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ROSENCRANTZ,

5

9

I do repent: But heaven hath pleas'd it so,

ACT IV.
To punish me with this, and this with me;'

SCENE I.
The same.

Enter Kr, Queen That I must be their scourge and minister.

and GUILDENSTERN. I will bestow him, and will answer well The death I gave him. So, again, good night!

King. There's matter in these siglıs; these pro

found heaves : I must be cruel, only to be kind :

You must translate : 'tis fit we understand them: Thus bad begins, and worse remains behind.. But one word more, good lady.

Where is your son ? Queen.

What shall I do? Queen. Bestow this place on us a little while. 1?Ham. Not this, by no means, that I bid you do:

[To ROSENCRANTZ and GUILDENSTERN Let the bloat king tempt you again to bed ;

who go out. Pinch wanton on your cheek; call you, his mouse ;2 Ah, my good lord, what have I seen to-night! And let him, for a pair of reechy: kisses,

King. What, Gertrude? How does Hamlet ? Or padling in your neck with his damn'd fingers,

Queen. Mad as the sea, and wind, when both Make you to ravel all this matter out,

contend 14 That I essentially ain not in madness,

Which is the mightier : In his lawless fit, But mad in craft. 'Twere good, you let him know;

Behind the arras hearing something stir, For who, that's but a queen, fair, sober, wise,

Whips out his rapier, cries, Arat! a rat! Would from a paddock, from a bat, a gib,

And, in this brainish apprehension, kills Such dear concernings hide? who would do so?

The unseen good old man. No, in despite of sense, and secresy,

King.

O, heavy deed ! Unpeg the basket on the house's top,

It had been so with us, had we been there: Let the birds fly; and, like the famous ape,

His liberty is full of threats to all; To try conclusions, in the basket creep,

To you yourself, to us, to every one. And break your own neck down.

Alas! how shall this bloody deed be answer'd ? Queen. Be thou assur'd if words be made of breath, Should have kept, short restrain’d,and out of haunt,"

It will be laid to whose providence
And breath of life, I have no life to breathe
What thou hast said to me."

This mad young man: but, so much was our love

We would not understand what was most fit;
Ham. I must to England ;e you know that?
Queen.

Alack, But, like the owner of a foul disease,
I had forgot ; 'tis so concluded on.

To keep it from divulging, let it feed Ham. (There's letters seal'd: and my two school- Even on the pith of life. Where is he gone ? fellows,

Queen. To draw apart the body he hath kill'd: Whom I will trust, as I will adders fang'd, -

O'er whom his very madness, like some ore, They bear the mandate ; they must sweep my way, Shows itself pure ; he weeps for wnat is done.

Among a minerali6 of metals base,
And marshal me to knavery : Let it work;
For 'tis the sport, to have the engineer

King. O, Gertrude, come away!
Hoist with his own petar:10 and it shall go hard,

The sun no sooner shall the mountains touch, But I will delve one yard below their mines,

But we will ship him hence; and this vile deed And blow them at the moon : 0, 'tis most sweet,

We must, with all our majesty and skill, When in one line two crafts directly meet.

Both countenance and excuse. Ho! Guildenstern! This man shall set me packing.

Enter ROSENCRANTZ and GUILDENSTERN. I'll lug the guts into the neighbour room :11

Friends both, go join you with some further aid : Mother, good night.-Indeed, this counsellor

Hamlet in madness hath Polonius slain,
Is now most still, most secret, and most grave,
Who was in life a foolish prating knave.

9 This and the eight following verses are omitted in Come, sir, to draw toward an end with you :

the folio. Good night, mother.

10 Hoist with his own petur. Hoist for hoised. To (Éveunt severally; Hamlet dragging in hoyse was the old verb. A petar was a kind of mortar POLONIUS.

used to blow up gates.

11 It must be confessed that this is coarse language for \To punish me by making me the instrument of a prince under any circumstances, and such as is not this man's death, and to punish this man by my hand.' called for by the occasion. But Hamlet has purposely

chosen gross expressions and coarse metaphors, 2 Mouse, a term of endearment formerly. Thus Burton, in' his Anatomy of Melancholy :- Pleasant throughout the interview with his mother, perhaps to names may be invented, bird, mouse, lamb, puss, Something may be said in extenuation. The word

make his appeal to her feelings the more forcible. pigeon,' &c.

3 i. e.reeky or fumant; reekant, as Florio calls it. The guts was not anciently so offensive to delicacy as it is at at his intemperance. In Coriolanus we have the reechy Chapman in his version of the sixth Iliad :King has been already called the bloat king, which hints present; the courtly Lyly has used it in his Mydas,

1592 ; Stanyhurst often in his translation of Virgil, and .

- in whose guts the king of men imprest same word, and always applied to any vaporous exha.

His ashen lance, lation, even to the fumes of a dunghill. 4 The hint for Hamlet's feigned madness is taken In short, guts was used where we now use entrails.

12 This line does not appear in the folio, in which from the old Historie of Hamblett already mentioned. 5 For paddock, a toad, see Macbeth, Act i. Sc.1: Guildenstern and Rosencrantz are not brought on the

stage at all. and for gib, a cat, see King Herry IV. Part I. Act i.

13 Quarto-- Ah, mine own lord. Sc. 2.

14 Thus in Lear:6 To try conclusions is to put to proof, or try experi.

he was met een now, See Merchant of Venice, Act ii. Sc. 2. Sir

As mad as the vex'd sea.' John Suckling possibly alludes to the same story in one '15 Out of haunt means out of company. 'Frequentia, of his letters :— It is the story after all of the jacka; a great haunt or company of folk. Thus in Antony napes and the partridges; thou starest after a beauty till

and Cleopatra it be lost to thee, and then let'st out another, and starest

Dido and her Sichæus shall want troops, after that till it is gone too.'

And all the haunt be ours.' 7 The quarto of 1603 has here another remarkable

And in Romeo and Juliet: variation :

We talk here in the public haunt of men. "Hamlet, I vow by that Majesty

16 Shakspeare, with a licence not unusual among his That knows our thoughts and looks into our hearts,

contemporaries, uses ore for gold, and mineral for I will conceal, conselit, and do my best,

mnine. "Bullokar and Blount both define Sor or ore, What stratagem soe'er thou shall devise."

gold; of a golden colour.' And the Cambridge Dic8 The manner in which Hamlet came to know that tionary, 1594, under the Latin word mineralia, will he was to be sent to England is not developed. He ex. show how the English mineral came to be used for a presses surprise when the king mentions it in a future mine. Thus also in The Golden Remaines of Hales of scene; but his design of passing for a madman may Eton, 1693:- Controversies of the times, like spirita in account for this.

ihe minerals, with all their labour pothing is dona.'

ments.

him.

6

And from his mother's closet hath he draggʻd him: This sudden sending him away must seem
Go, seek him out; speak fair, and bring the body Deliberate pause : Diseases, desperate grown,
Into the chapel. I pray you, haste in this. . :

By desperate appliance are relieved,
[Exeunt Ros. and GUIL.

Enter RosENCRANTZ.
Come, Gertrude, we'll call up our wisest friends ;
And let (nem know, both what we mean to do,

Or not at all. How now? what hath befallen? And what's untimely done: (so, haply, slander,

Ros. Where the dead body is bestow'd, my lord, Whose whisper o'er the world's diameter,

Wecannot get from him. As level as the cannon to his blank,

King.

But where is heş Transports his poison'd shot, may miss our name,

Ros. Without, my lord ; guarded, to know you And hit the woundless air.?]-0, come away!

pleasure.
My soul is full of discord, and dismay. [Exeunt. King. Bring him before us.
SCENE II. Another Room in the same. Enter

Ros. Ho, Guildenstern! bring in my lord.
HAMLET.

Enter HAMLET and GUILDENSTERN
Ham. -Safely stowed, [Ros. foc, within.

King. Now, Hamlet, where's Polonius? Hamlet! Lord Hamlet!] But soft !3--what noise ?

Ham. At supper. who calls on Hamlet? O, here they come.

King. At supper? Where? Enter ROSENCRANTZ and GUILDENSTERN. Ham. Not where he eats, but where he is eaten Ros. What have you done, my lord, with the a certain convocation of politic worms are e'en at dead body?

Your worm is your only emperor for diet: wc Ham. Compounded it with dust, whereto 'tis kin. fat all creatures else, to fat us; and we fat ourselves Ros. Tell us where 'tis ; that we may take it for magots; Your fat king, and your

lean beggar, thence,

is but variable service ; two dishes, but to one table; And bear it to the chapel.

that's the end. Ham. Do not believe it.

[King. Alas, alas! Ros. Believe what?

Ham. A man may fish with the worm that hath Ham. That I can keep your counsel, and not eat of a king; and eat of the fish that hath fed of mine own. Besides, to be demanded of a sponge! that worm.] -what replication should be made by the son of a King. What dust thou mean by this? king?

Han. Nothing, but to show you how a king may Ros. Take you me for a sponge, my lord ? go a progressio through the guts of a beggar.

Ham. Ay, sir; that soaks up the king's counte- King. Where is Polonius? nance, his rewards, his authorities. But such offi- Ham. In heaven; send thither to see: if your cers do the king best services in the end : He keeps messenger find him not there, seek him i' the other them, like an ape doth nurs, in the corner of his place yourself

. But, indeed, if you find him not jaw; first mouthed to be last swallowed: When he within this month, you shall nose him as you go up needs what

you

have gleaned, it is but squeezing the stairs into the lobby.. you, and, sponge, you siiall be dry again.

King. Go seek him there. [To some Attendanta. Ros. I understand you not, my lord.

Ham. He will stay till you come. Ham. I am glad of it: A knavish speech sleeps

[Exeunt Attendanis. in a foolish ear.

King. Hamlet, this deed, for thine especial Ros. My lord, you must tell us where the body

safety,is, and go with us to the king.

Which we do tender, as we dearly grieve Ham. The body is with the king, but the king is For that which thou hast done,-must send thee not with the body. The king is a thing.

nence Guil. A thing, my lord ?

With fiery quickness: Therefore prepare thyself; Ham. Of nothing: bring me to him. Hide fox, The bark is ready, and the wind at help, and all after. 8

[Exeunt. The associates tend,?? and every thing is bent SCENE III. Another Room in the same. Enter For England.

Ham.
King, attended.

For England ?
King.

Ay, Hamlet.
King. I have sent to seek him, and to find the

Ham.

Good. body.

King. So is it, if thou know'st our purposes. How dangerous is it, that this man goes loose!

Ham. I see a cherub, that sees them.--But, Yet must not we put the strong law on him: He's lov'd of the distracted multitude,

3 for England! Farewell, dear mother. Who like not in their judgment, but their eyes;

King. Thy loving father, Hamlet. And, where 'tis so, the offender's scourge is weigh’d, and wife ; man and wife is one flesh; and so, my

Ham. My mother; Father and mother is man But never the offence. To bear all smooth and even, mother. 'Come, for England.

[Éxit. 1 The blunk was the mark at which shots or arrows were directed. Thus in The Winter's Tale, Act ii. nothing Johnson would have altered Of nothings to Sc. 3

Or nothing; but Steevens and Farmer, by their superior Out of the blank and level of my aim.'

acquaintance with our elder writers, soon clearly show 2 The passage in brackets is not in the folio. The ed, by several examples, that the text was right. words 'So, haply, slander,' are also omitted in the Ś " Hide fox, and all after.' This was a juvenile quartos; they were supplied by Theobald. The addition sport, most probably what is now called hoop, or hide is supported by a passage in Cymbeline :

and seek; in which one child hides himself, and the No, 'tis slander,

rest run all after, seeking him. The words are not in Whose edge is sharper than the sword, whose tongue

. Out-venoms all the worms of Nile, whose breath 9. Alas, Alas!. This speech and the following one of Rides on the posting winds, and doth bely

Hamlet, are omitted in the folio. All corners of the world,

10 A progress is a journey. Steevens says it alludes 3"But soft,' these two words are not in the folio. to the royal journies of state, always styled progresses.' 4 Here the quarto, 1603, inserts that makes his This was probably in Shakspeare's mind, for the word liberality your storehouse, but,' &c.

was certainly applied to those periodical journeys of the 5. The omission of the words ' doth nuts,' in the old sovereign to visit their noble subjects, but by no means copies, had obscured this passage. Dr. Farmer pro- exclusively. Sir William Drury, in a Letter to Sir posed to read like an ape an apple. The words are Nicholas Throckmorton, among the Conway papers, now supplied from the newly discovered quarto of 1603. tells him he is going a little progresse to be merry 6 'He's but a spunge, and shortly needs must leese, with his neighbours. And that popular book of John His wrong goc juice, when greatness fist shall Bunyan's, The Pilgrim's Progress, is surely not the squeese

account of a regal predatory excursion: His liquor out.

Marston, Sat. vii. 11 i. e. in modern phrase "the wind serves,' or is righ' 7 Hamlet affects obscurity. His meaning may be to aid or help you on your way The king is a body without a kingly soul, a thing-of 12 i. e. attend.

11.

come

the quarto

5

10

pray you?

King. Follow him at foot; tempt him with speed That inward breaks, and shows to cause without aboard ;

Why the man dies.--I humbly thank you, sir, Delay it noi, I'll have him hence to-night;

Cap. God be wi? you, șir. [Exit Captain Away; for every thing is seal'd and done

Ros.

Will't please you go, my lord? That else leans on the affair : Pray you, make haste, Ham. I will be with you straight. Go a little [Exeunt Ros. and Guil.

before.

[Exeunt Ros. and GUIL. And, England, if my love thou hold'st at aught, How all occasions do inform against me, (As my great power thereof may give thee sense; And spur my dull revenge! What is a man, Since yet thy cicatrice looks raw and red

If his chief good, and market” of his time,
After the Danish sword, and thy free awe Be but to sleep and feed? a beast, no more.
Pays homage to us,) thou may'st not coldly set! Sure, he, that made us with such large discourse, .
Our sovereign process; which imports at full, Looking before, and after, gave us not
By letters conjuring to that effect,

That capability and godlike reason
The present death of Hamlet. Do it, England; To fust in us unus'd. Now, whether it be
For like the hectic in mny blood he rages,

Bestial oblivion, or some craveno scruple
And thou must cure me: Till I know 'tis done, Of thinking too precisely on the event,
Howe'er my haps, my joys will ne'er begin.3 A thought, which, quarter'd, hath but one part

[Exit.

wisdom,

And, ever, three parts coward, I do not know SCENE IV. A Plain in Denmark. Enter FOR- Why yet I live to say, This thing's to do: TINBRAS, and Forces, marching.

Sith I have

cause, and will, and strength, and means, For. Go, captain, from me greet the Danish To do't. Examples, gross as earth, exhort me: king;

Witness, this army of such mass and charge,
Tell him, that, by his licence, Fortinbras

Led by a delicate and tender prince;
Claims4 the conveyance of a promis'd march Whose spirit, with divine ambition puff'd,
Over his kingdom.' You know the rendezvous. Makes mouths at the invisible event;
If that his majesty would aught with us,

Exposing what is mortal, and unsure,
We shall express our duty in his eye.

To all that fortune, death, and danger, dare, And let him know so,

Even for an egg-shell. Rightly to be great, Сар. .

I will do't, my lord. Is, not to stir without great argument; For. Go softly on.

But greatly to find quarrel in a straw [Exeunt FORTINBRAS and Forces. When honour's at the stake. How stand I, then,

That have a father kill'd, a mother stain'd,
Enter HAMLET, ROSENCRANTZ, GUILDEN-

Excitements .of my reason, and my blood,"
STERN, foc.

And let all sleep? while, to my shame, I see
[Ham. Good sir, whose powers are these? The imminent death of twenty thousand men,
Cap. They are of Norway, sir.

That, for a fantasy, and trick of fame, Ham.

How purpos’d, sir, Go to their graves like beds : fight for a plot! (

Whereon the numbers cannot try the cause, Cap. Against some part of Poland. Which is not tomb enough, and continent, 12 Ham.

Who To hide the slain ?-0, from this time forth, Commands them, sir?

My thoughts be bloody, or be nothing worth! Cap. The nephew to old Norway, Fortinbras.

[Exit. Ham. Goes it against the main of Poland, sir,

SCENE V. Elsinore. A Room in the Castle. Or for some frontier ?

Enter Queen and HORATIO.
Cap. Truly to speak, sir, and with no addition,

Queen. I will not speak with her.
We go to gain a little patch of ground,
That hath in it no profit but the name.

Hor. She is importunate; indeed, distract;

Her mood will needs be pitied. To pay five ducats, five, I would not farm it;

Queen.

What would she have? Nox will it yield to Norway, or the Pole,

Hor. She speaks much of her father; says, she A ranker rate, should it be sold in fee. Ham. Why, then the Polack never will defend it. There's tricks i' the world; and hems, tad beats her

hears, Cap. Yes, 'tis already garrison'd. Ham. Two thousand souls, and twenty thousand

Spurns enviously13 at straws; speaks things in ducats, Will not debate the question of this straw:

doubt; This is the imposthume of much wealth and

That carry but half sense : her speech is nothing, peace;

Or yelde the til us als creant.' 1 To set formerly meant to estimate. There is no And in Richard Cour de Lion (Weber, vol. ii. p. 203) ellipsis, as Malone supposed. To sette, or tell the

On knees he fel down, and cryde, Creaunt.", pryce; æstimare.? To set much or little by a thing, is it then became cravant, cravent, and at length craven. to estimate it much or little.

It is superfluous to add that recreant is from the same 'I would forget her, but a fever she Reigns in my blood. " Love's Labour's Lost.

Excitements of my reason and my blood.' 3 The folio reads

Provocations which excite both my reason and n.y pas Howe'er my haps, my joys were ne'er begun.' sions to vengeance. 4 The quarto reads-craves.

11 A plot of ground. Thus in The Mirror for Magis. 5 Eye for presence. In the Regulations for the esta trates:blishment of the Queen's Household, 1627:- All such

Of ground to win a plot, a while to dwell, as doe service in the queen's eye.' And in the Esta

We venture lives, and send our souls to hell." blishment of Prince Henry's Household, 1610 :- All 12 Continent means that which comprehends or e.. such as doe service in the prince's eye.' It was the closes. Thus in Lear :formu.ary for the royal presence.

'Rive your concealing continents.' 6 The remainder of this scene is omitted in the folio. And in Chapman's version of the third Iliad :7 j. e. profit.

did take 8 See note on Act i. Sc. 2. It is evident that discursive

Thy fair form for a continent of parts as fair.' powers of mind are meant; or, as Johnson explains it, If there be no fulnesse, then is the continent greater

such „atitude of comprehension, such power of review. than the content. --Bacon's Advancement of Learning, ing the past, and anticipating the future. Since I wrote 1683, p. 7. the former note, I find that Bishop Wilkins makes ratio. 13 Enoy is often used by Shakspeare and his contem ciration and discourse convertible terms. 9 Craven is recreant, cowardly. It may be satisfac. poraries for malice,

spite, or hatred :

(You turn the good we offer into enny." Loriiy traced from crant, creant, the old French word for

King Henry VIII. an act of submission. It is so written in the old metri. See Merchant of Venice, Act iv. Sc. 1. Indeed.encal roniance of Ywaine and Gawaine (Ritson, vol i. p. ciously, and spitefully,' are treated as synonymous by

heart;

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our old writers

1331:

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Then up

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Yet the unshaped use of it doth move

are, but know not what we may be. God be at The hearers to collection ;' they aim? at it, And botch the words up fit to their own thoughts ; King. Conceit upon her father. Which, as her winks and nods, and gestures yield Oph. 'Pray, let us have no words of this; bur them,

when they ask you, what it means, say you this : Indeed, would make one think, there might3 be Good morrow, 'tis Saint Valentine's day thought,

All in the morning betime, Though nothing sure, yet much unhappily.4

And I a muid at your window, Queen. 'Twere good, she were spoken with ; for

To be your Valentine :
she may strew

ир
he
rose,

and don'd his clothes, Dangerous conjectures in ill-breeding minds :

And dupp’d14 the chamber door ; Let her come in,5

(Exit HORATIO.

Let in the maid, that out a maid To my sick soul, as sin's true nature is,

Never departed more. Each toy seems prologue to some great amiss : 6

King. Pretty Ophelia ! So full of artless jealousy is guilt,

Oph. Indeed, without an oath, I'll make an ena It spills itself in fearing to be spilt.

on't : Re-enter Horatio, with Ophelia."

By Gis, and by Saint Charity, Oph. Where is the beauteous majesty of Den

Alack, and fie for shame! mark?

Young men will do't, if they come to't ; Queen. How now, Ophelia ?

By cock, they are to blame.
Oph. How should I your true love know,

Quoth she, before you tumbled me,
From another one ?

You promis'd me to wed :
By his cockle hat and staff,

(He answers.]
And his sandal shoon.

[Singing.

So would I ha' done, by yonder sun,
An thou hadst not come to my

bed.

.
Queen. Alas, sweet lady, what imports this song?
Oph. Say you ? nay; 'pray you, mark.

King. How long hath she been thus?
He is dead and gone, lady, [Sings.

Oph. I hope, all will be well. We must be
He is dead and gone;

patient : but I cannot choose but weep, to think, At his head a grass-green turf

they should lay him i' the cold ground: My brother

shall know of it, and so I thank you for your good At his heels a stone.

counsel. Come, my coach! Good night, ladies i Queen. Nay, but Ophelia,

good night, sweet ladies : good night, good night. Oph. "Pray you, mark.

(Exit. White his shroud as the mountain snow.

King. Follow her close! give her good watch, 1 (Sings. pray you.

[Exit HORATIO Enter King.

0! this is the poison of deep grief; it springs

All from her father's death : And now behold, Queen. Alas, look here, my lord.

0, Gertrude, Gertrude, Oph. Lardedo all with sweet flowers ;

When sorrows come, they come rot single spies,
Which bewept to the gravel" did

go,
But in battalions ! First, her father slain

i
With true love showers.

Next, your son gone; and he most violent author King. How do you, pretty lady?

Of his own just remove: The people muddied, Oph. Well, God'ield" you! They say, the owl Thick and unwholesome in their thoughts and whiswas a baker's daughter !12 Lord, we know what we

pers, | To collection, that is, to gather or deduce conse bly induced our Saviour so transform her into that bird quences from such premises. Thus in Cymbeline, for her wickedness. The story is related to deter chilAct v. Sc. 5:-

dren from illiberal behaviour to the poor. whose containing

13 The old copies read :-
Is so from sense to hardness, that I can

To-morrow 'tis Saint Valentine's day.'
Make no collection of it.'

The emendation was made by Dr. Farmer. The origin See note on that passage.

of the choosing of Valentines has not been clearly de. 2 The quartos readyaron. To aim, is to guess. veloped. Mr. Douce traces it to a Pagan custom of the 3 Folio-would.

same kind during the Lupercalia feasts in honour of 4 Unhappily, that is, mischievously.

Pan and Juno, celebrated in the month of February by 5 The three first lines of this speech are given to Ho the Romans. The anniversary of the good bishop, or ratio in the quarto.

Saint Valentine, happening in this month, the pious 6 Shakspeare is not singular in his use of amiss as a early promoters of Christianity placed this popular cussubstantive. Several instances are adduced by Stee. tom under the patronage of the saint, in order to eradi. vens, and more by Mr. Nares in his Glossary. Each cate the notion of its pagan origin. In France the Va. toy,' is each trifle.

lantin was a moveable feast, celebrated on the first 7 There is no part of this play in its representation Sunday in Lent, which was called the jour des bran. on the stage more pathetic than this scene; which, I sup. dons, because the boys carried about lighted torches on pose, proceeds from the utter insensibility Ophelia has that day. It is very probable that the saint has nothing to her own misfortunes. A great sensibility, or none at to do with the custom; his legend gives no clue to any all, seem to produce the same effects. In the latter such supposition. The popular notion that the birds (case) the audience supply what is wanting, and with choose their mates about this period has its rise in the the former they sympathize.-Sir J. Reynolds. poetical world of fiction.

8 These were the badges of pilgrims. The cockle 14 To dup is to do up, as to don is to do on, to doff to shell was an emblem of their intention to go beyond do off,' &c. Thus in Damon and Pythias, 1582:–The sea. The habit being held sacred, was often assumed as porters are drunk will they not dup the gate to-day » a disguise in love adventures. In The Old Wive's Tale, The phrase probabiy had its origin from doing up or by Peele, 1593:-“I will give thee a palmer's staff of lifting the latch. In the old cant language to dup the ivory, and a scallop shell of beaten gold.'

gyger was to open the door. See Harman's Caveat for 9 Garnished. 10 Quarto-ground.

Cursetors, 1575. Il See Macbeth, Act i. Sc. 6.

15 Saint Charity is found in the Martyrology on the 12 This (says Mr. Douce) is a common tradition in first of August. Romæ passio sanctarum virginum Gloucestershire, and is thus related :— Our Saviour Fidei, Spei, et Charitas, quæ sub Hadriano principe went into a baker's shop where they were baking, and martyriæ coronam adeptæ sunt.' Spenser mentions her asked for some bread to eat. The mistress of the shop in Eclog. v. 225 By gis and by cock are only corrupimmediately put a piece of dough in the oven to bake tions, or rather substitutions, for different forms or for him; but was reprimanded by her daughter, who, imprecation by the sacred name. insisting that the piece of dough was too large, reduced 16 In the quarto 1603 the King says:it to a very small size. The dough, however, imme. Ah, pretty wretch ! this is a change indeed : diately began to swell, and presently became of a most O time, how swiftly runs our joys away? enormous size. Whereupon the baker's daughter cried Content on earth was never certain bred, out. Heugh, heugh, heugh, which owl-like noise proba. To-day we laugh and live, to-morrow dead

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1

trude ;-

For good Polonius' death ; and we have done but Laer. That drop of blood that's caloa, proclaims greenly,

me hastard; in lrugger-mugger2 to inter him: Poor Ophelia Cries, cuckold, to my father ; brands the harlot Divided from herself, and her fair judgment; Even here, between the chąste unsmirched brow Without the which we are pictures, or mere beasts. Of my true mother. Last, and as much containing as all these,

King.

What is the cause, Laertes, Her brother is in secret come from France :

That thy rebellion looks so giant-like? Feeds on his wonder, 3 keeps himself in clouds, Let him go, Gertrude; do not fear our person ; And wants not buzzers to infect his ear

There's such divinity doth hedgelo a king, With pestilent speeches of his father's death; That treason can but peep to what it would, Wherein necessity, of matter beggar'd,

Acts little of his will.--Tell me, Laertes, Will nothing stick our person to arraign

Why thou art thus incens'd ;-Let him go, Gej-
In ear and ear. O, iny dear Gertrude, this,
Like to a murdering piece,4 in many places Speak, man.
Gives me superfluous death! (A noise within. Laer. Where is my father?
Queen
Alack! what noise is this? King.

Dead.
Queen.

But not by him.
Enter a Gentleman.

King. Let him demand his fill. King. Attend.

Laer. How came he dead? I'll not be juggled Where are my Switzers ?6 Let them guard the door :

with : What is the matter ?

To hell, allegiance ! vows, to the blackest devil! Gent.

Save yourself, my lord; Conscience, and grace, to the profoundest pit! The ocean, overpeering of his list,

I dare damnation : To this point I stand, -
Eats not the flats with more impetuous haste, That both the worlds I give to negligence,!!
Than young Laertes, in a riotous head,

Let come what comes; only I'll be reveng'd
O'erbears your officers ! The rabble call him lord; Most thoroughly for my father.
And, as the world were now but to begin,

King.

Who shall stay you? Antiquity forgot, custom not known,

Laer. My will, not all the world's : 'The ratifiers and props of every word,

And, for my means, I'll husband them so well, They cry, Choose we ; Laertes shall be king !" They shall go far with little. Caps, hands, and tongues, applaud it to the clouds,

King.

Good Laertes, Liertes shall be king, Laertes king!

If you desire to know the certainty Qucen. How cheerfully on the false trail they cry! Of your dear father's death, is't writ in your revenge O, this is counter.: vou false Danish dogs.

That, sweepstake, you will draw both friend and foe, King. The doors are broke. [Noise within. Winner and loser? Enter LAERTES, armed; Danes following.

Laer. None but his enemies.

King. Laer. Where is this king ?-Sirs, stand

Will you know them, then? you all

Laer. To his good friends thus wide I'll ope my without.

arms; Danes. No, let's come in. Laer.

I pray you, give me leave. And like the kind life-rendering pelican, Danes. We will, we will.

Repast them with my blood.!?

King.
[They retire without the. Door. Like a good child, and a true gentleman.

Why, now you speak Laer. I thank you :-keep the door.-0, thou vile That I am guiltless of your father's death, king,

And am most sensibly13 in grief for it,
Give me my father.

It shall as level to your judgment pierce's
Queen.
Calmly, good Laertes.

As day does to your eye. 1 Greenly is unskilfully, with inexperience

8 Hounds are said to run counter when they are upon 2 i. e. secretly: Clandestinare, to hide or conceal by a false scent, or hunt it by the heel, running backward stealth, or in hugger mugger.:-Florio.

See Comedy of North's translation of Plutarch :- Antonius, thinking and mistaking the course of the game. that his body should be honourably buried, and not in Errors, Act iv. Sc. 2. hugger mugger.' Pope, offended at this strange phrase,

9 Unsmirched is unsullied, spotless. See Act i. Sc. 3. changed it to private, and was followed by others. following anecdote of Queen Elizabeth as an apposite

10 Quarto 1603_wall. Mr. Boswell has adduced the Upon which Johnson remarks :--- If phraseology is 10 he changed as words grow uncouth by disuse, or gross

illustration of this passage : While her majesty was by vulgarity, the history of every language will be lost :

on the Thames, near Greenwich, a shot was fired by we shall no longer have the words of any author : and accident, which struck the royal barge, and hurt å as these alterations will be often unskilfully, made, we amazed, and all crying Treason, Treason! yet she,

waterman near her. The French ambassador being shall in time have very little of his moaning: 3 The quarto reads :- Keeps on his wonder. The barge, and bade them never fear, for if the shot were

with an undaunted spirit, came to the open place of the folio_Feeds on this wonder. 4 A murdering-piece, or murderer, was a small piece had her presence, and such boldness her heart, that she

made at her, they durst not shoot again : such majesty of artillery; in French meurtriere. It took its name despised fear, and was, as all princes are, or should be, from the loop-holes and embrasures in towers and fortifications, which were so called. The port-holes so full of divine fullness, that guiltie mortalitie durst in the forecastle of a ship were also thus denominated. not behold her but with dazzled eyes.'—Henry Chetlle's des tours et murailles, ainsi appelle, parceque tirant par worlds suffer.:- Macbeth. | Meurtriere, c'est un petit canonniere, comme celles England's Mourning Garment.

11 But let the frame of things disjoint, both the icelle a desceu, ceux auquels on tire sont facilement meurtri.'--Ficot. Visiere meurtriere, a port-hole for

12 The folio reads politician instead of pelican. Thiu a murthering-piece in the forecastle of a ship. Cot. fabulous bird is not unfrequently made use of for purgrave. Case shot, filled with small bullets, nails, old poses of poetical illustration by our elder pnets : Shak. iron, &c. was often used in these inurderers. This speare has again referred to it in King Richard II. and accounts for the raking fire attributed to them in the text,

in King Lear: and in Beaumont and Fletcher's Double Marriage :

• 'Twas this flesh begot these pelican daughters.' I-like a murdering-piece, aims not at me,

In the old play of King Leir, 1605, it is also used, but

in a different sense :But all that stand within the dangerous level. 5 The speech of the queen is omitted in the quartos.

'I am as kind as is the pelican, 6. Switzers, for royal guards. The Swiss were then,

That kills itself to save her young onos' lives.' as since, mercenary soldiers of any nation that could 13 Foliosensible. afford to pay them.

14 Pierce is the reading of the folio. The quarto has. 7 The meaning of this contested passage appears to 'pear, an awkward contraction of appear. I do not me this: The rabble call him Jord; and (as if the see why appear is more intelligible. Indeed as ledc.ie world were now but to begin, as if antiquity were for. here used for direct, Shakspeare's usual meaning a got, and custom were unknown) this rabble, the ratifiers the word, the reading of the quarto, preferred by John and props of every idle word, cry Choose we,' &c. son and Sleavens, is less proper

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