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* Clif. Why, what a brood of traitors have we Clif. The first I warrant thee, if dreams prove here!

true. * York. Look in a glass, and call thy image so; ' ' War. You were best to go to bed, and dreare *I am thy king, and thou a false-heart traitor.

again, Call hither to the stake my two brave bears,' To keep thee from the tempest of the field. * That, with the very shaking of their chains, Clif. I am resolv'd to bear a greater storm, * They may astonish these fell lurking curs; Than any thou canst conjure up to-day; * Bid Salisbury, and Warwick, come to me.

And that I'll write upon ihy burgonet,

Might I but know thee by thy household badge. Drums. Enter WARWICK and SALISBURY, with War. Now, by my father's badge, old Nevil's Forces.

crest, Clif. Are these thy bears ? we'll bait thy bears

| The rampant bear chain'd to the ragged staff, to death,

This day I'll wear aloft my burgonet, 3 And manacle the bearward in their chains,

(As on a mountain top the cedar shows, • If thou dar'st bring them to the baiting-place.

That keeps his leaves in spite of any storm, * Rich. Oft have I seen a hot o'erweening cur

Even to affright thee with the view thereof. * Run back and bite, because he was withheld;

Clif. And from thy burgonet I'll rend thy bear, * Who, being suffer'd with the bear's fell paw,

And tread it under foot with all contempt, * Hath clapp'd his tail between his legs, and cried : 'Despight the bearward that protects the bear. * And such a piece of service will you do,

Y. Člif. And so to arms, victorious father, * If you oppose yourselves to match Lord'Warwick.' To quell the rebels, and their 'complices. **Clif. Hence, heap of wrath, foul indigested

Rich. Fye! charity, for shame! speak not in spite, lump,

For you shall sup with Jesu Christ to-night. * As crooked in thy manners as thy shape!

Y. Clif. Foul stigmatic, 4 that's more than thou * York. Nay, we shall heat you thoroughly anon.

canst tell. * Clif. Take heed, les: by your heat you burn |

Rich. If not in heaven, you'll surely sup in hell. yourselves.

[Exeunt severally. * K. řen. Why, Wa'mick, hath thy knee forgot SCENE II. Saint Albans. Alarums: Excurto bow?"

sions. Enter WARWICĄ. * Old Salisbury,--shame to thy silver hair, . \ War. Clifford of Cumberland, 'tis Warwick calls! * Thou mad misleader of thy brain-sick son!

| And if thou dost not hide thee from the bear, * What, wilt thou on thy death-bed play the ruffian, Now, when the angry trumpet sounds alarm, * And seek for sorrow with thy spectacles?

And dead men's cries do fill the empty air, * 0, where is faith? O, where is loyalty ?

Clifford, I say, come forth and fight with me! * If it be banish'd from the frosty head,

Proud northern lord, Clifford of Cumberland, * Where shall it find a harbour in the earth?

Warwick is hoarse with calling thee to arms. * Wilt thou go dig a grave to find out war, * And shame thine honourable age with blood ?

Enter YORK. * Why art thou old, and want'st experience ? • How now, my noble lord? what, all a-foot? * Or wherefore dost abuse it, if thou hast it?

York. The deadly-handed Clifford slew osy * For shame! in duty bend ihy knee to me,

steed; * That bows unto the grave with mickle age. . But match to match I have encounter'd him, * Sal. My lord, I have consider'd with myself

16 And made a prey for carrion kites and crows * The title of this most renowned duk

Even of the bonny beast he lov'd so well.5 * And in my conscience do repute his grace

Enter CLIFFORD. * The rightful heir to England's royal seat.

War. Of one or both of us the time is come. * K. Hen. Hast thou not sworn allegiance unto

York. Hold, Warwick, seek thee out some other

a ' me?

chase, * Sal. I have. * K. Hen. Canst thou dispense with heaven for

For I myself must hunt this deer to death.. such an oath?

War. Then, nobly, York; 'tis for a crown thou

fight'st * Sal. It is great sin, to swear unto a sin;

As I intend, Clifford, to thrive to-day, * But greater sin, to keep a sinful oath.

It grieves my soul to leave thee massail'd!. *Who can be bound by any solemn vow

Exit WARWICK. * To do a murderous deed, to rob a man,

Clif. What seest thou in me, York? why dost * To force a spotless virgin's chastity,

thou pause ? * To reave the orphan of his patrimony,

* York. With thy brave bearing should I be in * To wring the widow from her custom'd right;

love, * And have no other reason for this wrong, * But that he was bound by a solemn oath?

But that thou art so fast mine enenıy.

Clif. Nor should thy prowess want praise and * 6. Mar. A subtle traitor needs no sophister.

esteem, K. Hen. Call Buckingham, and bid him arma

'' But that 'tis shown ignobły, and in treason.

Dost himself.

York. So let it help me now against thy sword, • York. Call Buckingham, and all the friends thou

As I in justice and true right express it ! hast,

Clif. My soul and body on the action both:' I am resolv'd for death or dignity.

" York. A dreadful lay! Zaddress thee instantly.

[They fight, and CLIFFORD falls.

• Clif. La fin couronne les oeuvres. (Dies.. | The Nevils, earls of Warwick, had a bear and rag-Iged staff for their crest.

ö In the old play: 2 Bear-baiting was not only a popular but a royal en. "The bonniest gray, that e'er was bred in north.' tertainment in the poet's time. See Stowe's account of 6 This passage will remind the classical reader os Queen Elizabeth's amusements of this kind, or Lane- Achilles' conduct in the twenty-second Iliad, v. 205, ham's Letter concerning the entertainments at Kenel- where he expresses his determination that Hector worth Castle. Being suffer'd to approach the bear's should fall by no other hand than his own. fell paw may be the meaning, but it is probable that 7 A dreadful wager; a tremendous stake. suffer'd is used for made to suffer.

8 The author, in making Clifford fall by the hand of Ž A burgonet is a helmet; a Burgundian's steel cap York, has departed from the truth of history, a practice or casque.

not uncommon with him when he does his utmost to 4 One on whom nature has set a mark of deformity, make his characters considerable. This circumstance, a stigma. It was originally and properly 'a person however, serves to prepare the reader or spectator for who had been branded with a hot iron for some crime. I the vengeance afterwards taken by Clifford's son or One notably defamed for naughtiness. See Bullokar's York and Rutland. At the beginning of the third part Expositor, 1616; or Blount's Glossography. 1674. I of ihis drama the poet has forgot this circumstance, and The very list, the very utmost bound 4 i. e. circumspect, cautious.

• Turk. Thus war hath given thee peace, for thou! * K. Hen. Can we outrun .he heavens? good art stiil.

Margaret, stay, Peace with his soul, heaven, if it be thy will ! | * Q. Mar. What are you made of? you'll not

(Exit. I fight, nor fly: Enter Young CLIFFORD.

| * Nor is it manhood, wisdom, and defence, * Y. Clif. Shame and confusion! all is on the / * To give the enemy way: and to secure us rout:

* By what we can, which can no more but fly. * Fear frames disorder, and disorder wounds in

[Alarum afar of * Where, it should guard. O war, thou son of hell, * If you be ta’en, we then should see the bottom * Whom angry heavens do make their minister, * of all our fortunes: but if we haply scape * Throw in the frozen bosoms of our part

* (As well we may, if not through your neglect,) * Hot coals of vengeance! Let no soldier fly: *We shall to London get; where you are lov'd ; * He that is truly dedicate to war,

* And where this breach, now in our fortunes made, * Hath no self-love ; nor he, that loves himself, *May readily be stopp'd. * Hath not essentially, but by circumstance,

Enter Young CLIFFORD. * The name of valour.-0, let the vile world end, * Y. Cliff. But that my heart's on future mischiet [Seeing his dead Father.

set, * And the premised' flames of the last day * I would speak blasphemy ere bid you fly ; * Knit earth and heaven together!

* But fly you must; uncurable discomfit * Now let the general trumpet blow his blast, * Reigns in the hearts of all our present parts. 10 * Particularities and petty sounds

* Away, for your relief! and we will live * To cease!2-Wast thou ordain'd, dear father,

* To see their day, and them our fortune give: * To lose thy youth in peace, and to achieve 3

* Away, my lord, away!

[Exeunt. * The silver livery of advised4 age;

SCENE III. Fields near Saint Albans. Alarum : * And, in thy reverence, and thy chair-days, thus * To die in ruffian battle?-Even at this sight,

Retreat. Flourish ; then enter YORK, RICHARD * My heart is turn'd to stone: and, while 'tis mine,

PLANTAGENET, WARWICK, and Soldiers, with * It shall be stony. York not our old men spares ;

Drum and Colours. * No more will I their babes: tears virginal

" York. Of Salisbury, who can report of him ; * Shall be to me even as the dew to fire ;

* That winter lion, who, in rage forgets * And beauty, that the tyrant oft reclaims,

* Aged contusions and all brush of time ;11 * Shall to my flaming wrath be oil and flax. * And, like a gallant in the brow of youth, 12 * Henceforth I will not have to do with pity: * Repairs him with occasion ? this happy day * Meet I an infant of the house of York,

* Is not itself, nor have we won one fooi, * Into as many gobbets will I cut it,

* If Salisbury be lost. * As wild Medea young Absyrtus did :6


My noble father * In cruelty will I seek out my fame.

( Three times to-day I holp him to his horse, • Come, thou new ruin of old Clifford's house: · Three times bestrid him, 13 thrice I led him oti,

[Taking up the body. L' Persuaded him from any further act: ! As did Æneas old Anchises bear,

But still, where danger was, still there I met him ..So bear I thee upon my manly shoulders : * And like rich hangings in a homely house, * But then Æneas bare a living load,

* So was his will in his old feeble body. * Nothing so heavy as these woes of mine. (Exit. * But, noble as he is, look where he comes. Enter RICHARD PLANTAGENET and SOMERSET,

Enter SALISBURY. fighting, and SOMERSET is killed.

Sal. Now, by my sword, well hast thou fough Rich. So, lie thou there ;

to-day; For underneath an alehouse' paltry sign, | By the mass, so did we all.-I thank you, Richard: The Castle in Saint Albans, Somerset

. God knows, how long it is I have to live ; Hath made the wizard famous in his death."

And it hath pleas'd him, that three times to-day * Sword, hold thy temper; heart, be wrathful still: "You have defended me from imminent death.* Priests pray for enemies, but princes kill. [Exit. * Well, lords, we have not got that which we have;14 llarums: Excursions. Enter King HENRY,

* 'Tis not enough our foes are this time fled, QUEEN MARGARET, and others, retreating.

* Being opposites of such repairing nature. 15

York. I know, our safety is to follow them , 2. Mar. Away, my lord! you are slow ; for · For, as I hear, the king is fled to London, shame, away!

Chronicles represented as accomplishing them: being chere represents Clifford's death as it really hap- delivered in obscure terms, any fortuitous event was the pened :

more readily supposed to verify them. Lord Clifford, and Lord Stafford, all abreast,

3 This line, Steevens observes, may serve to coun Charg'd our main battle's front, and, breaking in tenance his emendation of a passage at the commence. Were by the swords of common soldiers slain.' ment of the third scene, Act iv. of Macbeth, where he These lines were adopted by Shakspeare from The proposed to read 'and wisdom is it to offer,' &c. See True Tragedy of Richard Duke of York, upon which note on that passage. the Third Part.of King Henry VI. is founded.

9 This expression, the bottom of all our fortunes, is 1 Premised is sent before their time. The sense is peculiarly Shakspeare's; he has it in King Henry IV let the flames reserved for the last day be sent now.' Part 1. :2 To cease is to stop, a verb active.

"The very bottom and the soul of hope, . 3 To achieve is to arrive at, or accomplish.

Of all our fortunes. 5 In that period of life which is entitled to command 10 Parts may stand for parties; but I cannot help "everence. Reverenda canities. Shakspeare has used thinking that it is an error for party ; by which, as Mr. the word in the same manner in As You Like It, where Tyrwhitt and Steevens observe, the jingle of hearts and Orlando says to his brother (speaking of their father) parts would be avoided. thou art indeed nearer to his reverence."

11 Warburton would substitute all bruise of time.' 6 When Medea fied with Jason from Colchos, she But, as Steevens observes, the brush of time is the murdered her brother Absyrtus, and cut his body intol gradual detrition of time. several pieces, that her father might be prevented for 12 i. e. the height of youth: the brow of a hill is its some time from pursuing her.

summit. 7 The death of Somerset here accomplishes that 13 That is three times I saw him fallen, and striding equivocal prediction of Jourdain the witch in the first over him defended him till he recovered. act :

14 i. e. we have not secured that which we have ao Let him shun castles :

quired. Safer shall he be upon the sandy plains

15 i. e. being enemies that are likely so soon to rally Than where castles mounted stand."

and recover themselves from this defcat. Torepair, in Such equivocal predictions were much in vogue in early ancient language, was ! renodate, in restore to a former Aines and the fall of many eminent persons is by the condition.

To cali a present court of parliament.

Saint Albans' battle, won by famous York,
Let us pursue him, ere the writs go forth :- Shall be eterniz'd in all age to come.-
What says Lord Warwick ? shall we after them ? Sound, drums and trumpets:--and to London all

War. After them! nay, before them, if we can. And more such days as these to us befall!
Now by my faith, lords, 'twas a glorious day:





VL and

closes with the murder of printed in 1910


THE action of this play opens just after the first battle | duced with the name of Shakspeare on the title payc, 1 of St. Albans [May 23, 1455,] wherein the York printed by T. P. no date, but ascertained to have been faction carried the day; and closes with the murder of printed in 1619. King Henry VI, and the birth of Prince Edward, after. | The present historical drama was altered by Crown, wards King Edward V. [November 4, 1471.] so that and brought on the stage in 1680, under the title of The this history takes in the space of full sixteen years. Miseries of Civil War. Surely the works of Shak.

The title of the old play, which Shakspeare altered speare could have been little read at that period ; for and improved, is The True Tragedie of Richard Duke Crown, in his prologue, declares the play to be entirely of Yorke, and the Death of good King Henry the Sixth: his own composition:with the whole Contention between the Two Houses of Lancaster and Yorke: as it was sundrie times acted by

For by his feeble skill 'tis built alone, the Right Honourable the Earle of Pembroke his Ser:

The divine Shakspeare did not lay one tres vants. Printed at London by P. S. for Thomas Milling. Whereas the very first scene is that of 3:2 ada, ton, and are to be solde at his Shoppe under St Peter's copied almost verbatim from the Second Part o. King Church in Cornewal, 1595," There was another edi. Henry VI. and several others from ihis Third Part, with tion in 1600 by the same publisher: and it was repro. I as little variation..



SIR John MORTIMER, Uncles to the Duke o; EDWARD, Prince of Wales, his Son.

SIR HUGH MORTIMER, S York. Lewis XI. King of France.

HENRY, Earl of Richmond, a Youth. DUKE of SOMERSET,

LORD RIVERS, brother to Lady Grey SIR WILDuke of EXETER,


( Lords on King' SIR JOHN SOMERVILE. Tutor to Rutland. EARL of NorthUMBERLAND, Henry's side. Mayor of York. Lieutenant of the Tower. A EARL of WESTMORELAND

Nobleman. Two Keepers. A Huntsman. A LORD CLIFFORD,

Son that has killed his Father. A Father that has RICHARD PLANTAGENET, Duke of York.

killed his Son. EDWARD, Earl of March, afterwards King Edward IV.


Shis Sons.

LADY GREY, afterwards Queen to Edward IV. GEORGE, afterwards Duke of Clarence, i

BONA, Sister to the French Queen.
Richard, afterwards Duke of Glocester, j
Duke of NORFOLK,

Soldiers, and other Attendants on King Henry and
I of the Duke of York's

King Edward, Messengers, Watchmen, g-c. EARL of WARWICK, EARL of PEMBROKE, r. Party. LORD HASTINGS,

SCENE, during part of the third act, in France ; LORD STAFFORD,

during all the rest of the olan in England.

ACT 1. ,

Whose warlike ears could never brook retreat,

| Cheer'd up the drooping army; and himself, SCENE 1. London. The Parliament House. Is

se: 1 Lord Clifford, and Lord Stafford, all abreast, Drums. Some Soldiers of York's party break in. Charo'd our main battle's front; and, breaking m. Then, enter the Duke of YORK, EDWARD, 5 Were by the swords of common soldiers slain 2 RICHARD, NORFOLK, MONTAGUE, WARWICK,

Edw. Lord Stafford's father, duke of Buckingand others, with white Roses, in their Hats.


Is either slain, or wounded dangerous:
I WONDER, how the king escap'd our hands. I cleft his beaver with a downright blow;
York. While we pursu'd the horsemen of the That this is true, father, behold his blood.

[Showing his bloody Sword, north, He slıly stole away, and left his men:

Mont. And, brother, here's the earl of Wiltshire's Whereat the great lord of Northumberland,


[To YORK, showing his.

Whom I encounter'd as the battles join'd. 1 This play is only divided from the former for the convenience of exhibition ; for the series of action is continued without interruption, nor are any two scenes 2 See the former play, p.256. Shakspeare has fallen of any play more closely connected than the first scene into this inconsistency by following the old plays in of this play with the last of the former. Johnson. I the construction of these dramas


Rich. Speak thou for me, and tell them what I My gracious lord, here in the parliament uid.'

Let us assail the family of York, [Throwing dowin the Duke of SOMERSET'SNorth. Well hast thou spoken, cousin; be it so. Head.

K. Hen. Ah, know you not, the city favours thern * York. Richard hath best deserv'd of all my And they have troops of soldiers at their back? sons.

Exe. "But when the duke is slain, they'll quickly What, is your grace dead, my lord of Somerset ?

fly. Norf. Such hope have all the line of John of K. Hen Far be the thought of this from Henry's Gaunt!

heart, Rich. Thus do I hope to shake King Henry's To make a shambles of the parliament-house! head.

Cousin of Exeter, frowns, words, and threats, War. And so do I.--Victorious prince of York, Shall be the war that Henry means to use.Before I see thee seated in that throne

dvance to the Duke. Which now the house of Lancaster usurps,

Thou factious duke of York, descend my throne, I vow by heaven, these eyes shall never close. And kneel for grace and mercy at my feet: This is the palace of the fearful king,

(I am thy sovereign. . And this the regal seat: possess it, York:


Thou art deceiv’d, I am shine. For this is thine, and not King Henry's heirs’, Exe. For shame, come down; he made thee duke York. Assist me then, sweet Warwick, and I

of York.: will;

York. 'Twas my inheritance, as the earldom was 3 • For bither we have broken in by force.

Exe. Thy father was a traitor to the crown, Norf. We'll all assist you ; he, that flies, shall die. War. Exeter, thou art a traitor to the crowi, York. Thanks, gentle Norfolk.--Stay by me, my In following this usurping Henry. Jords;

Clif. Whom should he follow, but his natural king? And, soldiers, stay, and lodge by me this night. War. True, Clifford; and that's Richard, duke of War. And, when the king comes, offer him no


York. violence,

K. Hen. And shall I stand, and thou sit in my • Unless he seek to thrust you out by force.

throne ? They retire.

York. It must and shall be so. Content thyself. * York. The queen, this day, here holds her par- |

War. Be duke of Lancaster, let him be king. liament,

West. He is both king and duke of Lancaster : * But little thinks we shall be of her council: And that the lord of Westmoreland shall maintain. * By words, or blows, here let us win our right. War. And Warwick shall disprove it. You forget,

Rich. Arm'd as we are, let's stay within this house. That we are those, which chas'd you from the field, War. The bloody.parliament shall this be call'd, And slew your fathers, and with colours spread Unless Plantagenet, duke of York, be king; March'd through the city to the palace gates. And bashful Henry depos'd, whose cowardice ' North. Yes, Warwick, I remember it. to my Hath made us by-words to our enemies. .

grief; • York. Then leave me not, my lords ; be resolute ; | And, by his soul, thou and thy house shall rue it. I mean to take possession of my right.

"West. Plantagenet, of thee, and these thy sons, War. Neither the king, nor he that loves him best, Thy kinsmen, and thy friends, I'll have more lives, I The proudest he that holds up Lancaster,

Than drops of blood were in my father's veins. Dares stir a wing, if Warwick shake his bells.2 L Clif. Urge it no more ; lest that, instead of words, " I'll plant Plantagenet, root him up who dares :- I send thee, Warwick, such a messenger, Resolve thee, Richard, claim the English crown. As shall revenge his death, before I stir: WARWICK leads York to the Throne,

War. Poor Clifford ! how I scorn bis worthless who seats himself. .

threats! Flourish. Enter King HENRY, CLIFFORD, NOR

York. Will you, we show our title to the crown ?

If not, our swords shall plead it in the field. THUMBERLAND, WESTMORELAND, EXETER, K. Hen. What title hast thou, traitor, to the and others, with red Roses in their Hals.

crown? K. Hen. My lords, look where the sturdy rebel sits, Thy father was, as thou art, duke of York ; Even in the chair of state ! belike, he means

indfather, I Mortimer

earl of M

larch: (Back'd by the power of Warwick, that false peer,) I am the son of Henry the Fifth,5" To aspire unto the crown, and reign as king. Who made the Dauphin and the French to stoop, Earl of Northumberland, he slew thy father ; And seiz'd upon their towns and provinces. And thine, Lord Clifford; and you both have.vow'd l War. Talk not of France, siths thou hast lost revenge

it all. On him, his sons, his favourites, and his friends. K. Hen. The lord protector lost it, and not I;

North. If I be not, heavens, be reveng'd on me! When I was crown'd, I was but nine months old. Clif. The hope thereof makes Clifford mourn in | Rich. You are old enough now, and yet, methinks steel.

you lose:W'est. What, shall we suffer this ? let's pluck him Father, tear the crown from the usurper's head, down:

| Edw. Sweet father, do so ; set it on your head. • My heart for anger burns, I cannot brook it. Mont. Good brother (T. YORK,] as thou lov'st K. Hen. Be patient, gentle earl of Westmoreland.

and honour'st arms, Clif. Patience is for poltroons, and such as he ; | Let's fight it out, and not stand caviling thus. He durst not sit there had your father liv'd.

Rich. Sound drums and trumpets, and the king York. Sons, peace!

will fly. 1 Shakspeare was also led into this anachronism by the old plays. At the time of the first battle of sc. line only exhibits the same meaning more obscurely. Albans, where Richard is represented to have fought in York means that the dukedom was his inheritance froni the last scene of the preceding play, he was not one his father, as the earldom of March, was his inheritance . year old; having been born at Fotheringay Castle, Oc. from his mother. His title to the crown was not as duke Cober 21, 1434. At the time to which the third scene of of York, but as earl of March, and by naming that he the present act refers, he was but six years old ; and in covertly asserts his right to the crown. the fifth act, in which Henry is represented as having 4 Another mistake of the author of the old play. been killed by him in the Tower, not more than sixteen York's father was earl of Cambridge, and was beheaded and eight months.

in the lifetime of his elder brother, Edward duke of 2 The allusion is to falconry. Hawks had sometimes | York. little bells hung on them, perhaps to dare the birds'; that 5 The military reputation of King Henry V. is the s, to fright them from rising.

sole support of his son. The name of King Henry tno 3 The old play reads as the kingdom is.' Why Fifth dispersed the followers of Cade. Szaksneare altered it, it is not easy to say, for the new' 6 Since. A contraction of sithence

| * West. Farewell, faint-hearted and degenerate K. Hen. Peace thou ! and give King Henry leave to speak.

* In whose cold blood no spark of honour bides. War. Plantagenet shall speak first:-hear him, North. Be thou a prey unto the house of York, lords;

| And die in bands for this unmanly deed! And be you silent and attentive too,

Clif. In dreadful war may'st thou be overcome! For he, that interrupts him, shall not live.

Or live in peace, abandon'd, and despis'd! K. Hen. Think'st thou, that I will leave my [Exeunt NorthUMBERLAND, CLIFFORD, kingly throne,

and WESTMORELAND. Wherein my grandsire, and my father, sat? * War. Turn this way, Henry, and regard them No: first shall war unpeople this my realm ;

not. ( Ay, and their colours-often borne in France; Exe. They seek revenge, 3 and therefore will not And now in England, to our heart's great sorrow,

yield. Shall be my winding-sheet.'—Why faint you, lords ? | K. Heň. Ah, Exeter! • My title's good, and better far than his.

War. Why should you sigh, my lord ? War. But prove it, Henry, and thou shalt be king. I K. Hen. Not for myself, Lord Warwick, but my K. Hen. Henry the Fourth by conquest got the

son, crown.

Whom I unnaturally shall disinherit. York. 'Twas by rebellion against his king. But, be it as it may :- here entail

K. Hen. I know not what to say; my title's weak. The crown to thee, and to thine heirs forever; Tell me, may not a king adopt an heir ?

| Conditionally, that here thou take an oath, York. What then ?

To cease this civil war, and, whilst I live, K. Hen. An if he may, then am I lawful king: To honour me as thy king and sovereign; • For Richard in the view of many lords,

* And neither4 by treason, nor hostility, Resign'd the crown to Henry the Fourth;

* To seek to put me down, and reign thyself. Whose heir my father was, and I am his.

York. This oath I willingly take, and will perform. York. He rose against him, being his sovereign,

Coming from the Throne. And made him to resign his crown perforce.

War. Long live King Henry !--Plantagenet, emWar. Suppose, my lords, he did it unconstrain'd, I brace him. Think you, 'twere prejudicial to his crown ?? K. Hen. And long live thou, and these thy for Exe. No; for he could not so resign his crown,

ward sons ! But that the next heir should succeed and reign. York. Now York and Lancaster are reconcil'd.

K. Hen. Art thou against us, duke of Exeter ? Exe. Accurs'd be he, that seeks to make them Exe. His is the right, and therefore pardon me.

foes! Senet. The Lords come forward. York. Why whisper you, my lords, and answer " York. Farewell, my gracious lord ; Mll to my not?

castle.5 Exe. My conscience tells me he is lawful king. War. And I'll keep London, with my soldiers. K. Hen. All will revolt from me, and turn to him. Norf. And I to Norfolk, with iny followers. North. Plantagenet, for all the claim thou lay'st, Mont. And I unto the sea, from whence I came. Think not, that Henry shall be so depos'd.

(Exeunt YORK, and his Sons, WARWICK, War. Depos'd he shall be, in despite of all.

NORFOLK, MONTAGUE, Soldiers, and North. Thou art deceiv'd: ''tis noi thy southern

Attendants. power,

* K. Hen. And I, with grief and sorrow, to the • Of Essex, Norfolk, Suffolk, nor of Kent,

court. Which makes thee thus presumptuous and proud, Can set the duke up, in despite of me.

Enter QUEEN MARGARET and the Prince of Wales. Clif. King Henry, be thy title right or wrong,

Exe. Here comes the queen, whose looks bewraye Lord Clifford vows to fight in thy defence :

her anger: May that ground gape, and swallow me alive,

I'll steal away. • Where I shall kneel to him that slew my father!

1 K. Hen. Exeter, so will I. (Going. K. Hen. O Clifford, how thy words revive my 'Q. Mar. Nay, go not from me, I will follow thee. heart!

K. Hen. Be patient, gentle queen, and I will stay. York. Henry of Lancaster, resign thy crown: 'Q. Mar. Who can be patient in such extremes? What mutter you, or what conspire you, lords?

* Ah, wretched man! 'would, I had died a maid, War. Do right unto this princely duke of York; 1 * And never seen thee, never borne thee son, Or I will fill the house with armed men,

* Seeing thou hast prov'd so unnatural a father! And, o'er the chair of state, where now he sits, : * Hath he deserv'd to lose his birthright thus ? Write up his title with usurping blood.

1 * Hadst thou but lov'd him half so well as I ; [He stamps, and the Soldiers show themselves. * Or felt that pain which I did for him once ; K. 'Hen. My lord of Warwick, hear me but one * Or nourish'd him, as I did with my blood; word ;

| * Thou would'st have left thy dearest heart-blood • Let me, for this my life time, reign as king.

there, York. Confirm the crown to me, and to mine heirs, 1 * Rather than have made that savage duke thine And thou shalt reign in quiet whilst thou liv'st. K. Hen. I am content: Richard Plantagenet,

* And disinherited thine only son. Enjoy the kingdom after my decease.

* Prince. Father, you cannot disinherit me: Clif. What wrong is this unto the prince your son? | * If you be king, why should not I succeed ? War. What good is this to England, and himself? * K. Hen. Pardon me, Margaret ;-pardon me, West. Base, fearful, and despairing Henry!

sweet son ; . Clif. How hast thou injur'd both thyself and us? | * The earl of Warwick, and the duke, enforc'd me. West. I cannot stay to hear these articles.

1 * Q. Mar. Enforc'd thee! art thou king, and wilt North. Nor I.

be forc'd ? Clif. Come, cousin, let us tell the queen these I shame to hear thee speak. Ah, timorous wretch! news.

quered, and seek to be revenged. They are not influ

enced by principle but, passion.'Johnson. 1 Perhaps Gray had this passage in mind when he 4 Malone asserts that neither, either, brother, and wrote:-

many similar words, were used by Shakspeare as mo"Weave the warp, and weave the woor,

nosyllables. Steevens doubts this, with seeming pro. The winding-sheet of Edward's race.'

priety, and observes that the versification of this and 2 i. e. detrimental to the general rights of hereditary the preceding play, has many lines as unmetrical and royalty.

irregular as this. 3 They go away, not because they doubt the justice 5 Sandal Castle, near Wakeficld, in Yorkshire. of this determination, but because they have been con.t 6 Betray, discover

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