die,—to sleep,-nesty should admit no discourse to your beauty." No more ;-and, by a sleep, to say we end

Oph. Could beauty, my lord, have better comThe heart-ach, and the thousand natural shocks merce than with honesty ? That flesh is heir to, --'tis a consummation

Ham. Ay, truly; for the power of beauty will Devoutly to be wish'd. To die ;--to sleep;

sooner transform honesty from what it is to a bawd, To sleep! perchance to dream;--ay, there's the rub; than the force of honesty can translate beauty into For in that sleep, of death what dreams may come, his likeness; this was some time a paradox, but When we have shuffled off this mortal coil, now the time gives it proof. I did love you once. Must give us pause: There's the respect,2

Oph. Indeed, my lord, you made me believe so. That makes calamity of so long life:

Ham. You should not have believed me; for For who would bear the whips and scorns of time, virtue cannot so inoculate our old stock, but ws The oppressor's wrong, the proud man's contumely, shall relish of it: I loved you not. The pangs of despis'd love, the law's delay,

Oph. I was the more deceived. The insolence of office, and the spurns

Ham. Get thee to a nunnery; Why would'st That patient merit of the unworthy takes,

thou be a breeder of sinners? I am myself indifWhen he himself might his quietus make

ferent honest; but yet I could accuse me of such With a bare bodkin ?e who would fardels' bear,

things, that it were better, my mother had not borne To grunts and sweat under a weary life ;

me: I am very proud, revengeful, ambitious; with But that the dread of something after death,-

more offences at my beck, than I have thoughts to The undiscover'd country, from whose bourno

put them in, 's imagination to give them shape, or No traveller returns,-puzzles the will;

time to act them in; What should such fellows as And makes us rather bear those ills we have, I do crawling between earth and heaven! We are Than fly to others that we know not of? .

arrant knaves, all; believe none of us: Go thy Thus conscience does make cowards of us all ;10 ways to a nunnery. Where's your father. And thus the native hue of resolution

Oph. At home, my lord. Is sicklied o'er with the pale cast of thought;

Ham. Let the doors be shut upon him ; that he And enterprizes of great pith" and moment,

may play the fool no wherel6 bui in's own house. With this regard, their currents turn awry,

And lose the name of action.-Soft you, now! Oph. O, help him, you sweet heavens !
The fair Ophelia:-Nymph, in thy orisons13

Ham. If thou dost marry, I'll give thee this Be all my sins remember'd.

plague for thy dowry; Be thou as chaste as ice, as Oph.

Good my lord,

pure as snow, thou shalt not escape calumny. Get How does your honour for this many a day?

thee to a nunnery; farewell:17. Or, if thou wilt Ham. I humbly thank you; well.

needs marry, marry a fool; for wise men know well Oph. My lord, I have remembrances of yours,

enough, what monsters you make of them. To a That I have longed long to re-deliver ;

nunnery, go; and quickly too. Farewell. 1

Oph. Heavenly powers, restore him! pray you, now receive them. Ham.

No, not I;

Ham. I have heard of your paintings18 too, well never gave you aught.

enough; God hath given you one face, and you Oph. My honour'd lord, you know right well, make yourselves another : you jig, you amble, and

you lisp, and nickname God's creatures, and r:#66 And, with them, words of so sweet breath compos'd your wantonness your ignorance ;19 Go'to; I'll no As made the things more rich : their perfume lost,

more of it: it hath made me mad. I Take these again; for to the noble mind,

have no more marriages: those that are married Rich gifts wax poor, when givers prove unkind.

already, all but one, shall live; the rest shall "keep There, my ord.

as they are.
To a nunnery, go.


9 Mr. Douce points out the following passages in Cran. | This mortal coil;' that is, 'the tumult and bustle mer's Bible, which may have been in Shakspeare's of this life.' It is remarkable that under garbuglio, mind :- Afore I goe thither, from ichence I shall not which has the same meaning in Italian as our coil, Florio turne againe, even to the lande of darkness, and sha. has 'a pecke of troubles ;' of which Shakspeare's sea dowe of death ; yea into that darke cloudie lande and of troubles' is only an aggrandized idea.

deadly shadow whereas is no order, but terrible seare as 2 i. e, the consideration. This is Shakspeare's most in the darknesse.-Job, c. x. "The way that I must usual sense of the word.

goe is at hande, but whence I shall not turne againe.'3 Time, for the time, is a very usual expression with Ib. c. xvi. our old writers. Thus in Ben Jonson's Every Man

Weep not for Mortimer, Out of his Humour:

That scorns the world, and as a traveller . Oh, how I hate the monstrousness of time.'

Goes to discover countries yet unknown.' 4 Folio the poor man's contumely.'

Marlowe's King Edward II. 5 The allusion is to the term quietus est, used in 10 I'll not meddle with it,--it makes a man a corpurd' settling accounts at exchequer audits. Thus Webster-King Richard III. Act i. Sc. 4. And again :in his Dutchess of Malfy :

'O coward conscience, how dost thou amict me.' You had the trick in audit time to be sick,

Ib. Act. y. Sc. 3. Till I had sign'd your quietus.'

11 Quartos-pitch.

12 Folio-away. And, more appositely, in Sir Thomas Overbury's char. 13 “This is a touch of nature. Hamlet, at the sight of acter of a Franklin :- Lastly to end him, he cares Ophelia, does not immediately recollect that he is to per not when his end comes; he needs not feare his audit, sonate madness, but makes an address grave and so for his quietus is in heaven.'

lemn, such as the foregoing meditation excited in his 6. Bodkin was the ancient term for a small dagger.' thoughts. Johnson. 7 Packs, burdens.

14 i. e. your honesty should not admit your beauty 8 Though to grunt has been degraded in modern lan- to any discourse with her.' The first quarto reads :guage, it appears to have conveyed no vulgar or low im. Your beauty should admit no discourse to your honesty.' age to the ear of our ancestors, as many quotations from That of 1604 : You should admit no discourse to your the old translations of the classics would show. "Loke beauty.' that the places about thee be so in silence that thy 10 "Than I have thoughts to put them in.' To put a corage and mynde gronte nor groudge nat.' Paynel's thing into thought is 'to think on it.' Translation of Erasmus de Contempt. Mundi. The 16 olio.-way,

17 Folio-Go, farewell. fact seems to be, that to groan and to grunt were con- 18 The folio, for paintings, has pratilings: and for vertible terms. "Swyne wode for love groyneth. --Hor. face has pace. nan's Vulgaria. And Chaucer in The Monk's Tale :-- 19. You mistake by wanton affectation, and pretendo

'But never gront he at no stroke but on.' mistake by ignorance'

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Oph. O, what a noble mind is here o'erthrown! (tatters, to very rags, to split the ears of the groundThe courtier's, soldier's, scholar's eye, tongue, lings :6 who, for the most part, are capable of nosword:

thing, but inexplicable dumb shows, and noise: I The expectancy and rose of the fair state,

would bave such a fellow whipped for o'er-doing The glass of fashion and the mould of form, 20 Termagant;' it out-herods Hered: 'Pray you, The observ'd of all observers ! quite, quite down ! avoid it. And I, of ladies most deject and wretched,

1 Play. I warrant your honour. . That suck'd the honey of his music vows,

Ham. Be not too tame neither, but let your own Now see that noble and most sovereign reason, discretion be your tutor: suit the action to the word, Like sweet bells jangled, out of tunel and harsh; the word to the action: with this special observance, That unmatch'd form and feature of blown youth, that you o'erstep not the modesty of rature : foi Blasted with ecstacy :: 0, wo is me!

any thing so overdone is from the purpose of playa To have seen what I have seen, see what I see! ing, whose end, both at the first, and now, was, and

is, to hold, as 'twere, the mirror up to nature; to Re-enter King and POLONIUS.

show virtue her own feature, scorn her own image, King. Love! his affections do not that way tend ; and the very age and body of the time, his form and Nor what he spake, though it lack'd form a little,

pressure. Now this, overdone, or come tardy off, Was not like madness. There's something in his soul, though it make the unskilful laugh, cannot but

make the judicious grieve; the censure of which And, I do doubt, the hatch, and the disclose,

one, must in your allowance,9 o'erweigh a whole Will be some danger: Which for to prevent, I have, in quick determination,

theatre? Thus set it down; He shall with speed to England, ly,--not to speak it profanely, that, neither having

seen play,--and heard others praise, and that highFor the demand of our neglected tribute :

the accent of Christians, nor the gait of Christian, Haply, the seas, and countries different, With variable objects, shall expel

Pagan, nor man, have so strutted and bellowed,

that I have thought some of nature's journeymen This something-settled matter in his heart; had made men, and not made them well, they imi. Whereon his brains still beating, puts him thus tated humanity so abominably, From fashion of himself. What think you on't ? Pol. It shall do well: But yet, I do believe,

1 Play. I hope we have reformed that indiffer.

ently with us. The origin and commencement of his grief

Ham. O, reform it altogether. And let those Sprung from neglected love.-How now, Ophelia ? that play your clowns, speak no more than is set You need not tell us what lord Hamlet said


down for them : for there be of them, that will We heard it all.-My Lord, do as you please ; themselves laugh, to set on some quantity of barren But, if you hold it fit after the play,

spectators to laugh too; though, in the mean time, Let his queen mother all alone entreat him

some necessary question10 of the play be then to bé fo show his grief; let her be round with him; considered: that's villanous; and shows a most And I'll be plac'd, so please you, in the ear pitiful ambition in the fool that uses it. Go, make Of all their conference: If she find him not,

you ready.

[Exeunt Players. To England send him ; or confine him, where Your wisdom best shall think.


It shall be so: Madness in great ones must not unwatch'd go. How now, my lord ? will the king hear this piece of

[Exeunt, work? SCENE II. A Hall in the same. Enter HAMLET,

Pol. And the queen too, and that presently. and certain Players.

Ham. Bid the players make haste.


Exit POLONICS Ham. Speak the speech, I pray you, as I pro- Will you two help to hasten them? nounced it to you, trippingły on the tongue: but if Both. Ay, my lord. you mouth it, as many of our players do, I had as {Exeunt ROSENCRANTZ; and GUILDENSTERN lief the town crier spoke my lines. Nor do not Ham. What, ho; Horatio! saw the air too much with your hand, thus ; but use

Enter HORATIO. all gently ; for in the very torrent, tempest, and (as I may say) whirlwind of your passion, you must

Hor. Here, sweet lord, at your service. acquire and beget a temperance, that may give it

Ham. Horatio, thou art e'en as just a man smoothness. 0, it offends me to the soul, to hear As e'er my conversation cop'd withal. a robustious periwig-pated fellow tear a passion to standing gentlemen of the ground;" and Shirley, 'grave

understanders.' 20 Speculum consuetudinis. - Cicero. The model by "No shows, no dance, and what you most delight in, whom all endeavoured to form themselves.

Grave understanders, here's no iarget-fighting: 1 Quarto-time.

Sir W. Cornwallis calls the ignorant earthlings. I 2 Ecstasy is alienation of the mind. Vide Tempest, have not been ashamed to adventure mine eares with a Act iii. Sc. 3.

ballad-singer,-the profit to see earthlings satisfied with 3 To disclose was the ancient term for hatching birds such coarse stuffe,' &c.--Essay 15. ed. 1623.

any kind; from the Fr. esclos, and that from the Lat. 7 Termagaunt is the name given in old romances in esclusus. I believe to exclude is now the technical term. the tempestuous god of the Saracens. He is usually Thus in the Boke of St. Albans, ed. 1496 : For to joined with Mahound or Mahomet. Hall mentions him speke of hawkes; Fyrst they ben egges, and afterwarde in his first Satire :-they ben dysclosed hawkys. And.comynly goshawkes Nor fright the reader with the Pagan vaunt ben disclosyd as soono as the choughs.'

of mighty Mahound and great Termagaunt.' 4 See note on Act ii. Sc. 2.

8 Pressure is impression, resemblance. 5. Have you never seen a stalking stamping player, 9 i. e. approval, estimation. Vide King Lear, Act ij that will raise a tempest with his tongue, and thunder Sc. 4. with his heels.-- The Puritan, à Comedy. The first 10 The quarto, 1603, Point in the play then to be 03 quarto has, “I'd rather hear a town-bull bellow, than served. Afterwards is added, 'And then you have some such a fellow speak my lines.!

again that keeps one suit of jests, as a man is known by 6. The first quarto reads, of the ignorant. Our an. one suit of apparel; and gentlemen quotes his jests cient theatres were far from the commodious elegant down in their tables before they come to the play, as structures which later times have seen. The pil was, thus:--Cannot you stay till I eat my porridge ; and truly, what its name denotes, an unfloored space in the you owe me a quarter's wages; and your beer is sour, area of the house, sunk considerably beneath the level and blabbering with his lips : And thus keeping in his of the stage; and, by ancient representations, one may cinque a pace of jests ; when, God knows, the warme iudge that it was necessary to elevate the head very clown cannot make a jest unless by chance, as the blind much to get a view of the performance. Hence this part man catcheth a hare: Masters, tell him of it. This of the audience were called groundlings. Jonson, in the passage was evidently levelled at the particular folly o. Induction to Bartholomew fair, calls them the under. some injudicious player contemporary with the : nei



Hor. (), my dear lorii,

Ham. No, nor mine now My lord,--you played Ham.

Nay, do not think I Aaiter: once in the university, you say?" [To Polonius. For what advancement may I hope from thee, Pol. That did I, my lord ; and was accounted That no revenue hast, but ihy good spirits, . good actor. To feed, and clothe thee? Why should the


be Ham. And what did you enact ? flatter'u ?

Pol. I did enact Julius Cæsar: I was killed i No, let the candied longue lick absurd pomp ; the Capitol ; Brutus killed me.” And crook the pregnant' hinges of the knee, Ham. It was a brute part of him, to kill so capiWhere thrift may follow fawning.

follow fawning. Dost thou hear? tal a calf there.-Be the players ready? Since my dear soul was mistress of her choice, Ros. Ay, my lord; they stay upon your patience. And could of men distinguish her election,

Queen. Come hither, my dear Hamlet, sit by me. She hath seal'd thee for herself: for thou hast been Ham. No, good mother, here's metal more at As one, in suffering all, that suffers nothing;

tractive. A inan, that fortune's buffets and rewards

Pol. O, ho! do you mark that? [To the King Hast ta'en with equal thanks; and bless'd are those, Ham. Lady, shall I lie in your lap? Whose blood and judgment are so well co-mingled, 3

(Lying down at OPHELIA's Feet. That they are not a pipe for fortune's finger

Oph. No, my lord.
To sound what stop she please : Give me that man

Ham. I mean, my head upon your lap?
That is not passion's slave, and I will wear him Oph. Ay, my lord.
In my heart's core, ay, in my heart of heart,

Ham. Do you think, I meant contraryo matters?
As I do thec.—Something too much of this.- Oph. I think nothing, my lord.
There is a play to-night before the king;

Ham. That's a fair thought to lie between maids' One scene of it comes near the circumstance, legs. Which I have told thee of my father's death.

Oph. What is, my lord ? i pr’ythee, when thou seest that act afoot,

Ham. Nothing. Even with the very comment of thy soul

Oph. You are merry, my lord.

uncle: if his occulted guilt

Ham. Who, I?
Do not itself unkennel in one speech,

. , my

lord. It is a damned ghost that we have seen ;

Ham. 0 ! your only jig-maker.'' What should And my imaginations are as foul

a man do, but be merry ? for, look you, how cheerAs Vulcan's stithy. Give him heedful note : fully my mother looks, and my father died within For I mine eyes will rivet to his face ;s

these two hours. And, after, we will both our judgments join

Oph. Nay, 'tis twice two months, my

lord. In censure of his seeming.

Hain. So long? Nay, then let the devil wear Hor.

Well, my lord: black, for I'll have a suit of sables. 1 O, heavens ! If he steal aught, the whilst this play is playing, die two months ago, and not forgotten yet? Then And scape detecting, I will

the theft.

there's hope, a great man's memory may outlive Ham. They are coming to the play; I must be idle: his life half a year: But, by'r-lady, he must build Get you a place.

churches then: or else shall he suffer not thinking Danish March. A Flourish. Enter King, Queen, on, with the hobby-horse;!? whose epitaph is, For, POLONIUS, OPHELIA, ROSENCRANTZ, Guil

O, for, O, the hobby-horse is forgot. DENSTERN, and others.

Trumpets sound. The Dumb Show!3 follows. King. How fares our cousin Hamlet ?

Enter a King and a Queen, very lovingly; the Ham. Excellent, i' faith ; of the chameleon's dish :

Queen embracing him, and he her. She kneels;

and makes show of protestation unto him. I eat the air, promise-crammed; You cannot feed


takes her up, and declines his head capons so.

her neck :

ироп King. I have nothing with this answer, Hamlet;

lays him down upon a bank of flowers ; she, seethese words are not mine.

ing him asleep, leaves him. Anon comes in a

Fellow, takes off his crown, kisses it, and pours 1 Pregnant, quick, ready.

poison in the King's ears, and exit. The Queen 2. According to the doctrine of the four humours, returns : :finds the King dead, and makes pas desire and confidence were seated in the blood, and judgment in the phlegm, and the due mixtures of the 9 This is the reading of the quarto 1603. The quarto humours made a perfect character.'-Johnson.

1604 and the folio 'read country. 3 Quarto, 1604_co-meddled."

10 It may here be added that a jig sometimes signified 4 Vulcan's stithy is Vulcan's workshop or smithy; a spritely dance, as at present. In addition to the ex. slith being an anvil.

amples before given, take the following from Ford's 5 Here the first quarto has :

Love's Sacrifice :O Giacopo ! Petrarch was a dunce, ? And if he do not blench and change at that,

Dante a jig-maker, Sannazar a goose, and Ariosto a It is a damned ghost that we have seen;

puck-first to me.'-Actii. Sc. 2. Horatio, have a care, observe him well.

11 i. e. a dress ornamented with the rich fur of that Hor. My lord, mine eyes shall still be on his face, name, said to be the skin of the sable martin. By the And not the smallest alteration

statute of apparel, 24 Hen. VIII. c. 13, it is ordained that That shall appear in him, but I shall note it.?

none under the degree of an earl may use sables.6i-e. judgment, opinion.

Bishop, in his Blossoms, 1577, speaking of extra. 7 A Latin play on the subject of Cæsar's death was vagance, says, that a thousand ducates were sometimes performed at Christ Church, in Oxford, in 1582. Malone given for a face of sables. But Hamlet meant to use the thinks that there was an English play on the same sub word equivocally. ject, previous to Shakspeare's. Cæsar was killed in 12 The hobby-horse, whose omission in the morris Pompey's portico, and not in the Capitol : but the error | dance is so pathetically lamented in many of our old is at least as old as Chaucer's time.

dramas, in the very words which Hamlet calls his . This Julius to the Capitolie wente

epitaph, was long a distinguished favourite in the May Upon a day, that he was wont to gon,

Games. He was driven fronı his station by the Puritans, And in the Capitolie anon him hente

as an impious and Pagan superstition ; but restored after This false Brutus and his other soon,

the promulgation of the Book of Sports. The hobby. And sticked him with bodekins anon

horse was formed of a pasteboard horse's head, and With many a wound,' &c.

probably a light frame made of wicker-work to form the Chaucer's Monkes Tale, v. 14621. hinder parts; this was fastened round the body of a man, I have cited this passage to show that Chaucer uses and covered with a footcloth, which nearly reached the bodkin for dagger, like Shakspeare.

ground, and concealed the legs of the performer ; who 8 i. e. they wait upon your sufferance or will.'- displayed his antic equestrian skill, and performed Johnson would have changed the word to pleasure; various juggling tricks, wigh-hie-ing or neighing, to the but Shakspeare has again used it in a similar sense in no small delight of the bystanders. The Two Gentlemen of Verona, Act iii. Sc. 1;. 13 This dumb show appears to be superfluous, and Go,

even incongruous; for as the murder is there circum And think my patience more than thy desert stantially represented, the King ought to have been Is privilege for thy departure hence.'

struck with it then, without waiting for the dialogue.


the play:

gone round


nonate action. The Poisoner, with some two or | Such love must needs be treason in my breası, three Mutes, comes in again, seeming to lament In second husband let me be accurst! with her. The dead body is carried away. The None wed the second, but who kill'd the first. Poisoner woos the Queen with gifts ; she seems Ham. That's wormwood. loath and unwilling awhile; but, in the end, ac- P. Queen. The instances,' that second marriage cepts his love.


move, Oph. What means this, my lord?

Are base respects of thrift, but none of lore; Ham. Marry, this is míching malicho ;' it means A second time I kill my husband dead,

When second husband kisses me in bed. mischief. Oph. Belike, this show imports the argument of

P. King. I do believe, you think what now you the play.

speak; Enter Prologue.

But, what we do determine oft we break. Ham. We shall know by this fellow: the players of violent birth, but poor validity:

;* cannot keep counsel; they'll tell all.

Which now, like fruit unripe, sticks on the tree, Oph. Will he tell us what this show meant? Hum. Ay, or any show that you'll show him: Most necessary 'tis, that we forget

But fall, unshaken, when they mellow be. Be not you ashamed to show, he'll not shame to To pay ourselves what to ourselves is debt: tell you what it means.

What to ourselves in passion we propose, Oph. You are naught, you are naught ; I'll mark The passion ending, doth the purpose lose.

The violence of either grief or joy Pro. For us, and for our tragedy,

Their own enactures with themselves destroy Here stuuping to your clemency,

Where joy most revels, grief doth most lament; We beg your hearing patiently. Ham. Is this a prologue, or the posy of a ring ? This world is not for aye ; nor 'tis not strange,

Grief joys, joy grieves, on slender accident. Oph. "Tis brief, my lord,

That even our loves should with our fortunes change; Ham. As woman's love.

For 'tis a question left us yet to prove,
Enter a King and a Queen.

Whether love lead fortune, or else fortune 'cve.
P. King. Full thirty times hath Phoebus' cart The great man down, you mark his favourite ilia;

The poor advanc'd makes friends of enemies.

And hitherto doth love on fortune tend:
Neptune's salt wash, and Tellus' orbed ground;
And thirty dozen moons, with borrow'd sheen,

For who not needs, shall never fack a friend ; About the world have times twelve thirties been

And who in want a hollow friend doth try,

; Since love our hearts, and Hymen did our hands,

Directly seasons!" him his enemy.
Unite commutual in most sacred bands.

But, orderly to end where I begun,-
P. Queen. So many journeys may the sun and Our wills and fates, do so contrary run,

That our devices still are overthrown;
Make us again count o'er, ere love be done!

Our thoughts are ours, their ends none of our own. But, wo is me, you are só sick of late,

So think thou wilt no second husband wed ; So far from cheer, and from your former state,

But die thy thoughts, when thy first lord is dead. That I distrust you. Yet, though I distrust,

P. Queen. Nor earth to me give food, nor heaver Discomfort you, my lord, it nothing must:

light! For women fear too much, even as they love ;4

Sport and repose lock from me, day, and night! And women's fear and love hold quantity;

To desperation turn my trust and hope ! In neither aught, or in extremity.

An anchor'sli cheer in prison be my scope ! Now, what my love is, proof hath made you know; Each opposite, that blanks the face of joy, And as my love is siz'd, my fear is so.

Meet what I would have well, and it destroy ! Where love is great, the littlest doubts are fear;

Both here, and hence, pursue me lasting strife, Where little fears grow great, great love grows there. If, once a widow, ever I be wife!

Ham. If she should break it now, To Oph P. King. 'Faith, I must leave thee, love, and shortly too;

P. King. 'Tis deeply sworn. Sweet, leave me

here a while; My operante powers their functions leave to do; And thou shalt live in this fair world behind, My spirits grow dull, and fain I would beguile Honour'd, belov'd ; and, haply, one as kind

The tedious day with sleep.

[Sleeps. For husband shalt thou.

P. Queen.

Sleep rock thy brain

j P. Queen. 0, confound the rest! And never come mischance between us twain!

(Exit. 1 Miching malicho is lurking mischief, or evil doing. Ham. Madam, how like you this play? To mich, for to skulk, to lurk, was an old English verb Quren. The lady doth protest too much, methinks. in common use in Shakspeare's time; and malicho or malhecho, misdeed, he has borrowed from the Spanish. 4 This line is omited in the folio. There appears to Many stray words of Spanish and Italian were then have been a line omitted in the quarto which should affectedly used in common conversation, as we have have rhymed to this. seen French used in more recent times. The quarto 5 Cleopatra expresses herself much in the same man spells the word mallico. Our ancestors were not parti.ner for the loss of Antony :cular in orthography, and often spelt according to the

our size of sorrow


Proportion'd to our cause, must be as great 2 The conversation with Ophelia, as Steevens re. As that which makes it.' marks, cannot fail to disgust every modern reader. It 6 i. e, active. was, no doubt, such as was current in society in that 7 Instances are motives. See note on King Richard age, which had not yet learnt to throw a veil of decency III. Act iii. Sc. 2. over corrupt manners. Yet still I think that such dis. 8 But thoughts the slave of life.'-King Henry IV. course would not have been put into the mouth of Ham- Part I. let by the poet, had he not meant it to mark the feigned 9. i. e. their own determinations, what they enact. madness of Hamlet the stronger from its inconsistence 10 See note on Act i. Sc. 3. 'This quaint phrase (says with his character as a prince and polished gentleman. Steevens), infests almost every ancient English coni.

3 Cart, car, or chariot, were used indiscriminately for position. Why infests ! Surely it is as forcible and any carriage formerly. Mr. Todd has adduced the fol. intelligible as many other metaphorical expressions lowing passage from the Comical History of Alphonsus, retained in the language. It has been remarked thai. by R. G. 1599 which, he thinks, Shakspeare meant to our ancestors were much better judges of the powers of durlesque :

language than we are. The Latin writers did not scru. 'Thrice ten times Phæbus with his golden beames ple to apply their verb condire in the same manner. Hath compassed the circle of the skie;

11 Anchor's for anchorei's. Thus in Hall's second Thrice ten tinies Ceres hath her workmen hir'd, Satire, b. iv. :And filled her barnes with fruteful crops of corne,

Sit seven years pining in an unchor's cheyre, Since first in priosthcou I did lead my life.

To win some patched shreds of minivere:


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