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Thou hast undone thyself, thy son, and ine,

Enter YORK. And given unto the house of York such head,

York. Why, how now, sons and brother, at : * As thou shalt reign but by their sufferance.

strife? * To entail him and his heirs unto the crown,

1. What is your quarrel ? how began it first? * What is it, but to make thy sepulchre,

Edw. No quarrel, but a slight contention. * And creep into it far before thy time?

" York. About what? * Warwick is chancellor, and the lord of Calais; I Rich. About that which concerns your grace, Stern Faulconbridge? commands the narrow seas;

and us; The duke is made protector of the realm ;

"The crown of England, father, which is yours. • And yet shalt thou be safe? * such safety finds

I " York. Mine, boy? not till King Henry be dead. * The trembling lamb, environed with wolves.

| * Rich. Your right depends not on his life, or Had I been there, which am a silly woman,

. death. ' The soldiers should have toss'd me on their pikes, * Edw. Now you are heir, therefore enioy it now : • Before I would have granted to that act.

* By giving the house of Lancaster leave to breathe, * But thou preferr'st thy life before thine honour :

| * It will outrun you, father, in the end. • And seeing thou dost, I here divorce myself,

York. I took an oath' that he should quietly • Both from thy table, Henry, and thy bed,

reign. • Until that act of parliament be repeald,

Edw. But, for a kingdom, any oath may be • Whereby my son is disinherited."

broken: The; northern lords, that have forsworn thy colours, I'd break a thousand oaths, to reign one year. Will follow mine, if once they see them spread: "Rich. No; God forbid, your grace should be • And spread they shall be ; to thy foul disgrace,

forsworn. ? And utter ruin of the house of York.

" York. I shall be, if I claim by open war. Thus do I leave thee :-Come, son, let's away;

Rich. I'll prove the contrary, if you'll hear me • Our army's ready: Come, we'll after them.

speak. K. Hen. Stay, gentle Margaret, and hear me " York. Thou canst not, son ; it is impossible. speak.

Rich. An oath is of no moment, being not took Q. Mar. Thou hast spoke too much already; get | Before a true and lawful magistrate. thee gone.

" That hath authority over him that swears; K, Hen. Gentle son Edward, thou wilt stay with

· Henry had none, but did usurp the place; me ?

Then, seeing 'twas he that made you to depose, Q. Mar. Ay, to be murder'd by his enemies.

• Your oath, my lord, is vain and frivolous. Prince. When I return with victory from the field,

. Therefore, to arms. * And, father, do but think, I'll see your grace: till then, I'll follow her.

* How sweet a thing it is to wear a crown ; Q. Mar. Come, son, away; we may not linger | * Within whose circuit is Elysium, thus.

* And all that poets feign of bliss and joy. TĘxeunt QUEEN MARGARET, and the Prince.

* Why do we linger thus? I cannot rest, . K. Hen. Poor queen! how love to me, and to * Until the white

| * Until the white rose, that I wear, be dyed her son,

* Even in the lukewarm blood of Henry's heart Hath made her break out into terms of rage!

York. Richard, enough ; I will be king or die. Reveng'd may she be on that hateful duke

Brother, thou shalt to London presently, * Whose haughty spirit, winged with desire,

. And whet on Warwick to this enterprise.* Will coast3 my crown, and, like an empty eagle,

• Thou, Richard, shalt unto the duke of Norfolk, * Tiret on the flesh of me, and of my son!

And tell him privily of our intent. * The loss of those three lordss torments my heart:

You, Edward, shall unto my Lord Cobham, * I'll write unto them, and entreat them fair ;

With whom the Kentishmen will willingly rise * Come, cousin, you shall be the messenger.

• In them I trust; for they are soldiers, * Ere. And I, I hope, shall reconcile them all.

1 Witty: and courteous, liberal, full of spirit. [Exeunt. i Whi

1 While you are thus employ'd, what resteth more, SCENE II. A Room in Sandal Castle, near

L. But that I seek occasion how to rise ; Wakefield in Yorkshire. Enter EDWARD, Rich-l'And yet the king not privy to my drili, ARD, and MONTAGUE.

" Nor any of the liouse of Lancaster? Rich. Brother, though I be youngest, give me

Enter a Messenger.' leave.

But, stay;. What news ? Why con’st thou in Edw. No, I can better play the orator.

such post ? Mont. But I have reasons strong and forcible. Mess. The queen, with all the northern earlis

and lords, 10 1 The queen's reproach is founded on a position long received among politicians, that the loss of kingly power any thing. The old form of the word appears to have is soon followed by loss of life.

been costoye, or costoie, from the French costoyer, in 2 The person here meant was Thomas Nevil, bastard pursue a course alongside an object, to watch it. son to the Lord Faulconbridge, ' a man (says Hall) of no 4 To tire is to tear; to feed like a bird of prey. lesse corage than audacitie, who for his cruel condi- 5 i. e. of Northumberland, Westmoreland, and Clif: cions was such an apte person, that a more meter ford, who had left him in disgust. could not be chosen to set all the world in a broyle, and 6 Shakspeare seems to have thought York and Mon. to put the estate of the realme on an ill hazard. He had tague brothers-in-law. But Montague was brother to been appointed by Warwick, vice-admiral of the sea, Warwick; Warwick's daughter was married to a son of and had in charge so to keep the passage between Do. | York, but not during the life of York. Steevens thought ver and Calais, that none which either favoured King that as Shakspeare uses the expression brothers of the Henry or his friends, should escape untaken or un war in King Lear, something of the kind might be drowned : such, at least, were his instructions with re.. meant here. spect to the friends and favourers of King Edward after 7 The obligation of an oath is here eluded by a very the rupture between him and Warwick. On Warwick's despicable sophistry. A lawful magistrate alone has the death, he fell into poverty, and robbed, both by sea and power to exact an oath, but the oath derives no part of land as well friends as enemies. He once brought his its force from the magistrate. The plea against the ob ships up the Thames, and with a considerable body of ligation of an oath obliging to maintain a usurper, taken the men of Kent and Essex, made a spirited assault on from the unlawfulness of the oath itself, in the forego the city, with a view to plunder and pillage, which was ing play, was rational and just.-Johnson. not repelled but after a sharp conflict, and the loss of 3 of sound judgment. many lives; and, had it happened at a more critical pe. 9 The folio reads Enter Gabriel.' It was the name riod, might have been attended with fatal consequences of the actor, probably Gabriel Singer, who played this to Edward. After roving on the sea some little time lon- insignificant part. The emendation is from the old play, ger, he ventured to land at Southampton, where he was and was made by Theobald. taken and beheaded. See Hall and Holinshed.-Ritson. 10 I know not (says Johnson) whether the author in

3 To coust is, apparently, to pursue, co hover about 'tended any moral instruction, but he that reads this ha.

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Mwn, where he was and was made hu mhemendation strat

slay me?

• Intend here to besiege you in your castle :

| Rut. Then let my father's blood open it again; • She is hard by with twenty thousand men ; He is a man, and, Clifford, cope with him. And therefore fortify your hoid, my lord.

Clif. Had I thy brethren here, their lives, and * York. Ay, with my sword. What! think'st

thine, thou, that we fear them ?-

Were not revenge sufficient for me ; • Edward and Richard, you shall stay with me; No, if I digg'd up thy forefathers' graves, "My brother Montague shall post to London ! And hung their rotten coffins up in chains, * Let noble Warwick, Cobham, and the rest, It could not slake mine ire, nor ease my heari * Whom we have left protectors of the king, The sight of any of the house of York * With powerful policy strengthen themselves, Is as a fury to torment my soul; . * And trust not simple Henry, nor his oaths. And till I root out their accursed line,

* Mont. Brother, I go ; I'll win them, fear it not : And leave not one alive, I live in hell. * And thus most humbly I do take my leave. [Exit. Therefore

[Lifting his hand, Enter Sir John and SIR Hugh MORTIMER. |_ Rut. O, let me pray before I take my death :York. Sir John, and Sir Hugh Mortimer, mine |

To thee I pray; sweet Clifford, pity me!

Clif. Such pity as my rapier's point affords. uncles! • You are come to Sandal in a happy hour;

Rut. I never did thee harm: Why wilt thou The army of the queen mean to besiege us.

Clif. Thy father hath. Sir John. She shall not need, we'll meet her in Rust

But 'twas ere I was born.“ the field.

Thou hast one son, for his sake pity me; York. What, with five thousand men ?

Lest, in revenge thereof, --sith God is just, Rich. Ay, with five hundred, father, for a need.

He be as miserably slain as I. A wonan's general; What should we fear ?

Ah, let me live in prison all my days;

A March afar off And when I give occasion of offence. Edw. I hear their drums ; let's set our men in Then let me die, for now thou hast no cause. order ;

| Clif. No cause ? • And issue forth, and bid them battle straight. York. Five men to twenty !-though the odds

Thy father slew my father; therefore, die.

[CLIFFORD stabs him. be great,

Rut. Dii faciant, laudis summa sit ista tuæ ! "I doubt not, uncle, of our victory.

[Dies. Many a battle have I won in France,

Clif. Plantagenet ! I come, Plantagenet! " When as the enemy hath been ten to one;

And this thy son's blood cleaving to my blade, " Why should I not now have the like success ?

Shall rust upon my weapon, till thy blood,

Alarum. Exeunt. Congeald with this, do make me wipe off both. SCENE III. Plains near Sandal Castle. Ala

[Exit rums : Excursions. Enter RUTLAND, and his Tutor.1

SCENE IV. The same. Alarum. Enter YORK Rut. Ah, whither shall I fly to 'scape their 'York. The army of the queen hath got the field. hands?

· My uncles both are slain in rescuing me;' Ah, tutor! look, where bloody Clifford comes! And all my followers to the Enter CLIFFORD, and Soldiers,

Turn back, and fly, like ships before the wind, Clif. Chaplain, away! thy priesthood saves thy:

priesthood saves thy l' Or lambs pursu'd by hunger-starved wolves. life:

My sons--God knows, what hath bechanced

them: As for the brat of this accursed duke,

But this I know,--they have demean'd themselves Whose father slew my father, 2-he shall die. Tut. And I, my lord, will bear him company.

Like men born to renown, by life, or death. Clif. Soldiers, away with him.

"Three times did Richard make a lane to me; Tut. Ah, Clifford! murder not this innocent

And thrice cried; Courage, father! fight it out! child,

And full as oft came Edward to my side, • Lest thou bó hated both of God and man.

With purple falchion painted to the hilt [Exit, forced off by Soldiers.

nel In blood of those that had encounter'd him Cliff. How now! is he dead already ? Or, is it |

; And when the hardiest warriors did retire, fear,

| Richard cried, --Charge! and give no foot of That makes him close his eyes ?-_I'll open them.

ground? "Rut. So looks the pent-up lion o'er the wretch

' And cried, A crown, or else a glorious tomh!

' A sceptre, or an earthly sepulchre ! " That trembles under his devouring paws :3 And so he walks, insulting o'er his prey;

With this we charg'd again: but, out, alas!

. We hodg'd' again; as I have seen a swan • And so he comes to rend his limbs asunder.• Ah, gentle Clifford, kill me with thy sword,

" With bootless labour swim against the tide, .

· And spend her strength with overmatching waves. And not with such a cruel threat'ning look. Sweet Clifford, hear me speak before I die;

A short Alarum within. I am too mean a subject for thy wrath,

Ah, hark! the fatal followers do pursue ;

1 And I am faint, and cannot fly their fury: Be thou reveng’d on men, and let me live. vain thou speak'st, poor boy; my father's lo

ordel. And, were I strong, I would not shun their fury: blood

op. The sands are number'd, that make up my life; Haih stopp'd the passage where thy words should

· Here must I stay, and here my life must end. enter. a striking admonition against precipitancy, by which 5 Since. we often use unlawful means to do that which a little i 6 This line is in Ovid's Epistle from Phillis to Demodelay would put honestly in our power. Had York phoon. The same quotation is in Nash's Have with stayed but a few moments, he had saved his cause from you to Saffron Walden, 1596. the stain of perjury.

17 These were two bastard uncles by the mother's 1 6A priest called Sir Robert Aspall. Hull. fo. 99. side, Sir John and Sir Hugh Mortimer. See Grafton's

2 i. e. the father of which brat, namely the duke of Chronicle, p. 649. York.

3 Bodged is probably the same as budged, from 3 Steevens remarks that the epithet devouring, which bouger, French. Steevens thought that it was the same might well have characterized the whole animal, is as boggled, i. e. made bad, or bungling work of the odidly enough bestowed on his paws.

attempt to raliy. But the following passage, in which 4 Rutiand was born in 1443; or at latest, according | Coriolanus speaks of his army who had fled from their to Haji, in 1948 ard Clifford's father was slain at the adversaries, seems decisive: battle of St. Albans, in 1455. Consequently Rutlarid ! ( The mouse ne'er shunn'd the cal, as they did hrudgo was ther: at least seven years old, more probably twelve. I From rascals worse than they

Enter QUEEN MARGARET, CLIFFORD, North-Made issue from the bosom of the boy:
UMBERLAND, and Soldiers.

And, if thine eyes can water for his dcath,

I give thee this to dry thy cheeks withal. • Come, bloody Cliford, --rough Northumber-1. Alas, poor York! but that I hate thee derd. land

I should lament thy miserable state. I dare your quenchless fury to more rage ;

I prythee, grieve, to make me merry, York; ' I am your butt, and I abide your shot.

Stamp, rave, and fret, that I may sing and dance. North. Yield to our mercy, proud Plan

fonete What, hath thy fiery heart so parch'd thine entrails . Clif. Ay, to such mercy, as his ruthless arm,

That not a tear can fall for Rutland's death? With downright payment, show'd unto my father. * Why art thou patient, man? thou should'st bu Now Phaeton hath tumbled from his car,

mad; And made an evening at the noontide prick.

* And I, to make thee mad, do mock thee thus. York. My ashes, as the Phænix, may bring forth

Thou would'st be fee'd I see, to make me sport; A bird that will revenge upon you all :

York cannot speak, unless he wear : crown. And, in that hope, I throw mine eyes to heaven,

A crown for York; and, lords, bow low to him... Scorning whate'er you can afflict me with.

Hold you his hands, whilst I do set it on.-• Why come you not? what! multitudes, and fear?

[Putting a paper Crown on his Head: Clif. So cowards fight, when they can fly no

Ay, marry, sir, now looks he like a king ! further;

Ay, this is he that took King Henry's chair ; "So doves do peck the falcon's piercing talons ;

And this is he was his adopted heir... So desperate thieves, all hopeless of their lives,

But how is it that great Plantagenet Breathe out invectives 'gainst the officers.

Is crown'd so soon, and broke his solemn oath? York. 0, Clifford, but bethink thee once again,

As I bethink me, you should not be king, • And, in thy thought o'errun my former time :

Till our King Henry had shook hands with death. * And, if thou canst for blushing, view this face;

And will you pale? your head iu Henry's glory And bite thy tongue that slanders him with cow

And rob his temples of the diadem, ardice,

Now in his life, against your holy oath? Whose frown hath made thee faint and fly ere this.

0, 'tis a fault too too uns a donable ! Clif. I will not bandy with thee word for word;

off with the crown; and, with the crown, his head; But buckle with thee blows, twice two for one.

And, whilst we breathe, take time to do him dead.8 [Draws.

Clif. That is my ofile, for my father's sake. Q. Mar. Hold, valiant Clifford! for a thousand

Q. Mar. Nay, sta ! ; let's hear the orisons he causes,

makes. I would prolong awhile the traitor's life:

York. She wolf o France, but worse than wolves Wrath makes him deaf: speak thou, Northumber-1

of France, land. North. Floid, Clifford; do not honour him so much,

"Whose tongue more poisons than the adder's tuoth!

How ill beseemins is it in thv sex. To prick thy finger, though to wound his heart:

To triumph like an Amazonian trull, What valour were it, when a cur doth grin,

• Upon their woes, whom fortune captivates ? For one to thrust his hand between his teeth,

But that thy fac: is, visorlike, unchanging, When he might spurn him with his foot away?

Made impudent with use of evil deeds, It is war's prize? to take all vantages;

I would assay, proud queen, to make thee blush. ' And ten to one is no impeach of valour.

To tell thee wlience thou canı'st, of whom deriv'd, [They lay hands on YORK, who struggles. I Were shame enough to shame thee, wert thou nou Clif. Ay, ay, so strives the woodcock with the gin.

shameless. North. So doth the coney struggle in the net.

Thy father bears the type of king of Naples, [YORK is taken prisoner; 1 of both the Sicils, and Jerusalem; York. So triumph thieves upon their conquer'd | Yet not so wealthy as an English veoman.

Hath that peor monarch taught thec to insult ? So true men3 yield, with robbers so o'ermatch'd.

It needs not, nor it boots thee not, proud queen; North. What would your grace have done unto

Unless the adage must be verified, him now?

That beggars, mounted, run their horse to death. Q. Mar. Brave warriors, Clifford and Northum

'Tis beauty, that doth oft make women proud ; berland,

But, God he knows, thy share thereof is small : Cime make him stand upon this molehill here;

'Tis virtue, that doth make them most admir'd; "That raught at mountains with outstretched arms, The contrary doth make thee wonder'd at: Yrit parted but the shadow with his hand.

'Tis government, o that makes then seen divine ; * What! was it you that would be England's king ?

The want thereof makes thee aborninable : Was't you that revell'd in our parliament,

Thou art as opposite to every good, And made a preachment of your high descent?

As the Antipodes are unto us, Where are your mess of sons to back you now?

Or as the south to the septentrion. 11 The wanton Edward, and the lusty George ?

0, tyger's heart, wrapp'd in a woman's hide! And where's that valiant crookback prodigy,

How could'st thou drain the life-blood of the child, Dicky, your boy, that, with his grumbling voice,

To bid the father wipe his eyes withal, Was wont to cheer his dad in mutinies?

And yet be seen to bear a woman's face? Or, with the rest, where is your darling Rutland ?

Women are soft, mild, pitiful, and flexible ; Look, York; I stain'd this napkins with the blood

" Thou stern, obdurate, flinty, rough, remorseless. 'That'valiant Clifford, with his rapier's point,

upon a molehill, on whose heade they put a garland in | Noontide point on the dial.

stead of a crown, which they had fashioned and made 2 Prize here must have the same meaning as prise of segges or bulrushes, and having so crowned hiin in French, or presa in Italian, i. e. a hold or advantage with that garlande, they kneeled down afore him, as that may be taken. Unless we can imagine that it sig. the Jews did to Christe, in scorne, saying to him, Hayle nisies licitum est, it is prized or esteemed lawful in king without rule, hayle, king without heritage, liayle, war,' &c. Price, prise, and prize were used indiscri- duke and prince without people or possessions. And, minately by our ancestors.

at length, having thus scorned hym with these and di. 3 Honest men.

verse other the like despitefull woordes, they strooke 4 Reached. Vide note on Part II. of this play, Act ii. oft his heade, which (as ye have heard) they presented Sc.3. .

to the queen. encircle with a 5 Handkerchief.

7 Impale, encircle with a crown. 9 Kill him. 6 According to Hall the paper crown wis not placed 9 i. e. the crown, the emblem or symbol of royalty. on York's head till after he was dead; but Holinshed, 10 Government, in the language of the time signified after having copied Hall, says:- Some write that the evenness of temper, and decency of manners iluke was takcn alive and in derision caused to stand! 11 The north.

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• Bidd'st thou me rage, why, now thou hast thy * Or, had he 'scap’d, methinks, we should have wish:

heard "Would'st have me weep? why, now thou hast * The happy tidings of his good escape. thy will:

| How fares my brother? why is he so sad ? • For raging wind blows up incessant showers. Rich. I cannot joy, until I be resoly'd And, when the rage allays, the rain begins. Where our right valiant father is become. These tears are my sweet Rutland's obsequies; I saw him in the battle range about; • And every drop cries vengeance for his death, And watch'd him how he singled Clifford forth. < 'Gainst thee, fell Clifford, and thee, false French-1 Methought, he bore him in the thickest troop, woman.

As doth a lion in a herd of neat:6 North. Beshrew me, but his passions? move me * Or as a bear, encompass'd round with dogs, so,

* Who having pinch'd a few, and made them cry, That hardly can I check my eyes from tears. * The rest stand all aloof, and bark at him.

York. That face of his the hungry cannibals * So far'd our father with his enemies : Would not have touch'd, would not have stain'd * So fled his enemies my warlike father ; with blood :

Methinks, 'tis prize enough to be his son. But you are more inhuman, more inexorable, See, how the morning opes her golden gates, 0, ten times more than tigers of Hyrcania. 1 And takes her farewell of the glorious sun ! 8 See, ruthless queen, a hapless father's tears : 1* How well resembles it the prime of youth, This cloth thou dipp’dst in blood of my sweet boy, | * Trimm'd like a younker, prancing to his love! And I with tears do wash the blood away.

Edw. Dazzle mine eyes, or do I see three suns Keep thou the napkin, and go boast of this :

Rich. Three glorious suns, each one a perfect [He gives back the Handkerchief.

. . sun ; 9 And, if thou tellst the heavy story right,

Not separated with the racking clouds, 10 Upon my soul, the hearers will shed tears ;3 But sever'd in a pale clear-shining sky. Yea, even my foes will shed fast-falling tears, See, see! they join, embrace, and seem to kiss, And say,Alas, it was a piteous deed!

As if they vow'd some league inviolable : There, take the crown, and, with the crown, my Now are they but one lamp, one light, one sun. curse;.

In this the heaven figures some event. And, in thy need, such comfort come to thee, * Edw. 'Tis wondrous strange, the like yet never As now I reap at thy too cruel hand!

heard of.
Hard-hearted Clifford, take me from the world; I think, it cites us, brother, to the field;
My soul to heaven, my blood upon your heads! That we, the sons of brave Plantagenet,

North. Had he been slaughterman to all my kin, Each one already blazing by vur meeds, 11
I should not for my life but weep for him, Should, notwithstanding, join our lights together,
To see how inly sorrow gripes his soul.

And overshine the earth, as this the world. 2. Mar. What, weeping-ripe, my Lord North- Whate'er it bodes, henceforward will I bear umberland ?

Upon my target three fair shining suns. Think but upon the wrong he did us all,

* Rich. Nay, bear three daughters ;-by your And that will quickly dry thy melting tears.

leave I speak it, Clif. Here's for my oath, here's for my father's * You love the breeder better than the male. death. [Stabbing him.

Enter a Messenger. Q. Mar. And here's to right our gentle-hearted

Stabbing him I But what art thou, whose heavy looks foretell York. Open thy gate of mercy, gracious God!

'ISome dreadful story hanging on thy tongue ?

| My soul' flies through these wounds to seek out,

Mess. Ah, one that was a woful looker on, thee.

[Dies.

When as the noble duke of York was slain, Q. Mar. Off with his head, and set it on York gate; 1*

: * Your princely father, and my loving lord. So York may overlook the town of York."

Edw. O, speak no more! for I have heard too

much.12 [Exeunt.

Rich. Say how he died, for I will hear it all.

Mess. Environed he was with many foes ;

* And stood against them as the hope of Troy13 ACT II.

* Against the Greeks, that would have enter'd Trov SCENE I. A Plain near Mortimer's Cross in * And many strokes, though with a little axe.

* But Hercules himself must yield to odds ; Herefordshire. Drums. Enter EDWARD and * Hew down and fell the hardest-timber'd oak. RICHARD, with their Forces, marching.

By many hands your father was subdu'd; * Edw. I wonder, how our princely father'scap'd ; l. But only slaughter'd by the ireful arm * Or whether he be 'scap'd away, or no,

Of unrelenting Clifford, and the queen: * From Clifford's and Northumberland's pursuit ; " Who crown'd the gracious duke in high despite , * Had he been ta'en, we should have heard the news; " Laugh'd in his face; and, when with grief he wept, Had he been slain, we should have heard the news, · The ruthless queen gave him, to dry his cheeks,

1 We meet with the same thought in Shakspeare's 6 Neat cattle, cows, oxen, &c. Rape of Lucrece :

7 Prize is here again used for estimation. "This windy tempest, till it blow up rain,

8 Aurora takes for a time her farewell of the sun, Held back his sorrow's tide, to make it more : when she dismisses him to his diurnal course. Allast it rains, and busy winds give o'er,

9 This circumstance is mentioned both by Hall and Then son and father weep with equal strife,

Holinshed. At which tyme the sun (as some write) Who should weep most for daughter or for wife.' appeared to the earl of March like three sunnes, and % Passions for griefs.

sodainely joyned altogether in one ; upon whiche sight 3 "Tell thou the lamentable tale of me,

hee tooke such courage, that he fiercely setting on his And send the hearers weeping to their beds.' enemyes put them to flight; and for this cause menne 4 This gallant prince fell by his own imprudence, in ymagined that he gave the sun in his full bryghtnesse consequence of leading an army of only five thousand for his badge or cognizance.'-Holinshed. men to engage with twenty thousand, and not waiting | 10 i. e. the clouds floating before the wind like a reek for the arrival of his son the earl of March, with a large or vapour. This verb, though now obenlete, was for body of Welshmenl. He and Cecily his wife, with his merly in common use; and it is now pruvincially com son Edmund, earl of Rutland, were originally buried in mon to speak of the rack of the weather che chancel of Fotheringay church. Peacham, in his 11 Meed anciently signified inerit as well as reward, Complete Gentleman, 1627, p. 153, gives an account of and is so explained by Cotgrave, Philips, and others the destruction of their monuments, of the disinterment, 12 The generous tenderless of Edward, and sarago &c.; and of their reinterment in the church, by command fortitude of Richard, are well distinguished by their dif of Queen Elizabeth, under a mea i monument of plaster. ferent reception of their father's death. Demeaned himself.

13 Hector

king.

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' A napkin steeped in the harmless blood | That robb'd my soldiers of their hated spleen; "Of sweet young Rutland, by rough Clifford slain : Or whether 'twas report of her success; . And, after many scorns, many foul taunts, Or more than common fear of Clifford's rig "They took his head, and on the gates of York Who thunders to his captives—blood and death • They set the same and there it doth remain, I cannot judge: but, to conclude with truth, The saddest spectacle that e'er I view'd.

Their weapons like to lightning came and went, Edw. Sweet duke of York, our prop to lean upon; Our soldiers'-like the night-owl's lazy flight, Now thou art gone, we have no staff, no stay!- ' Or like a lazy thrasher with a flail, * O Clifford, boist'rous Clifford, thou hast slain Fell gently down, as if they struck their friends. * The flower of Europe for his chivalry;

I cheer'd them up with justice of our cause, * And treacherously hast thou vanquish'd him, With promise of high pay, and great rewards : * For, hand to hand, he would have vanquish'd But all in vain ; they had no heart to fight, thee!-.

And we, in then, no hope to win the day, Now my soul's palace is become a prison :

So that we fled; the king, unto the queen; Ah, would she break from hence! that this my body Lord George your brother, Norfolk, and myself,

Might in the ground be closed up in rest: In haste, posthaste, are come to join with you ; . For never henceforth shall I joy again,

For in the marches here, we heard you were, • Never, O never, shall I see more joy.

Making another head to fight again. * Rich. I cannot weep; for all my body's moisture Edw. Where is the duke of Norfolk, gentle Scarce serves to quench my furnace-burning heart: 1

Warwick? * Nor can my tongue unload my heart's great And when came George from Burgundy to England? burden;

L" Wär. Some six miles off the duke is with the * For selfsame wind, that I should speak withal,

soldiers : * Ia kindling coals, that fire all my breast,

And for your brother he was lately sent * And burn me up with flames that tears would From your kind aunt, duchess of Burgundy, quench.

| With aid of soldiers to this needful war.5" * To weep, is to make less the depth of grief: 1 Rich. 'Twas odds, belike, when valiant Warwick

and revenge, for * Tears, then, for babes; blows, and revenge, for

fled : me!

Oft have I heard his praises in pursuit, • Richard, I bear thy name, I'll venge thy death, But ne'er, till now, his scandal of retire. Or die renowned by attempting it

| War. Nor now my scandal, Richard, dost thou Edw. His name that valiant duke hath left with

hear: thee;

For thou shalt know this strong right hand of mine • His dukedom and his chair with me is left. Can pluck the diadem from faint Henry's head,

Rich. Nay, if thou be that princely eagle's bird, And wring the awful sceptre from his fist; Show thy descent by gazing gainst the sun :1 Were he as famous and as bold in war, For chair and dukedom, throne and kingdom say; As he is fam'd for mildness, peace, and prayer. Either that is thine, or else thou wert not his. Rich. I know it well, Lord Warwick : blame me

not; March. Enter WARWICK and MONTAGUE, with erris le

'Tis love, I bear thy glories, makes me speak. Forces. 2

But, in this troublous time, what's to be done? War. How now, fair lords? What fare? what Shall we go throw away our coats of steel, news abroad?

And wrap our bodies in black mourning gowns, Rich. Great lord of Warwick, if we should re. Numb'ring our Ave-Maries with our beads? count

Or shall we on the helmets of our foes Our baleful news, and, at each word's deliverance, Tell our devotion with revengeful arms? Stab poniards in our flesh till all were told,

If for the last, say-Ay, and to it, lords. The words would add more anguish than the wounds. War. Why, therefore Warwick came to seek you O valiant lord, the duke of York is slain.

out; Edw. O Warwick! Warwick! that Plantagenet, And therefore comes my brother Montague. Which held thee dearly, as his soul's redemption, Attend me, lords. The proud insulting queen, Is by the stern Lord Clifford done to death.3 With Clifford, and the haught Northumberland, War. Ten days ago I drown'd these news in And of their feather, many more proud birds, tears :

Have wrought the easy-melting king like wax. And now to add more measure to your woes, He swore consent to your succession, I come to tell you things since then befall’n. His oath enrolled in the parliament; After the bloody fray at Wakefield fought,

And now to London all the crew are gone, Where your brave father breath'd his latest gasp, To frustrate both his oath, and what beside Tidings, as swiftly as the posts could run,

May make against the house of Lancaster. Were brought me of your loss, and his depart. • Their power, I think, is thirty thousand strong I then in London, keeper of the king,

Noiv, if the help of Norfolk, and myself, Muster'd my soldiers, gather'd flocks of friends, With all the friends that thou, brave earl of March, And very well appointed, as I thought,

Amongst the loving Welshmen canst procure, March'd towards Saint Albans to intercept the queen, Will but amount to five and twenty thousand, Bearing the king in my behalf along:

Why, Via! to London will we march amain; For by my scouts I was advertised,

And once again bestride our foaming steeds, That she was coming with a full intent

And once again cry-Charge upon our foes ! To dash our late decree in parliament,

But never once again turn back, and fly. . · Touching King Henry's oath, and your succession. Rich. Ay, now, methinks, I hear great Warwick Short tale to make, we at Saint Albans met,

speak: Our battles join'd, and both sides fiercely fought: Ne'er may he live to see a sunshine day, But, whether 'twas the coldness of the king,

That cries-Retire, if Warwick bid him stay. Who look'd full gently on his warlike queen,

Edw. Lord Warwick, on thy shoulder will I lean;

[graphic]

1 Thus in Spenser's Hymn of Heavenly Beauty :- of December, 1460, when Edward was in his nineteenth like the native bird of eagle's kind,

year, Rutland in his eighteenth, George of York, after. . On that bright sun of glory fix thine eyes.' wards duke of Clarence, in his twelfth, and Richard

2 This meeting was at Chipping Norton, according to only in his ninth year. W. Wyrcester, p. 488.

5 This circumstance is not warranted by history. Cla. 3 A common ancient expression for killed: from the rence and Gloster (as they were afterwards created) French fuire mourir.

were sent into Flanders immediately after the battle of The ages of the duke of York's children will show Wakefield, and did not return until their brother Edward how far historic truth is departed from in the present had go play The battle of Wakefield was fought on the 29th Igundy was not their aunt, but a third cousin

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