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Ham. Thou dosti lie in'i, to be in't, and say it is Ham. This?

(Takes the Scul thine : 'tis for the dead, not for the quick; there- 1 Clo. E'en that. fore thou liest.

Ham. Alas, poor Yorick!-I knew him, Horatio ; I Clo. "Tis a quick lie, sir ; 'twill away again, a fellow of infinite jest, of most excellent fancy from me to you.

he hath borne me on his back a thousand times Ham. What man dost thou dig it for?

and now, how abhorred in my imagination it is! 1 Clo. For no man, sir.

my gorge rises at it. Here hung those lips, that I Ham. What woman, then?

have kissed I know not how oft. Where be

your 1. Clo. For none neither.

gibes now? your gambols ? your songs? your Ham. Who is to be buried in't?

flashes of merriment, that were wont to set the I Clo. One that was a woman, sir ; but rest her table on a roar ? Not one now, to mock your own mul, she's dead.

grinning ?? quite chap-fallen? Now get you to my Ham. How absolute the knave is! we must speak Tady's chamber, and tell her, let her paint an inch by. the card, or equivocation will undo us. By the thick, to this favour she must come'; make her lord, Horatio, these three years I have taken note langh at that.-—'Prythee, Horatio, tell me one thing. of it; the age is grown so 'picked,3 that the toe of Hor. What's that, my lord ? the peasant comes so near the heel of the courtier, Ham. Dost thou think, Alexander look'do this he galls his kibe.-How long hast thou been a grave fashion i’ the earth ? maker?

Hor. E'en so. 1 Clo. Of all the days i' the year, I came to 't Ham. And smelt so ? pah! that day that our last king Hamlet overcame For

[Throws down the Scul. tinbras.

Hor. E'en so, my lord. Ham. How long's that since ?

Ham. To what base uses we may return, Horatiu! I Clo. Cannot you tell that? every fool can tell Why may not imagination trace the noble dust of that: It was that very day that young Hamlet was Alexander, till he find it stopping a bunghole ? born:5. he that is mad, and sent into England. Hor. 'Twere to consider too curiously, to con

Ham. Ay, marry, why was he sent into England ? sider so.

1 Clo. Why, because he was mad: he shall re- Ham. No, 'faith, not a jot; but to follow him cover his wits there; or, if he do not, 'tis no great thither with modesty enough, and likelihood to lead matter there.

it: As thus; Alexander died, Alexander was Ham. Why?

buried, Alexander returneth to 'dust; the dust is 1 Clo. 'Twill not be seen in him there ; there the earth; of earth we make loam: And why of that men are as mad as he.6

loam; whersto he was converted, might they not Ham. How came he mad?

stop a beer barrel ? 1 Clo. Very strangely, they say.

Imperiouslo Cæsar, dead, and turn'd to clay, Ham. How strangely?

Might stop a hole to keep the wind away: 1 Clo. 'Faith, e'en with Insing his wits.

0, that the earth, which kept the world in awe, Ham. Upon what ground?

Should patch a wall to expel the winter's flaw !í: 1 Clo. Why, here in Denmark; I have been But soft! but soft! aside :--Here comes the king, soxton here, man and boy, thirty years, Ham. How long will a mian lie i'the earth ere he rot? Enter Priests, fc. in Procession ; the Corpse of 1 Clo. 'Faith, if he be not rotten before he die,

OPHELIA, LAERTES, and Mourners, following; (as we have many pocky corses now-a-days, that

King, Queen, their Trains, fc. ,

Theo some eight year, or nine year: a tanner will last And with such maimed rites! This doth betoken, you nine year.

The corse, they follow, did with desperate hand Ham. Why he more than another ?

Fordo12 its own life. 'Twas of some estate 17 I Clo. Why, sir, his hide is so tanned with his Couch we awhile, and mark. trade, that he will keep out water a great while ;

(Retiring with HORATIO. and your water is a sore decayer of your whoreson Laer. What ceremony else? dead body. Here's a scull now hath lain you i' the


That is Laertes, earth three-and-twenty ye

A very noble youth: Mark. Ham. Whose was in years.

Laer. What ceremony else? 1 Clo. A whoreson mad fellow's it was ; Whose 1 Priest.14. Her obsequies have been as far endo you think it was?

larg'd Ham. Nay, I know not.

As we have warranty: Her death was doubtful; i Clo. A pestilence on him for a mad rogue, he And, but that great command o'ersways the order, poured a flagon of Rhenish on my head once, She should in ground unsanctified have lodg'd This same scull, sir, was Yorick's scull, the king's Till the last trumpet; for charitable prayers, jester.

Shards, 15 flints, and pebbles should be thrown on her,

Yet here she is allowed her virgin crants, 16 1 "To speak by the card,' is to speak precisely, by 7 Folio-jeering.

9 Quarto-table. rule, or according to a prescribed course. It is a meta- 9 Favour is countenance, complexion. phor from the seaman's card or chart by which he 10 Imperial is substituted in the folio. Vide Trojlus guides his course.

and Cressida, Activ. Sc. 5. 2 Seven, quarto, 1603.

11 A flaw is a violent gust of wind. See Coriolanus 3 Picked is curious, over nice. Thus in the Cam. Act v. Sc. 3. oridge Dict. 1591:- Conquisitus, exquisite, and picked, 12 To fordo is to undo, to destroy. Thus in Othello : perfite, fine, dainty, curious.' See King John, Act i. Sc. 1.

This is the night 4 Look you, here's a scull hath been here this dozen That either makes me or fordoes me quite.' year, let me see, ay, ever since our last King Hamlet Would to God it might be leful for me to fordoo my slew Fortenbrasse in combat: young Hamlet's father, self, or to make an end of me.-Acolastus, 1529. he that's mad. Quarto of 1603. It will be seen that 13 Estate for rank. Estates was a common term for the poet places this event thirty years ago in the present persons of rank.

See the next note by Sir William Blackstone. Copy:

14 QuartoDoctor. 6. By this scéne, it appears that Hamlet was then

16 Shards, does not only mean fragments of pots and thirty years old, and knew Yorick well, who had been tiles, but rubbish of any kind. Barel has 'shardes of dead twenty-three years. And yet in the beginning of stones, fragmentum lapidis ;' and shardes, or pieces he play he is spoken of as a very young man, one that of stones broken and shattred, rubbel or rubbish of old designed io go back to school, i. e. to the university of houses.' Our version of the Bible has preserved to us Wittenburgh. The poet in the fifth act had forgot what potsherds ; and I have heard bricklayers, in Surrey ne wrote in the first.. Blackstone.

and Sussex, use the compounds tile-sherds, slate. 6 Nimirum insanus paucis videatur; eo quod sherds, &c. Maxima pars hominum morbo jactatur eodem.'. 16 i. é. garlands. Stil. used in most mrthern lan.

Horat. Sat. 3, Lib. ij. guages, but no other example of its use i

ung us has


you see

Her maiden strewments, and the bringing homo Queen. For love of God, forbear him.
Of bell and burial.

Ham. Zounds, show me what thc i'lt do:
Laer. Must there no more be done?

Woo't weep? woo't fight? woo't fast? woo't tear 1 Priest. No more be done!

thyself, We should profane the service of the dead, Woo't drink up esile, eat a crocodile ? To sing a requiem,' and such rest to her

I'll do't.-Dost thou come here to whine? As to peace-parted souls.

To outface me with leaping in her grave? Laer.

Lay her i? the earth ;- Be buried quick with her, and so will I: And from her fair and unpolluted flesh,

And, if thou prate of mountains, let them throw May violets spring !--I tell thee, churlish priest, Millions of acres on us; till our ground, A minist’ring angel shall my sister be,

Singing his pate against the burning zone, When thou liest howling.

Make Ossa like a wart! Nay, an thou'lt mouth, Ham.

What, the fair Ophelia I'll rant as well as thou. Queen. Sweets to the sweet: Farewell!


This is mere madness : [Scattering Flowers And thus awhile the fit will work on him; I hop'd thou shouldst have been my Hamlet's wife ; Anon, as patient as the female dove, I thought, thy bride-bed to have deck'd, sweet maid, When that her golden couplets are disclos’d,4 And not have strew'd thy grave.

His silence will sit drooping.

0, treble wo

Hear you, sir;
Fall ten times treble on that cursed head,

What is the reason that you use me thus? Whose wicked deed thy most ingenious sense I lov'd you ever : But it is no matter; Depriv’d thee of!--Hold off the earth a while, Let Hercules himself do what he may, Till I have caught her once more in mine arms: The cat will mew, the dog will have his day. (Exu

[Iceups into the Grave. King. I pray thee, good Horatio, wait upor Now pile your dust upon the quick and dead;


[Exit HORATIO Till of this flat a mountain you have made

Strengthen your patience in our last night's speech; To o'ertop old Pelion, or the skyish head

[T. LAERtes. Of blue Olympus.

We'll put the matter to the present push.Ham. (Advancing.) What is he, whose grief Good Gertrude, set some watch over your socia: Bears such an emphasis? whose phrase of sorrow This grave shall have a living monument : Conjures the wandering stars, and makes them stand An hour of quiet shortly shall we see ; Like wonder-wounded hearers ? this is I,

Till then, in patience our proceeding be. [Exeunt. Hamlet the Dane.

(Leaps into the Grare. The devil take thy soul !

SCENE II. A Hall in the Castle. Enter HAM

LET and HORATIO. (Grappling with him Ham. Thou pray'st not well.

Ham. So much for this, sir: now shall pry'thee, take thy fingers from thy throat;

the other; For, though I am not splenetive and rash,

You do remember all the circumstance? Yet' have I in me something dangerous,

Hor. Remember it, my lorl! Which let thy wisdom fear: Hold off thy hand. Ham. Sir, in my heart there was a kind of fighting King. Pluck them asunder.

That would not let me sleep: methought, I lay Queen.

Hamlet, Hamlet!

Worse than the mutiness in the bilboes. Rashly, All. Gentlemen,

And prais'd be rashness for it,_Let us know,
Good my lord, be quiet.

. Our indiscretion sometimes serves us well,
[The Attendants part them, and they come When our deep plots do pall:' and that should

out of the Grave. Ham. Why, I will fight with him upon this theme, There's a divinity that shapes our ends, Until my eyelids will no longer wag.

Rough-hew them how we will. Queen. O, my son! what theme?


That is most certain. Ham. I lov?d Ophelia ; forty thousand brothers Ham. Up from my cabin, Could not, with all their quantity of love

My sea-gown scart'd about me, in the dark Make up my sum. What wilt thou do for her?

Grop'd I to find out them: had my desire; King. O, he is mad, Laertes.

Finger'd their packet: and, in fine, withdrew

To mine own room again : making so bold, yet offered itself. It is thought that Shakspeare may have met with the word in some old history of Hamlet, which My fears forgetting manners, to unseal furnished him with his fable. The editor of the first folio Their grand commission; where I found, Horatio, changed this unusual word for rites, a less appropriate A royal knavery; an exact command,word. Warburton boldly substituted chunts, and Mr. Alexander Chalmers affirms that this is the true word.

4 See note on Act ii. Sc. 1. The golden couplets al 1 A requiem is a mass sung for the rest of the soul of ludes to the dove only laying two eggs. The young the dead. So called from the words

nestlings when first disclosed are only covered with a "Requiem æternam dona eis, Domine,' &c. yellow down, and the mother rarely leaves the nest, in part of the service.

consequence of the tenderness of her young. 'e tumulo fortunataque favilla

5 i. e. mutineers. See King John, Act ii. Sc. 2. Nascentur violæ ?,

Persius, Sat. i. 6 The bilboes were bars of iron with fetters annexed 3 The quarto of 1603 reads :-Wilt drink up vessels to them, by which mutinous or disorderly sailors were and instead of Ossa, Oosell. Some of the commentators anciently linked together. The word is derived froti, have supposed that by esill Hamlet means vinegar. Bilboa, in Spain, where implements of iron and steel But surely the strain of exaggeration and rant of the rest were fabricated. To understand Shakspeare's allusion, of the speech requires some more impossible feat than it should be known that as these fetters connected the that of drinking up vinegar. What river, lake, or firth legs of the offenders very closely together. their attempts Shakspeare meant to designate is uncertain, perhaps to rest must be as fruitless as those of Hamlet, in whose the Issel, but the firth of Iyse is nearest to his scene of mind there was a kind of fighting that would not lel action, and near enough in name. What the late editors him sleep. Every motion of one must disturb his part meant by their strange contraction of woul't I know not. ner in confinement. The bilboes are still shown in the Mr. Gifford observes that they appear none of theni to Tower, among the other spoils of the Spanish Armada. have understood the grammatical construction of the 7 To pall was to fade or fall away; to become, as it passage. Woo't or w00to, in the northern counties, is were, dead, or without spirit: from the old French ihe common contraction of wouldst thou, and this is the pasler. Thus in Antony and Cleopatra :reading of the old copies.--This sort of hyperbole Ma. "I'll never follow thy pallid fortunes more.' lore has shown was common with our ancient poets :- 8 Malone has told us that the sea-goron appears 10 . Come, drink up Rhine, Thames, and Meander dry' have been the usual dress of seamen in Shakspeare's

Eastward Hoe, 1609. time; but not a word of what it was like. Esclavine, Else would I set my mouth to Tygris streams, (says Cotgrave,) a sea-gowne, a coarse high-collar'd And drink up overflowing Euphrates.'

and short-sleeved gowne, reaching to the mid-les, and Greene's Orlando Furioso 1599 used mostly by seamer and sailors.'


teach us,


I see



Larded with many several sorts of reasons,

Thrown out his angle for my proper life, Importing Denmark's health, and England's too, And with such cozenage; is't not perfect consience, With, ho! such bugs' and goblins in my life, - To quit him with this arm; and is'i not to be damn'd, That on the supervise, no leisure bated,

To let this canker of our nature come No, not to stay the grinding of the axe,

In further evil? My head should be struck off.

Hor. It must be shortly known to hin from Eng. Is't possible?

land, Ham. Here's the commission; read it at more What is the issue of the business there. leisure.

Ham. It will be short: the interim 13 mine : But wilt thou hear now how I did proceed? And a man's life no more than to say, one. Hor. Ay, 'beseech you.

But I am very sorry, good Horatio, Ham. Being thus benetted round with villaries, That to Laertes I forgot myself; Or3 I could make a prologue to my brains,

For by the image of my cause, They had begun the play ;-I sat me down; The portraiture of his : I'll count his favours: Devis'd a new commission; wrote it fair :

But, sure, the bravery of his grief did put me I once did hold it, as our statists4 do,

Into a towering passion. A baseness to write fair, and labour'd much

Peace: who comes here? How to forget that learning ; but, sir, now

Enter Osric.10 It did me yeoman's service :: Wilt thou know Osr. Your lordship is right welcome back to The effect of what I wrote ?

Denmark. Hor.

Ay, good my lord. Ham. I humbly thank you, sir.-Dost know this Ham. An earnest conjuration from the king, water-fly ?11 As England was his faithful tributary ;

Hor. No, my good lord. As love between them like the palm might flourish ;

Ham. Thy state is the more gracious; for 'tis a As peace should still her wheaten garland wear,

vice to know him: He hath much land and fertile

; And stand a comma 'tween their amities;

let a beast be lord of beasts, and his crib shall And many such like ases of great charge, - stand at the king's mess : 'Tis a chough ; but, as ] That, on ihe view and knowing of these contents, say, spacious in the possession of dirt. Without debatement further, more, or less,

Osr. Sweet lord, if your lordship were at leisure, He should the bearers put to sudden death, I should impart a thing to you from his majesty. Not shriving time allow'd."

Ham. I will receive it, sir, with all diligence of

How was this seal'd ? spirit: Your bonnet to his right use; 'tis for the Ham. Why, even in that was heaven ordinant; head. I had my father's signet in my purse,

Osr. I thank your lordship, 'tis very hot. Which was the model of that Danish seal:

Ham. No, believe me, sir, 'iis very cold : the wind Folded the writ up in form of the other;

is northerly. Subscrib'd it; gave't the impression; plac'd it safely, Osr. It is indifferent cold, my lord, indeed. The changeling never known: Now, the next day Ham. But yet, methinks, it is very sultry and Was our seafight; and what to this was sequent hot; or my complexionThou know'st already.

Osr. Exceedingly, my lord; it is very sultry, 12– Hor. So Guildenstern and Rosencrantz go to't. as 'twere.--I cannot tell how-My lord, his maHam. Why, man, they did make love to this jesty bade me signify to you, that he has laid a great employment;

wager on your head: Sír, this is the matter, They are not near my conscience; their defeat Ham. I beseech


remember Does by their own insinuation grow:

(HAMLET moves him to put on his Hal. 'Tis dangerous, when the baser nature comes Osr Nay, good my lord; for my ease in good Between the pass and fell incensed points faith.13 Sir, here is newly come to court, Laertes : Of mighty opposites.

believe me, an absolute gentleman, full of most exHor. Why, what a king is this ? cellent differences,

cellent differences, 14 of very soft society, and great Ham. Does it not, think thee, stand me now showing: Indeed, to speak feelingly of him, he is

the cardis or, calendar of gentry, for you shall find He that hath kill'd my king, and whor'd my mother; in him the continent16 of what part a gentleman Popp'd in between the election and my hopes;

would see. 1 'With, ho! such hrugs and goblins in my, life.'- 7 Not shriving-time allow'd.' That is, without With such causes of terror arising from my character allowing time for the confession of their sins. and designs.' Bugs were no less terrific than goblins.

S Bèthink thee, does it not become incumbent upon We now call then bugbears.

me to requite him,' &c. Vide note upon King Richard on the supervise, no leisure bated. The | II. Act ii. Sc. 3. This passage and the three following supervise is the looking over; no leisure bated means speeches are not in the quartos. without any abatement or intermission of time.

9'-I'll count his favours.' Rowe changed this 3. Or,' for ere, before. See Tempest, Act i. Sc. 2. to 'I'll court his favour ;' but there is no necessity for

4 Statists are statesmen. Blackstone says, that most change. . Hamlet means, I'll make account of his of our great men of Shakspeare's time wrote very bad favours,' i. e. of his good will ; for this was the general hands; their secretaries very neat ones. This must be meaning of favours in the poet's time. taken with some qualification; for Elizabeth's two most 10 The quarto of 1603—Enter a braggart Gentlepowerful ministers, Leicester and Burleigh, both wrote man.' good hands. It is certain that there were some who did 11 In Troilus and Cressida, Thersites says, 'How the write most wretched scrawls, but probably not from poor world is pestered with such water.flies; dimi. affectation; though it was accounted a mechanical and nutives of nature. The gnats and such like ephemera Fulgar accomplishment to write a fair hand. The worst insects are not inapt emblems of such busy triflers as and most unintelligible scrawls I have met with, are Osric. Sir Richard Sackville's, in Elizabeth's time; and the

e 12 Exceedingly, my

12 Exceedingly, my lord ; 'tis very sultry.' miserable scribbling of Secretary Conway, of whom - igniculum brumæ si tempore poscas James said they had given him a secretary that could Accipit endromidem ; si dexeris æstuo, sudat.' neither write nor read.

Juvenal Yeoman's service I take to be good substantial 13 The folio omits this and the following fourteen service. The ancient yeomen were famous for their speeches; and in their place substitutes, Sir, you are staunch valour in ihe field; and Sir Thomas Smyth not ignorant of what excellence Laertes is at his says, they were 'the stable troop of footmen that affraide weapon.' all France.'

14 i. e. distinguishing excellencies.
stand a comma 'tween
their amities.' This

is 15 " The card or calendar of gentry. The generas Eduly expressed, as Johnson observes : but the meaning preceptor of elegance; the card (chart) by which a appears to be, Stand as a comma, i.e. as a note of con gentleman is to direct his course ; the calendur by which nexion between their amities, to prevent them from he is to order his time. being brought to u period.'

16 You shall find in him the continent of what part a tle, which yet carries them through with the most light 8 Hangers, ihat part of the heli by which the sword and inconsequential judgments ; but if brought to the was suspended.

upon ?8



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Ham. Sir, his definement suffers no perdition in Ham. What call


the carriages? you ;-though, I know, to dırıde him inventorially, Hor. I knew, you must be edified by the mas would dizzy the arithmetic of memory; and yet gent ere you had done. but raw neither, in respect of his quick sail. But Osr. The carriages, sir, are the hangers. in the verity of extolment, I take him to be a soul! Ham. The phrase would be more germanio to the of great article; and his infusion of such dearth matter, if we could carry a cannon by our sides; I and rareness, as, to make true diction of him, his would, it might be hangers till then. But, on: Six semblable is his mirror; and, who else would trace Barbary horses against six French words, their him, his umbrage, nothing more.?

assigns, and three liberal conceited carriages; that's Osr. Your lo ship speaks most infallibly of him. the French bet against the Danish : Why is this

Ham. The concernancy, sir? why do we wrap impawned, as you call it? the gentleman in our more rawer breath?

Osr. The king, sir, hath laid, that in a dozen Osr. Sir ?

passes between yourself and him, he shall not exHor. Is't not possible to understand in another ceed you three hits;" he hath laid on twelve for tongue! You will do't, sir, really.3

nine, and it would come to immediate trial, if your Ham. What imports the nomination of this gen- lordship would vouchsafe the answer. sleman ?

Ham. How, if I answer no? Osr. Of Laertes ?

Osr. I mean, my lord, the opposition of your per Hor. His

purse is empty already; all his golden son in trial. svords are spent.

Ham. Sir, I will walk here in the hall : if it Ham. Of him, sir.

please his majesty, it is the breathing time of day Osr. I know, you are not ignorant

with me: let the foils be brought, the gentleman Ham. I would, you did, sir ; yet, in faith, if you willing, and the king hold his purpose, I will win did, it would not much approve me.-Well, sir. for him, if I can; if not, I will gain nothing but my

Osr. You are not ignorant of what excellence shame, and the odd hits. Laertes is

Osr. Shall I deliver you so? Ham. I dare not confess that, lest I should com- Ham. To this effect, sir ; after what flourish your pare with him in excellence; but, to know a man

to know a man nature will. well, were to know himself.5

Osr. I commend my duty to your lordship. Osr. I mean, sir, for his weapon; but in the

[Ext. imputation laid on him by them, in his' meede he's Ham. Yours, yours.--He does well to commend unfellowed.

it himself; there are no tongues else for's turn. Ham. What's his weapon?

Hor. This lapwing!2 runs away with the shell on Osr. Rapier and dagger..

his head. Ham. That's two of his weapons : but, well. Ham. He did comply13 with his dug, before he

Osr. The king, sir, hath wagered with him six sucked it. Thus has he, (and many more of the Barbary horses : agairıst the which he has impawn- same bevy, 14 that, I know, the drossy age dotes ed, as I take it, six French rapiers and puniards, on,) only got the tune of the time, and outward with their assigns, as girdle, hangers, and so: habit of encounter ;!5 a kind of yesty collection, Three of the carriages, in faith, are very dear to which carries them through and through the most fancy, very responsive to the hilts, most delicate fanned and winnowed opinions ;16 and do but blow carriages, and of very liberal conceit.

them to their trial, the bubbles are out. gentleman wouli see.' You shall find him containing 9 "The margent.' The gloss or commentary in old and comprising eviry quality which a gentleman would books was usually on the margin of the leaf. desire to contemp'ate fior imitation. Perhaps we should 10 i. e. more a kin. “Those that are german to him, read, You shall sind him the continent.'

though fifty times removed, shall come under the hang 1 Dearth, according to Tooke, is the third person man.'-Winter's Tale. singular of the verb to dere; it means some cause which 11 The conditions of the wager are thus given in the dereth, i.e. maketh dear; or hurteth, or doth mischief.' quarto of 1603 :That dearth was, therefore, used for scarcity, as well Marry, sir, that young Laertes in twelve venies as dearness, appears from the following passage in a At rapier and dagger, do not get three odds of you.' MS. petition to the council, by the merchants of London, 12 “This lapwing runs away with the shell on his 6 Edw. VI.: speaking of the causes of the decrness of head.' Horatio means to call Osric a raw, unfledged, , cloth, they say, 'This detriment cometh through the foolish fellow. It was a common comparison for a dearth of wool, the procurers whereof being a few in forward fool. Thus in Meres's Wits Treasury, 1599:number foi tha augmentation of the same.-Conway' As the lapwing runneth away with the shell on her Papers.

head, as soon as she is hatched,' &c. This speech is a ridicule of the Euphuism, or court

"Forward lapwing, jargon of that time.

He flies with the shell on his head.' 3 "Is it not possible to understand in another tongue ?

Vittoria Coromtona. You will do't, sir, really.' This interrogatory remark 13 He did comply with his dug, before he sucked it.' is very obscure. The sense may be, 'Is it not possible for See Act ii. Sc. 2. this fantastic fellow to understand in plainer language? 14 The folio reads, mine more of the same bevy.'You will, however, imitate his jargon admirably, realiy, Mine is evidently a misprint, and more likely for manie sir.' It seems very probable that "another tongue, is (i. e. mang than mine. The quarto of 1604 reads, an ei ror of the press for mother tongue.'

many more of the same breed.' 4. If you did, it would not tend much toward proving 15 Outward habit of encounter is exterior politeness me or confirming me. --What Hamlet would have of address. added we know not; but surely Shakspeare's use of 16 A kind of yesty collection, which carries them the word approve, upon all occasions, is against John through and through the most fanned and winnowed son's explanation of it to recommend to approbation.' opinions,' &c. The folio reads, fond and winnowed. There is no consistency in the commentators; they The corruption of the quarto, prophaned and tren. rarely look at the prevalent sense of a word in the poet, nowed,' is not worth attention; and I have no doubt that but explain it many ways, to suit their own views of the fond in the folio should be funned, formerly spelt fan'd, meaning of a passage.

and sometimes even without the apostrophe. Fanned 5 I dare not confess that, lest I should compare with and winnowed are almost always coupled by old writers, him, &c.! I dare not pretend to know him, lest I should for reasons that may be seen under those words in pretend to an equality: no man can completely know Baret's Alvearie. Só Shakspeare himself, in Troilus another, but hy knowing himself, which is the utmost and Cressida :extent of human wisdom.

Distinction with a broad and powerful fan, 6 Meed & merit. Vide King Henry VI. Part III. Puffing at all, winnows the light away.' Actii. Sc. 1.

The meaning is, 'These men have got the cant of the 7 "Impawned. The folio reads imponed. Pignare, day, a superficial readiness of slight and cursory con. in Italian, signifies both to impawn and to lay a wager. versation, a kind of frothy collection of fashionable pral. The stakes are, indeed, a gage or pledge.

trial by the slightest breath of rational conversation, thu honour ought to be contented with Hamlet's apology. 1 All that passes between Hamlet and this Lord is



as now.

Enter a Lord.'

Sir, in his audience, Lord. My lord, his majesty commended him to Let my disclaiming from a purpos'd evil you by young Osric, who brings back to him, that Free me so far in your most generous thoughts, you attend him in the hall: He sends to know

if That I have shot my arrow vour pleasure hold to play with Laertes, or that ycu And hurt my brother. will take longer time.


I am satisfied in naturo, Ham. I am constant to my purposes, they follow Whose motive, in this case, should stır me most the king's pleasure: if his fitness speaks, mine is To my revenge : but in my terms of honour, ready; now, or whensoever, provided I he so able I stand aloof; and will no reconcilement,

Till by some elder masters, of known honoui, Lord. The king, and queen, and all are coming I have a voice and precedent of peace, down.

To keep my name ungorg'd:6 But till that tinse,

” , Ham. In happy time.

I do receive your offer'd love like love, Lord. The queen desires you, to use some gentle And will not wrong it. entertainment to Laertes, before you fall to play.


I embrace it freely,
Ham. She well instructs me. [Exit Lord. And will this brother's wager frankly play.-
Hor. You will lose this wager, my lord. Give us the foils; come on.
Ham. I do not think so; since he went into Laer.

Come, one for me. France, I have been in continual practice ; I shall Ham. I'll be your foil, Laertes ; in mine ignorano win at the odds. But thou would'st not think, how Your skill shall, like a star i' the darkest night ill all's here about my heart : but it is no matter. Stick fiery off indeed. Hor. Nay, good my lord,


You mock me, sir. Ham. It is but foolery ; but it is such a kind of Ham. No, by this hand. gain-giving, as would, perhaps, trouble a woman. King. Give them the foils, young Osric.-Cousin Hor. If your mind dislike any thing, obey it: I

Hamlet, will forestal their repair hither, and say, you are You know the wager? not fit.


Very well, my lord; Ham. Not a whit, we defy augury; there is a Your grace hath laid the odds” o'the weaker side. special providence in the fall of a sparrow. If it be King. I do not fear it: I have seen you both :now, 'tis not to come; if it be not to come, it will be But since he's better'd, we have therefore odds. now; if it be not now, yet it will come: the readi- Laer. This is too heavy, let, me see another. ness is all : Since no inan, of aught he leaves,

Ham. This likes me well: These foils have all a knows;-what is't to leave betimes. Let be.

length ?

[They prepare to play. Enter King, Queen, LAERTES, Lords, Osric, and

Osr. Ay, my good lord.
Attendants, with Foils, &-c.

KingSet me the stoups of wine upon that

table : King. Cóme, Hamlet, come, and take this hand if Hamlet give the first or second hit,

from me. [The King puts the hand of LAERTEs into that Let all the battlements their ordnance fire:

Or quit in answer of the third exchange, of HAMLET.


And you wrong;

Richer than that which four success we kings et pardon it, as you are a gentleman. L'his presence knows, and you must needs have And let the kettle to the trumpet speak,

In Denmark's crown have worn; Gave me the cups; heard,

The trumpet to the cannoneer without,
How I am punish'd with a sore distraction.
What I have done,

The cannons to the heavens, the heaven to earth,

Now the king drinks to Hamlet.-Come, begin ;That might your nature, honour, and exception,

And you, the judges, bear a wary eye. Roughly awake, I here proclaim was madness.

Ham. Come on, sir. Was't Hamlet wrong'd Laertes? Never, Hamlet:

Laer. Come, my lord. [They play. If Hamlet from himself be ta'en away,


One. And, when he's not himself, does wrong Laertes,


No. Then Hamlet does it not, Hamlet denies it.


Who does it then? His madness: If’t be so,
Hamlet is of the faction that is wrong'd;

Ost. A hit, a very palpable hit.

Well, -- again. His madness is poor Hamlet's enemy. bubbles burst; or, in other words, display their emp, ask advice of older men of the sword, whether artificial

7 The king had wagered six Barbury horses to a few omitted in the folio.

rapiers, poniards, &c.; that is, about twenty to one.2 i. e. misgiving, a giving against, or an internal | These are the odds here meant. The odds the King feeling and prognostic of evil.

means in the next speech were twelve to nine in favour 3. Since no man, of aught he leaves,--knows;- of Hamlet, by Laertes giving him three. What is it to leave betimes ! This is the reading of 8. Stoup is a common word in Scotland at this day, the folio; the quarto reads, 'Since no man has aught and denotes a pewter vessel resembling our wine mea. of what he leaves. What is’t to leave betimes.' Has sures; but of no determinate quantity; for there are is evidenily here a blunder for knows. Johnson thus gallon-stoups, pint-stoups, mutchkin-stoups, &c. The interprets the passage :- Since no man knows aught vessel in which water is fetched or kept is also called a of the state which he leaves, since he cannot judge what waier-stoup. A stoup of wine is therefore equivalent to other years may produce, why should we be afraid of a pitcher of wine. leading life becimes? Warburton's explanation is 9 An union is a precious pearl, remarkable for its very ingenious, but perhaps strains the poet's meaning size. 'And hereupon it is that our dainties and delicates farther than he intended. It is true that by death we here at Rome, &c. call them unions, as a man would lose all the goods of life ; yet seeing this loss is no say singular, and by themselves alone.' To swallow a otherwise an evil than as we are sensible of it; and pearl in a draught seems to have been common to royal since death removes all sense of it, what matters it how and mercantile prodigality. Thus in the second part of soon we lose them. This argument against the fear of 'If You Know Not Me You Know Nobody ::death has been dilated and placed in a very striking Here sixteen thousand pound at one clap goes, light by the late Mr. Green. -See Diary of a Lover of Instead of sugar. Gresham drinks this pearl Literature, Ipswich, 1810, 4to. p. 230.--Shakspeare Unto the queen his mistress." himself has elsewhere said, the sense of death is most According to Rondeletus, pearls were supposed to have in apprehension.'

an exhilarating quality. Uniones quæ a conchis, &c. 4 i. e. the king and queen.

valde cordiale sunt. Under pretence of throwing a 5 This line is not in the quarto.

pearl into the cup, the King may be sunposed to drop 6 i. e. unwounded. This is a piece of satire on fan. some poisonous drug into the wine. Hamlet sub. katical honour. Though nature is satisfied, yet he will sequently asks him tauntingly, 'Is.thie union here -:


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