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12 15 18 59 177 202
The Kansas-Nebraska bill passes the House..
85 TYLER, JOHN, of Virginia, nominated and
86 The clause of said bill repealing the Missouri
defeated for Vice-President, 1835-6.....
Nominated for Vice-President, at Harrisburg, Compromise ; President Pierce on Kansas Affairs in '55–6; Mr. Douglas's Report on do.,
1839, and elected in 1840... March 12, '56
87 Two-Thirds RULE adopted by first DemoMinority Report of Mr. Collamer of Vermont... 89 House orders an investigation of Kansas frauds;
cratic Convention, 1832 Report of Messrs. Howard and Sherman there- TOUCEY. ISAAC, of Connecticut, supported
for President by Democratic National Convention. House votes to admit Kansas as a Free State... 107 Mr. Douglas reports a bill to pacify Kansas..... 107 VAN BUREN, MARTIN, of New York, nomiMr. Trumbull's amendments thereto; Do. Messrs.
nated for Vice-President. Foster's, Wilson's and Seward's ; Passage of Douglas's bill.....
Nominated for President in 1835, and elected in
108 Mr. Geo. G. Dunn's bill to reorganize Kansas. 109 President Pierce's last Message on Kansas..
Nominated for reëlection as President, 1840 110
Defeated for President in 1840. Remarks of Messrs. Hale, Seward, Mason, Wil
Defeated in Democratic National Convention, son and Pugh thereon.
112 President Buchanan on the Lecompton Constitu
Nominated for President by Buffalo Convention, tion....
1845 .... Mr. Douglas's speech against Lecompton.
114 Action on Lecompton in Kansas....
On Slavery in the Territories, letter to Water
116 Mr. Buchanan's special Lecompton Message.
bury and others...
117 Provisions of Lecompton Constitution respecting VOTE IN WHIG NATIONAL CONVENTION, Slavery..
1852, on Resolve approving Compromise Measures The Lecompton bill; Passed in the Senate, but
of 1850... defeated in the House; The Crittenden-Montgomery substitute.
WARD, JOHN E., of Georgia, President of Yeas and Nays on adopting substitute.
the Democratic National Convention, 1856. ..... Senate refuses to concur; Mr. English moves a Conference Committee; Carried by the Speak
WEBSTER, DANIEL, of Massachusetts, super's casting vote; The English Compromise
ported by Massachusetts for President, 1836..
Defeated for President in Whig Convention, 1848 bill...
123 Carried through both Houses; The Wyandot
Beaten for President in Whig Convention, 1852.. Convention and Constitution.
Memorial to Congress for Slavery Restriction ..
125 Mr. Grow proposes, and the House votes to ad
His view on the powers of Supreme Court. mit Kansas under the Wyandot Constitution ;
Speech against Slavery Extension. Senate refuses to act on the bill...
126 WELLER, Col. JOHN B., of California,
beaten for Vice-President in Democratic National SLAVE-TRADE ADVOCATED in Democratic
Convention, 1852 ....
WhiG NATIONAL CONVENTIONS, held at HarLegislature
208 risburg, Penn., 1839
Held at Baltimore, Md., 1844 SPENCER, AMBROSE, of New-York, Presi
Held at Philadelphia, Penn., 1848. dent Whig National Convention, 1844...
13 Held at Baltimore, Md., 1852 ..
Held at Baltimore, Md., 1556 . SPENCER, JOHN C., of New York, Presi
WHITE, Hugh L., of Tennessee, unsuccessdent Anti-Masonic National Convention
ful candidate for President STEVENSON, ANDREW, of Virginia, President Second Democratic National Convention....
WILMOT, David, of Pennsylvania, defeated
12 Ditto, President National Democratic Conven
for Vice-President in Republican Convention, 1856 tion, 1948...
Temporary Chairman of Republican National
Convention, 1860... STRANGE, ROBERT, of North Carolina, beaten for Vice-President in Democratic Convention,
Wilson, Gen. HENRY, of Massachusetts, 1852..
President of Free Democratic National Conven20
tion, 1852 SUMNER, CHARLES, of Massachusetts, defeated for Vice-President in Republican National
Wirt, WILLIAM, of Maryland, Anti-Ma
sonic candidate for President, 1832 Convention, 1856....
22 SUPREME COURT, POWER AND DUTIES OF
WILKINS, WILLIAM, of Pennsylvania, supOpinions of Thomas Jefferson.
ported by Pennsylvania for Vice-President, 1932.. Opinions of John Taylor of Caroline, Va., John WISCONSIN declares for Free
Territory, Randolph of Roanoke, Nathaniel 'Macon of
through Legislative Resolves.... N, C., and John Bacon, of Massachusetts 175 Opinions of John J. Crittenden, Nathaniel Macon,
WOODBURY, LEVI, of New-Hampshire, beaten James Barbour, Supreme Court of Georgia,
for President in Democratic Convention, 1848 Legislature of Georgia, Supreme Court of Penn
WRIGHT, Silas, of New-York; nominated sylvania, and Court of Appeals of Virginia .... 176 Opinions of Mahlon Dickerson, Richard M. John
for Vice-President by Democratic National Conson, Gen. Andrew Jackson, and Daniel Web
vention of 1844, but declined..
177 YANCEY, WILLIAM L., of Alabama, offers TAYLOR RATIFICATION MEETING at Phila
"non-interference " resolve in Democratic Condelphia, 1848, and Resolves
He advocates Revolution in the South. TAYLOR, ZACHARY, of Louisiana, Whig pominee for President, 1848
YOUNG, Col. SAMOEL, of New York, Presi15
dent of the Barnburners' Convention at Utica in Elected President in 1848..
1848.... g'LDEN, DANIEL R., of Ohio, proposes
Offers Anti-Slavery Resolves in Senate of NewLavery Restriction in Whig Convention, 1848 15 Work
12 13 15 15 25
NATIONAL Conventions for the nomination of a potent influence over such questions, being, candidates are of comparatively recent origin. on this occasion, unable to agree as to which of In the earlier political history of the United her favored sons should have the preference. States, under the Federal Constitution, candi. Ninety-four of the 136 Republican members of dates for President and Vice-President were Congress attended this cancus, and declared nominated by congressional and legislative their preference of Mr. Madison, who received caucuses. Washington was elected as first 83 votes, the remaining 11 being divided bePresident under the Constitution, and reëlected tween Mr. Monroe and George Clinton. The for a second term by a unanimous, or nearly Opposition supported Mr. Pinckney; but Mr. unanimous, concurrence of the American people; Madison was elected by a large majority. but an opposition party gradually grew up in Toward the close of Mr. Madison's earlier Congress, which became formidable during his term, he was nominated for reëlection by a second term, and which ultimately crystalized Congressional Caucus held at Washington, in into what was then called the Republican May, 1812. In September of the same year, a party. John Adams, of Massachusetts, was convention of the Opposition, representing prominent among the leading Federalists, while eleven States, was held in the city of NewThomas Jefferson, of Virginia, was preëmi. York, which nominated De Witt Clinton, of nently the author and oracle of the Republican New-York, for President. He was also put in party, and, by common consent, they were the nomination by the Republican Legislature of opposing candidates for the Presidency, on New-York. The ensuing canvass resulted in Washington's retirement in 1796-7.
the reëlection of Mr. Madison, who received Mr. Adams was then chosen President, while 128 electoral votes to 89 for De Witt Clinton. Mr. Jefferson, having the largest electoral vote In 1816, the Republican Congressional Caucus next to Mr. A., became Vice-President.
nominated James Monroe, who received, in the The first Congressional Caucus to nominate caucus, 65 votes to 54 for Wm. H. Crawford, candidates for President and Vice-President, is of Georgia. The Opposition, or Federalists, said to have been held in Philadelphia in the named Rufus King, of New-York, who received year 1800, and to have nominated Mr. Jeffer only 34 electoral votes out of 217. There was son for the first office, and Aaron Burr for the no opposition to the reëlection of Mr. Monroe second. These candidates were elected after a in 1820, a single (Republican) vote being cast desperate struggle, beating John Adams and against him, and for John Quincy Adams. Charles C. Pinckney, of South Carolina. In In 1824, the Republican party could not be 1804, Mr. Jefferson was reëlected President, i induced to abide by the decision of a Congreswith George Clinton, of New-York, for Vice, sional Caucus. A large majority of the Repubencountering but slight opposition: Messrs. lican members formally refused to participate Charles C. Pinckney and Rufus King, the op- in such a gathering, or be governed by its deciposing candidates, receiving only 14 out of 176 sion; still, a Cancus was called and attended by Electoral Votes. We have been unable to find the friends of Mr. Crawford alone. Of the 261 any record as to the manner of their nomina- members of Congress at this time, 216 were tion. In January, 1808, when Mr. Jefferson's Democrats or Republicans, yet only 66 ressecond term was about to close, a Republican ponded to their names at roll-call, 64 of whom Congressional Caucus was held at Washington, voted for Mr. Crawford as the Republican nomito decide as to the relative claims of Madison nee for President. This nomination was very and Monroe for the succession, the Legisla-extensively repudiated throughout the country, ture of Virgiuia, which had been said to exert and three competing Republican candidates
were brought into the field through legislative New-York, presided over the deliberations of the
well satisfied with Mr. Calhoun, the Vice-Presi-
date for the second office. Delegates appeared U. S. ANTI-MASONIC CONVENTION—1830. and took their seats from the States of
The first political National Convention in this Maine, New-Hampshire, Vermont, Massachucountry of which we have any record was held setts, Connecticut, Rhode Island,' New-York, at Philadelphia in September, 1830, styled the New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, MaryUnited States Anti-Masonic Convention. It was land, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, composed of 96 delegates, representing the Georgia, Alabama, Louisiana, Mississippi, TenStates of New-York, Massachusetts, Connecti- nessee, Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. cut, Vermont, Rhode Island, Pennsylvania,
Gen. Robert Lucas, of Ohio, presided, and
tion to be made for the Vice-Presidency, to a number of resolution:
in the electoral colleges, under the new apportionment, Resowed, That it is recommended to the people of the in voting for President and Vice-President; and that United States, opposed to secret societies, to meet in two-thirds of the whole number of the votes in the Con:
. convention on Monday the 26th day of September, 1831, vention shall be necessary to constitute a choice. at the city of Baltimore, by delegates equal in number This seems to have been the origin of the to their representatives in both houses of Congress, to famous “two-thirds” rule which has prevailed make nominations of suitable candidates for the office of President and Vice-President, to be supported at the of late in Democratic National Conventions. next election, and for the transaction of such other The Convention proceeded to ballot for a canbusiness as the cause of Anti-Masonry may require.
didate for Vice-President, with the following In compliance with the foregoing call, a Na- result: tional Anti-Masonic Convention was held at Balti- For Martin Van Buren : Connecticut, 8; Illinois, 2; more, in September, 1831, which nominated Ohio, 21; Tennessee, 15; North Carolina, 9; Georgia, 11; William Wirt, of Maryland, for President, and Louisiana, 5;. Pennsylvania, 30; Maryland, 7; New
Jersey, 8; Mississippi, 4; Rhode Island, 4; Maine, 10; Amos Ellmaker, of Pennsylvania, for Vice-Pre- Massachusetts, 14; Delaware, 3; New-Hampshire, 7; sident. The convention was attended by 112 de- New-York, 42, Vermont, 7 ; Alabama, 1-Total, 208. legates from the States of Maine, New Hampshire, Kentucky, 15–Total, 26.
For Richard M. Johnson: Illinois, 2; Indiana, 9; Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Con
For Philip P. Barbour: North Carolina, 6; Virginia, necticut, New-York, New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, 23; Maryland, 3; South Carolina, 11 ; Alabama, 6 Ohio, Indiana, Delaware and Maryland -only Total, 49. Massachusetts, New-York and Pennsylvania Mr. Van Buren, having received more than being fully represented. John C. Spencer, of two-thirds of all the votes cast, was declared
duly nominated as the candidate of the party| diate predecessor (J. Q. Adams) by Gen. Jackfor Vice-President.
son in his Inaugural Address, and adds : The Convention passed a resolution cordially The indecorum of this denunciation was hardly less concurring in the repeated nominations which glaring than its essential injustice, and can only be Gen. Jackson had received in various parts of paralleled by that of the subsequent denunciation of the
same Administration, on the same authority, to a foreign the country for reëlection as President. Mr. Archer, of Virginia, from the committee
Exception is taken to the indiscriminate reappointed to prepare an address to the people, moval of all officers within the reach of the Pre. reported that
sident, who were not attached to his person or The committee, having interchanged opinions on the party. As illustrative of the extent to which subject submitted to them, and agreeing fully in the this political proscription was carried, it is stated principles and sentiments which they believe ought to be that, within a month after the inauguration of address were to be made, nevertheless deem it advisa- General Jackson, more persons were removed ble under existing circumstances, to recommend the from office than during the whole 40 years that adoption of the following resolution : Resolved, That it be recommended to the several de had previously elapsed
since the adoption of the legations in this convention, in place of a General Ad- Constitution. Fault is also found with the Address from this body to the people of the United States, ministration in its conduct of our foreign affairs. to make such explanations by address, report, or other Again the Address says: wise, to their respective constituents, of the object, proceedings and result of the meeting, as they may deem On the great subjects of internal policy, the course expedient.
of the President has been so inconsistent and vacillating,
that it is impossible for any party to place confidence in The result of this election was the choice of his character, or to consider him as a true and effective General Jackson, who received the electoral friend. By avowing his approbation of a judicious tariff,
at the same time recommending to Congress precisely the vote of the following States :
same policy which had been adopted as the best plan of Maine. 10; New-Hampshire, 1 ; New-York, 42; New- attack by the opponents of that measure; by admitting Jersey, 8; Pennsylvania, 30; Maryland, 3; Virginia, the constitutionality and expediency of Internal Improve23; North Carolina, 15; Georgia, 11; Tennessee, 15
ments of a National character, and at the same moment Ohio, 21; Louisiana, 5; Mississippi, 4 ; Indiana, 9
negativing the most important bills of this description Illinois, 5; Alabama, 7; Missouri, 4—Total, 219.
which were presented to him by Congress, the President For Mr. Clay: Massachusetts, 14; Rhode Island, 4; has shown that he is either a secret enemy to the system, Connecticut, 8; Delaware, 3; Maryland, 5; Kentucky, or that he is willing to sacrifice the most important na15Total, 49.
tional objects in a vain attempt to conciliate the conflictFor John Floyd, of Virginia : South Carolina, 11.
ing interests, or rather adverse party feeling and opinions For William Wirt, of Maryland: Vermont, 7.
of different sections of the country.
Objection is taken to Gen. Jackson's war on
siderable length. The outrageous and inhuman John Sergeant, for Vice-President, received the treatment of the Cherokee Indians by the State same vote as 'Mr. Clay for President. South of Georgia, and the failure of the National AdCarolina voted for Henry Lee of Massachusetts, acquired by treaty with the United States,
ministration to protect them in their rights, for Vice-President.
is also the subject of animadversion in the
the Address. NATIONAL REPUBLICAN CONVENTION
A resolve was adopted, recommending to the 1831.
young men of the National Republican Party to
hold a Convention in the city of Washington on The National Republicans met in convention the following May. at Baltimore, Dec. 12, 1831. Seventeen States Such a Convention was accordingly held at and the District of Columbia were represented the Capital on the 11th of May, 1832, over by 157 delegates, who cast a unanimous vote which William Cost Johnson, of Maryland, prefor Henry Clay, of Kentucky, for President, and sided, and at which the following, among other John Sergeant, of Pennsylvania, for Vice-Pre- resolves, were adopted: sident. James Barbour, of Virginia, presided, Resolved, That an adequate Protection to American and the States represented were: Maine, New. Industry is indispensable to the prosperity of the counHampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Con- try; and that an abandonment of the policy at this necticut, Vermont, New York, New Jersey, the best interests of the Nation.
period would be attended with consequences ruinous to Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, Resolved, That a uniform system of Internal ImproveNorth Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee, Ohio, ments, sustained and supported by the General Govern Louisiana and Indiana. The Convention
adopted ment, is calculated to secure, in the highost degree, the no formal platform of principles, but issued an public. Address, mainly devoted to a criticism on the Resolved, that the indiscriminate removal of public Administration of Gen. Jackson, asserting, officers,
for a mere difference of political opinion, is a
gross abuse of power; and that the doctrine lately among other things, that
boldly preached in the United States Senate, that "to the
victors belong the spoils of the vanquished," is detriThe political history of the Union for the last three mental to the interest, corrupting to the morals, and years exhibits a series of measures plainly dictated in all dangerous to the liberties of the people of this countheir principal features by blind cupidity or vindictive try. purty spirit, marked throughout by a disregard of good policy, justice, and every high and generous sentiment, and, terminating in a dissolution of the Cabinet under DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL CONVENTION, circumstances more discreditable than any of the kind to
1835, The address alludes to the charge of incapa- In May, 1837, a National Convention reprecity and corruption leveled against his imme- senting twenty-one States, assembled at Baltį.
be met with in the annals of the civilized world.
more to nominate candidates for President and result was the triumphant election of Harrison Vice-President. The Hon. Andrew Stevenson, and Tyler, Van Buren receiving the electoral of Virginia, was chosen president, with half a vote of only seven States; viz: dozen vice-presidents and four secretaries.
New Hampshire, 7; Virginia, 23; South Carolina, 11 ; rule was adopted that two-thirds of the whole Illinois, 5; Alabama,7; Missouri, 4; and Arkansas, & number of votes should be necessary to make a Total, 60. nomination or to decide any question connected South Carolina refused to vote for Richard M. therewith. On the first ballot for President, Johnson for Vice-President, throwing away her Mr. Van Buren was nominated unanimously, re- 11 votes on Littleton W. Tazewell, of Virginia. ceiving 265 votes. For Vice-President, Richard Harrison and Tyler received the votes of the M. Johnsor., of Kentucky, received 178, and following States : William C. Rives, of Virginia, 87. Mr. Johnson, having received more than two-thirds of necticut; 8; 'Vermont, 7; New-York. 42 ; New-Jersey, 8:
Maine, 10; Massachusetts, 14; Rhode Island, 4; Conall the votes cast, was declared duly nominated Pennsylvania, 30; Delaware, 3; Maryland, 10; North as the candidate for Vice-President. This Con. Carolina, 15; Georgia, 11 ; Kentucky, 15; Tennessee, 15; vention adopted no platform.
Onio, 21; Louisiana, 5; Mississippi, 4; Indiana, 9; Michigan, 8-Total, 234.
THE OPPOSITION IN 1836.
ABOLITION CONVENTION, -1839. In 1835, Gen. Wm. H. Harrison, of Ohio, was nominated for President, with Francis Granger, Warsaw, N. Y., on the 13th of November, 1839,
A Convention of Abolitionists was held at for Vice-President, by a Whig State Convention Warsaw, N. Y., on the 13th of November, 1839, at Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, and also by a
which adopted the following: Democratic Anti-Masonic Convention held at Resowed, That, in our judgment, every consideration the same place. A Whig State Convention in of duty and expediency which ought to control the Maryland also nominated Gen. Harrison for Pre-of the U. 8. to organize a distinct and independent poli
action of Christian freemen, requires of the Abolitionists sident, with John Tyler, of Virginia, for Vice. tical party, embracing all the necessary means for nomiGen. H. also received nominations in New York, nating candidates for office and sustaining them by
public suffrage. Ohio and other States. Hugh L. White, of Tennessee was nominated
The Convention then nominated for Presiby the Legislatures of Tennessee and Alabama, dent James G. Birney, of New York, and for as the Opposition or Anti-Jackson candidate; Vice-President Francis J. Lemoyne, of Pennwhile Mr. Webster was the favorite of the Oppo- sylvania. These gentlemen subsequently desition in Massachusetts, and Willie P. Mangum, clined the nomination. Nevertheless they of N. C. received the vote of S. C., 11. The received a total of 7,609 votes in various Free result of the contest of 1836 was the election States. of Mr. Van Buren, who received the electoral votes of the States of
DEMOCRATIC NATIONAL CONVENTION, Maine, 10; New-Hampshire, 7; Rhode Island, 4; Con
1840. necticut, &; New York, 42; Pennsylvania, 30 ; Virginia, 28; North Carolina, 15; Louisiana, 5; Mississippi, 4;
A Democratic National Convention met at Illinois, 5; Alabama, 7; Missouri, 4; Arkansas, 3; Michi- Baltimore, May 5th, 1840, to nominate candigan, 3-Total 170.
dates for President and Vice-President. DeleGen. Harrison received the votes of
gates were present from the States of Maine, Vermont, 7; New-Jersey, 8; Delaware, 3; Maryland, New-Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Rhode 10; Kentucky, 15; Ohio, ži; and Indiana, 9-Total, 73. Island, New-York, New-Jersey, Pennsylvania,
Hugh L. White received the vote of Georgia, Maryland, North Carolina, Georgia, Kentucky, 11, and Tennessee, 15: total, 26. Mr. Webster Tennessee, Ohio, Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, received the vote of Massachusetts, 14.
Indiana, Missouri, Michigan, and Arkansas.
Gov. William Carroll, of Tennessee, presided, WHIG NATIONAL CONVENTION,--1839.
and the Convention, before proceeding to the
nomination of candidates, adopted the followA Whig National Convention representing ing platform--viz.: twenty-one States met at Harrisburg, Pa., Dec. 4, 1839. James Barbour, of Virginia, presided, limited powers, derived solely from the Constitution, and
1. Resowed, That the Federal Government is one of and the result of the first ballot was the nomina- the grants of power shown therein ought to be strictly tion of Gen. William H. Harrison, of Ohio, who construed by all the departments and agents of the received 148 * votes to 90 for Henry Clay, and government, and that it is inexpedient and dangerous to
exercise doubtful constitutional powers. 16 for Gen. Winfield Scott. John Tyler, of 2. Resowed, That the Constitution does not confer Virginia, was unanimously nominated as the upon the General Government the power to commence Whig candidate for Vice-President. The Con. or carry on a general system of internal improvement. vention adopted no platform of principles; but authority upon the Federal Government, directly or in
3. Resowed, That the Constitution does not confer the party in conducting the memorable cam- directly, to assume the debts of the several States, conpaign of 1840, assailed the Administration of tracted for local internal improvements or other State Mr. Van Buren for its general mismanagement purposes ; nor would such assumption be just or exof public affairs and its profligacy, and the 4. Resolved, That justice and sound policy forbid the
Federal Government to foster one branch of industry to * Ballots were repeatedly taken in coinmittee throughout two the detriment of another, or to cherish the interest of or three days; but as no candidate received a majority, it was one portion to the injury of another portion of our comonly reported to the convention that the committee had not been mon country--that every citizen and every section of able to agree on a candidate to be presented to the convention, the country has a right to demand and insist upon an Finally, the delegates from New York and other States which bad supported Gien. Scott, generally went over to Gen. Harrison, equality of rights and privileges, and to complete and who thus received a niajority, when the result was declared, as ample protection of persons and property from domestic
violence or foreign aggression,