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King. Stay, give me drink : Hamlet, this pearl Exchange forgiveness with me, noble Hamlet: is thine;
Mine and my father's death come not upon theo ; Here's to thy health. Give him the cup.
Nor thine on me!
[Dies [Trumpets sound; and Cannons shot off within. Ham. Heaven make thee free of it! I follow thee Ham. I'll play this bout first, set it by awhile. I am dead, Horatio :-Wretched
adieu!-.. Come.-Another hit; What say you? [They play. You that look pale and trembl, at this chance, Laer. A touch, a touch, I do confess.
That are but mutes or audience to this act, King. Our son shall win.
Had I but time (as this fell sergeant, death,
He's fat, and scant of breath. Is strict in his arrest,) 0, I could tell you,-
queen carouses' to thy fortune, Hamlet. Thou liv'st; report me and my cause aright Ham. Good madam,
To the unsatisfied.
Never believe it;
As thou’rt a man,Ham. I dare not drink yet, madam; by and by. Give me the cup; let go; by heaven, I'll have it.. Queen. Come, let me wipe thy face.
0, God!-Horatio, what a wounded name, Laer. My lord, I'll hit him now.
Things standing thus unknown, shall live behind me? King.
I do not think it. If thou didst ever hold me in thy heart, Laer. And yet it is almost against my conscience. Absent thee from felicity awhile,
(Aside. And in this harsh world draw thy breath in pain, Ham. Come, for the third, Laertes: You do but To tell my story.dally;
(March afar off, and Shot within. pray you, pass with your best violence;
What warlike noise it this? I am afeard, you make a wanton? of me.
Ost. Young Fortinbras, with conquest come from Laer. Say you so ? come on, [They play.
Poland, Osr. Nothing neither way.
To the ambassadors of England gives Laer. Have at you now,
This warlike volley.
0, I die, Horatio ;
I cannot live to hear the news from England
Part them, they are incens'd. But I do prophesy the election lights Ham. Nay, come again. [The Queen falls. On Fortinbras; he has my dying voice; Osr.
Look to the queen there, ho! So tell him, with the occurrents, more or less, Ilor. They bleed on both sides ;-How is it, my Which have solicited,'—The rest is silence. [ Dies. lord ?
Hor. Now cracks'a noble heart;-Good nights Osr. How is't, Laertes ?
sweet prince; Laer. Why, as a woodcock to mine own springe, And flights of angels sing thee to thy rest! Osric:
Why does the drum come hither? [March uxthin. ( am justly kiil'd with mine own treachery. Ham. How does the queen
Enter FORTINBRAS, the English Ambassadors, King. She swoons to see them bleed.
and others. Queen. No, no, the drink, the drink,-0 my dear Fort. Where is this sight? Hamlet!
What is it, you would see? The drink, the drink;--I am poisond! (Dies. If aught of woe, or wonder, cease your search.
Ham. O villany!-Ho! let the door be lock'd: Fort. This quarry cries on havoc !8_0, proud Treachery! seek it out.
So bloodily hast struck ? The treacherous instrument is in thy hand,
The sight is dismal; Unbated, and erivenom'd: the foul practice And our affairs from England come too late : Hath turn'd itself on me : lo, here I lie,
The ears are senseless, ihat should give us hearing, Never to rise again : Thy mother's poison'd; To tell him, his commandment is fulfillid, I can no more; the king, the king's to blame. That Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are dead : Ham. The point
Where should we have our thanks ? Eavenom'd too !-Then, venom, to thy work.4 Hor.
Not from his mouth, [Stabs the King. Had it the ability of life to thank you; Osr. and Lords. Treason! treason!
He never gave commandment for their death. King. O, yet defend me, friends, I am but hurt. But since, so jump upon this bloody question, Ham. Here, thou incertuous, murd'rous, damned You from the Polack wars, and you from England Dane,
Are here arriv'd; give order, that these bodies Drink off this potion :- 13 the union here? High on a stage be placed to the view; Follow my mother.
(King dic3. And let me speak, to the yet unknowing world, Laer. He is justly serv'd;
How these things came about: So shall you hear It is a poison temper'd by himself.-
Of carnal, bloody, and unnatural acts ;10
1 i. e..the queen drinks to thy good success.
6 To overcrow, is to overcome, to subdue. These 2 i. e. you trifle or play with me as if I were a child.
noblemen laboured with tooth and naile to overcroid, 3 See note on Act iv, Sc. 7.
and consequently to overthrow one another.'-- Holin 4 In the quarto os 1603:
shed's History of Ireland.
7 "The occurrents which have solicited-the occur. "The poison'd instrument within my hand?
rences or incidents which have incited.' The sentence Then venom to thy venom; die, damnd villain :
is left unfinished. Come, drink, here lies thy union here. [King dies.
8 "This quarry cries on havoc! To cry on, was to Ý A sergeant was a bailiff or sheriff's officer. Shak. exclaim ugainsi. I suppose when unfair sportsmen speare, in his 74th Sonnet, has likened death to an ar. destroyed more game than was reasonable, the censure rest:
was to call it havoc.--Johnson. when that fell arrest, Without all bail shall carry me away.'
Quarry was the term used for a heap of slaughtered
game. See Macbeth, Act iv. Sc. 3. And Joshua Silvester, in his Dubartas :
9 It has been already observed that jump and just, And death, sergeant of the eterng' Judge, or exactly, are synonymous. Vide note on Act i. Sc. 1 Comes very late,' &c
10 'Of carnal, bloody, and unnatural acts:
Uf accidental judginer ts, casual slaughters; Be wary of his presence, lest that he of deaths put on' by cunning, and forc'd cause ;
Fail in that he goes about. And, in this upshot, purposes mistook
Hor. Madam, never make doubt of that Fallon on the inventors' heads: all this can I
I think by this the news be come to court
He is arriv'd: observe the king, and you shall
Quickly find, Hamlet being here,
Things fell not to his mind.
Queen. But what became of Gilderstone and Room For me, with sorrow, I embrace my fortune;
sencraft? I have some rights of memory in this kingdom,
Hor. He being set ashore, they went for England. Which now to claim my vantage doth invite me.
And in the packet there writ down that doom Hor. Of that I shall have also cause to speak,
To be perform'd on them 'pointed for him: And from his mouth whose voice will draw on more; So all was done without discovery.
And by great chance he had his father's seal, But let this same be presently perform’d,
Queen. Thanks be to Heaven for blessing of the Even while men's minds are wild; lest more mis
Horatio, once again I take my leave, On plots and errors, happen.
With thousand mother's blessings to my son. Fort.
Let four captains
Hor. Madam, adieu ! Bear Hamlet, like a soldier, to the stage ;
IF the dramas of Shakspeare were to be characterised, For he was likely, had he been put on, To have prov'd most royally: and, for his passage, it from the rest, we must allow to the tragedy of Ham.
each by the particular excellence which distinguishes The soldier's music, and the rites of war,
let the praise of variety. The incidents are so numo Speak loudly for him.--
rous, that the argument of the play would make a Take up the bodies :--Such a sight as this
long tale. The scenes are interchangeably diversified Becomes the field, but here shows much amiss. with merriment and solemnity : with merriment that Go, bid the soldiers shoot. [A dead March. includes judicious and instructive observations; ana
[Exeunt, bearing off the dead Bodies ; after solemnity not strained by poetical violence above the which, a Peal of Ordnance is shot off.
from time to time in continual succession, exhibiting various forms of life and particular modes of conver
sation. The pretended madness of Hamlet causes The following scene in the first quarto, 1603, differs much mirth, the mournful distraction of Ophelia fills w materially from the revised play, that it has been the heart with tenderness, and every personage pro thought it would not be unacceptable to the reader :
duces the effect intended, from the apparition that in Enter Horatio and the Queen.
the first Act chills the blood with horror, to the fop in
the last, that exposes affectation to just contempt. Hor. Madam, your son is safe arrived in Denmarke, This letter I even now receiv'd of him,
The conduct is perhaps not wholly secure against Whereas he writes how he escap'd the danger,
objections. The action is indeed for the most part in And subtle treason that the king had plotted,
continual progression ; but there are some scenes Being crossed by the contention of the winds,
which neither forward nor retard it. Of the feigned He found the packet sent to the king of England,
madness of Hamlet there appears no adequate cause ; Wherein he saw himself betray'd to death,
for he does nothing which he might not have done As at his next conversion with your grace
with the reputation of sanity. He plays the madman He will relate the circumstance at full.
most when he treats Ophelia with so much rudeness Queen. Then I perceive there's treason in his looks, which seems to be useless and wanton cruelty. That seem'd to sugar o'er his villanies :
Hamlet is, through the whole piece, rather an in. But I will sooth and please him for a time,
strument than an agent. After he has, by the strata For murderous minds are always jealous;
gem of the play, convicted the King, he makes no But know not you, Horatio, where he is ?
attempt to punish him ; and his death is at last effected Hor. Yes, madam, and he hath appointed me
by an incident which Hamlet had no part in producing. To meet him on the east side of the city
The catastrophe is not very happily produced ; the To-morrow morning.
exchange of weapons is rather an expedient of néces. Queen. O fail not, good Horatio, and withal com.sity, than a stroke of art. A scheme might easily be mend me
formed to kill Hamlet with the dagger, and Laertes
with the bowl. A mother's care to him, bid him a while
The poet is accused of having shown little regard to
poetical justice, and may be charged with equal neyuinary and unnatural acts, to which the perpetrator glect of poetical probability. The apparition left the was instigated by concupiscence or "carnal stings.' regions of the dead to little purpose; the revenge which The allusion is to the murder of old Hamlet by his bro. he demands is not obtained, but by the death of his ther, previous to his incestuous union with Gertrude. that was required to take it; and the gratification whic
1 i. e, instigated, produced. Instead of forced would arise from the destruction of an usurper and , cause,' the quartos read, for no cause.'
murderer, is abated by the untimely death of Ophelia 2 i. e. some rights which are remembered in this the young, the beautiful, the harmless, and the pious kingdom.
OTHELLO, THE MOOR OF VENICE.
PRELIMINARY REMARKS. THE story is taken from the collection of Novels, by The History of the famous Euordanus, Prince of Den
Gio Giraldi Cinthio, entitled Hecatommithi, being mark; with the strange Adventures of lago, Prince of the seventh novel of the third decad. No English | Saxonie, 410, 1605. It may indeed be urged, that these translation of so early a date as the age of Shakspeare names were adoptel from the tragedy before us : bilt has hitherto been discovered: but the work was trans.every reader who is conversant with the peculiar style lated into French by Gabriel Chappuys, Paris, 1534. and method in which the work of honest John Rey The version is not a faithful one: and Dr. Farmer nolds is composed, will acquit him of the slightest suspects that through this medium the novel came familiarity with the scenes of Shakspeare -Steedens. . into English.
The time of this play may be ascertained from the The name of Othello may have been suggested by following circumstances :--Selymus the Second formed some tale which has escaped our researches, as it oc. his design against Cyprus in 1569, and took it in 1571 curs in Reynold's God's Revenge against Adultery, This was the only attempt the Turks ever made upor: standing in one of his arguments as follows:- She that island after it came into the hands of the Vene marries Othello, an old German soldier.' This history tians, (which was in 1473,) wherefore the time must (the eighth) is professed to be an Italian one; and here fall in with some part of that interval We learn from also the name of lago occurs. It is likewise found in the play, that there was a junctior of the Turkish fleet at Rhodes 11 order for the invasion of Cyprus; that note to this play, would compare it to a picture from it first came sailing towards Cyprus ; then went to the school of Raphael. Poetry is certainly the pabu. Rhodes, there met another squadron, and then re. lum of art; and this drama, as every other of our im sumed its way to Cyprus. These are real historical mortal bard, offers a series of pictures to the imagina facts, which happened when Mustapha, Selymus's tion of such varied hues, that artists of every schoo, general, attacked Cyprus, in May, 1570; which is might from hence be furnished with subjects. What therefore the true period of this performance.-See Schlegel means to say appears to be, that it abounds in Knolle's History of the Turks, p. 838, 846, 867.--Reed. strongly contrasted scenes, but that gloom predominates.
The first edition of this play, of which we have any Much has been written on the subject of this drania : certain knowledge, was printed by N. O. for Thomas and there has been some difference of opinion in reWalkly, to whom it was entered on the Stationers' gard to the rank in which it deserves to be placeri. Books, October 6, 1621. The most material variations For my own part I should not hesitate to place it on of this copy from the first folio are pointed out in the the first. Perhaps this preference may arise from the notes. The minute differences are so numerous, that circumstance of the domestic nature of its action, which to have specified them would only have fatigued the lays a stronger hold upon our sympathy; for over reader. Walkly's Preface will follow these Prelimi. powering as is the pathos of Lear, or the interest ex nary Remarks.
cited by Macbeth, it comes less near to the business o Malone first placed the date of the composition of life. this play in 1611, upon the ground of the allusion, sup. In strong contrast of character, in delineation of the posed by Warburton, to the creation of the order of workings of passion in the human breast, in manifes baronets. [See Act 'ili. Sc. 4, note.) On the same tations of profound knowledge of the inmost recesses ground Mr. Chalmers attributed it to 1614; and Dr. of the heart, this drama exceeds all that has ever Drake assigned the middle period of 1612. But this issued from inortal pen. It is indeed true that no allusion being controverted, Malone subsequently af. eloquence is capable of painting the overwhelming fixed to it the date of 1604, because, as he asserts, catastrophe in Othello,—the pressure of feelings which
we know it was acted in that year. He has not measure out in a moment the abysses of eternity.' stated the evidence for this decisive fact; and Mr. Bos. well was unable to discover it
his papers; but gives full credit to it, on the ground that Mr. Malone WALKLY'S PREFACE TO OTHELLO, never expressed himself at random. The allusion to Pliny, translated by Philemon Holland, in 1601, in the
ED. 1622, 4to. simile of the Pontic Sea; and the supposed imitation of a passage in Cornwallis's Essays, of the same date, referred to in the note cited above, seem to have influ. THE STATIONER TO THE READER. enced Mr. Malone in settling the date of this play. To set forth a booke without an Epistle, were like What is more certain is, that it was played before King James at court, in 1613; which circumstance is to the old English proverbe, ' A blew coat without a gathered from the MSS. of Vertue the Engraver.
badge;' and the author being dead, I thought good 'If (says Schlegel) Romeo and Juliet shines with to take that piece of worke upon me: To commend the colours of the dawn of morning, but a dawn whose it, I will not; for that which is good, I hope every purple clouds already announce the thunder of a sul. | man will commend without intreaty: and I am the iry day, Othello is, on the other hand, a strongly, bolder, because the Author's name is sufficient to shaded picture; we might call it a tragical Rembrandt.' Bhould these parallels between pictorial representa
vent his worke. Thus leaving every one to the con and dramatic poetry be admitted,---for I have my liberty of judgment, I have ventured to print this douics of their propriety,--this is a far more judicious play, and leave it the generall censure. Yours, kucription than that of Steevens, who, in a concluding
DUSE of VENICE.
Clown, Servant to Othello.
DESDEMONA, Daughter to Brabantio, and Wife to
EMILIA, Wife to Iago.
BIANCA, a Courtesan, Mistress to Cassio.
Officers, Gentlemen, Messengers, Musicians, SaiRODERIGO, a Venetian Gentleman.
lors, Attendants, &c. MONTANO, Othello's Predecessor in the Government SCENE, for the first Act, in Venice ; during the of Cyprus.
rest of the Play, at a Seaport in Cyprus.
Iago. Despise me, if I do not. Three great ones
of the city, SCENE I. Venice. A Street. Enter Rode- In personal suit to make me his lieutenant, RIGO and Iago.
Oft capp'd' to him ;-and, by the faith of man, Roderigo.
I know my price, I'am worth no worse a place:
But he, as loving his own pride and purposes, T:'NÆ, never tell me, I take it much unkindly, T.40 thou, lago,-who hast had my purse,
Evades them, with a bombast circumstance, 2 A of the strings were thine,--should'st know of this. Horribly stuff?d with epithets of war; iago. 'Sblood, but you will not hear me:-
And, in conclusion, nonsuits If ever I did dream of such a matter,
My mediators ; for, certes, says he,
I have already chose my officer.
Forsooth, a great arithmetician,
One Michael Cassio, a Florentine, 1 To cap is to salute by takie off the cap: it is stil! A follow almost damn'd in a fair wife ; 4 an academic phrase. The folio Teails, Of-capp'il.' 2 Circumstance signifies circumloculion.
4 The folio reads, dambd. This passage has given . And therefore without circumstance, to the point, rise to much discussion. Mr. Tyrwhilt thought that we Instruct me what I am ?
should read, almost damn'd in a fair wife;' alluding to The Picture, by Massinger. the judgment denounced in the Gospel against those o. 8 lago means to represent Cassio as a man merely whom all men speak well.'. I should he contented to conversant with civil matters, and who know no more adopt his emendation, but with a different interpre. of a sqadron than the number of men it contained. Hctation :- A fellow almost damnd (i. c. lost from afterwards calls him 'this counter-castor.'
Juxilioue habite) in the serene or equable ichor rot