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Now, Dr. Yates does not seem to be in any respect remarkable as a traveller; while, considering the years elapsed since he visited the parts described by him, his facts, incidents, and reflections must be somewhat ancient, if not stale. There is much in his volumes that would be commonplace at any time; and when we add, speaking generally, that his manner of writing is diffuse, prolix, and that of a person who can hardly have done with what he undertakes to talk about, it will be surmised that the "Modern History and Condition of Egypt" is not only a bulky but a heavy book. And yet had compression of his notes and opinions been rigidly instituted; had the Doctor busied himself about matters which, although all very proper and desirable at the time when he travelled, have already grown quite familiar to the general reader, as well as let points alone upon which he does not seem to have been thoroughly informed, we should not only have had a cheaper and lighter work, but one that must have been much more satisfactory as a record of facts and speculations as well as a portfolio of pictures, than the one which he has at such a late hour given to the world. Above all, we object to the mass of documents thrown into an appendix to each volume, which greatly swell the book, without anything like an adequate amount of information or interest resulting.

Dr. Yates's Modern Egypt would at any time have been an acceptable and entertaining work, had its contents consisted almost exclusively of a narrative of those things that came immediately under his observation, or of those opinions and reflections that fell within the range of his more particular knowledge, such as professional matters, and whatever had been the subject of his previous more eager reading and study. It would be easy for any soundheaded and tolerably well-informed person, to pick out of his pages a sufficient number of apt and even of striking passages for the filling of a tidy volume. For example, although he is sparing of medical remarks, even when a main object of his travels was the examination of diseases, yet he never delivers himself of a statement of facts and circumstances which address themselves to his professional sense, without exhibiting a competency of skill, whether you take his matter or his manner. A fair sample of his satisfying and informing, -of his condensed and pertinent, observations in the department mentioned, will be found where he speaks of the barber-surgeons of the East. He says

Barbers in the East, as in Europe in the olden time, generally understand the arts of cupping, bleeding, and tooth drawing; some of them pretend to set bones, and they are not unfrequently applied to for "nostrums;" they are also expected to dress wounds and extract balls. Their manner of cupping is very simple; rude, but efficacious. They first apply a buffalo's horn to the skin by its broad end; the narrow end remaining open, the air is sucked out by the mouth. Atmospheric pressure causes the skin to rise;

the lips being withdrawn, the horn is removed, and the parts beneath are scarified by means of a razor: the horn is instantly applied, and a second vacuum being created by aid of the lips, the blood flows. Cupping, and counter-irritation, especially by the "moxa," or the actual cautery, are had recourse to by these people on almost every occasion; and they often do a great deal of good. In Persia and China, blood-letting is highly objected to, especially among the great, chiefly on superstitious grounds: and the same prejudice is believed to have facilitated, if it did not cause, the death of the late Princess Mirhmah, a daughter of the Sultan Mahmoud. She was the wife of Sayeed Pascha, who held the office of Seraskier; and so great a favourite, that when she died a royal firman was issued interdicting all singing and music, and every other demonstration of joy, for several days to come. It seems that the princess was delivered of a still-born infant; and symptoms of inflammation arising after a lapse of three days, the physician advised that she should be bled. The proposal being, however, so novel, and so much at variance with established usage (for it is thought presumption to spill the blood of a princess), the wishes of the H'akkim were resisted to the last; and the royal patient sunk into the grave, another victim to the hydra of superstition.

Barbers put us in mind of beards rather than of bleeding in these days of European advancement; and therefore we may let the Doctor be heard regarding the hairy appendix of the eastern chin,-its honours, privileges, and offices.

Poor Burdkhardt, who was better known in Egypt as "Sheikh Ibrahim," found his beard a great protection to him; and those who have read his travels will remember, that on one occasion, a certain chief, doubting that he was a Mussulman, insulted him by pulling his beard, which was instantly resented by a blow: no further doubts were then entertained. To stroke the beard, or gently touch the end of it, is regarded as a compliment; and it is a common practice among the Arabs thus to lay hold of it, admire, and smooth down the beard, when endeavouring to coax and flatter or make a bargain. It throws a man off his guard, and opens his heart. An Arab would almost as soon be deprived of a limb as be shorn of his beard: for, independently of the disgrace which the sons of Islam attach to such an operation, he feels that he is severed from an object to which he is bound by the strongest ties of affection. It is his constant friend and companion, let his circumstances alter as they may. He confers with it in difficulties and doubts; he imparts to it all his secrets; It affords him diversion in solitude; and in the hour of adversity and trial it becomes his solace and resource. When thoughtful, he grasps it; when pleased, he strokes it; when vexed and excited, he pulls it. It is held sacred by every class, and it is referred to as a token of fidelity and honour. To swear by the beard, the beard of one's father, and the beard of the Prophet, is at all times sufficiently binding; and he who possesses a fine beard, is invariably a person of commanding exterior, and an object of respect--for he cannot be very young, and he is therefore supposed to have some wisdom, and a certain degree of experience in human affairs.

In most parts of the East, those men who are by nature beardless are considered insignificant; and in Persia, where this graceful appendage is so highly esteemed, they become objects of ridicule, and are quaintly denominated "Birish," "No beards." It may well be supposed, then, that any slight offered to the beard in such countries is an unpardonable offence ; and various epithets are applied by individuals in token of their contempt or regard according as the case may be. Thus, to "laugh at his beard," and to "make play with another man's beard," signify to mock or cajole, and are a direct insult to manhood.

The illustrations of Scripture history occupy a very considerable space in these volumes, and will, owing to the study which the author has manifestly devoted to biblical themes, be perused with particular attention. We quote one passage, which is crammed with apt notices and examples.

The

The Arabs of the Desert commonly clothe themselves also in manufactures of camel's hair; and the article most prized by them is the “halk,” or cloak of that material: it is either black or white, with or without broad stripes; it consists of a square piece, with holes for the arms, and has no seam. Druses of Lebanon, and the people of Mesopotamia, not only wear a coat which is "without seam," but "of many colours," having variegated stripes proceeding to a point downwards from the shoulders, like a reversed pyramid. This is believed to be of the same description as that bestowed by Jacob on his favourite child. We are informed that our Saviour also wore "a coat without seam, woven from the top throughout;" and that, in the wilderness, St. John had his raiment of camel's hair, and a leathern girdle about his loins." The "sackcloth" of the Scriptures was a similar manufacture, but of the roughest and coarsest kind, like that which is worn by dervishes and reputed saints. It is still used for sacks and tent-covers. We can easily understand the necessity of a girdle; no persons with loose flowing robes can engage in active occupations without first "girding up the loins"—that is, taking up a portion of their dress out of their way. Some lay aside their outer garment for the time; Others prepare to put forth their strength by fastening a belt or girdle round the waist, and by laying bare the arms to the shoulder. Thus, Elijah "girded up his loins, and ran before Ahab to Jezreel ;" and the sacred writings abound in passages which, like this, illustrate the habits of those who wear the Oriental costume.

One specimen more: it belongs to the more ordinary class of tourist-themes, exhibiting the Doctor as an eye-observer and a man of right feeling, as well as how ably he can turn to a professional account circumstances which would become positively barren of practical suggestions in the hands of other sorts of travellers. Donkey-boys furnish the text.

There is not a more useful set of people in the country, especially in Cairo and Alexandria. Whatever we do, wherever we go, they are in request: we could not get on at all without them. They are sure to find out the residence of a Frank, and as sure to be at hand when needed. They watch

his motions, and, like the secret police of Austria, can generally tell where he is to be found, which are his favourite haunts, and at what hour he reached his home the previous night. They are to be seen lurking about the corners of the streets in parties, with their ragged, jaded, scraggy-looking animals, waiting for a job. They are themselves as ragged, wretched, and emaciated; and it is truly wonderful how they are able to support the fatigue which they are destined to go through. They live but sparingly, and are at the call of every one, whether Infidel, Turk, or Jew. They are constantly on the alert; watch the looks of every passer-by; and at the smallest indication of assent, drag their meagre-looking beasts to the spot, vociferating all the way, abusing each other, scrambling to arrive first, and sounding the praise of these most unfortunate of all the brute creationanimals which, to judge by appearances, would hardly have strength to transport themselves into the adjoining street, and therefore little calculated to bear the burden of a full-grown Turk, to say nothing of a saddle and trappings weighing twenty-five pounds. It is easy to perceive that neither man nor beast has more rest or more to eat than he knows what to do with. Some bread, a few dates, a piece of gourd or melon, some "youart," (curd), and a little rice occasionally, constitute the food of the one, and a bundle of chopped straw and a few beans the support of the other. Both sleep in the open air, or in a miserable shed surrounded by filth and rubbish. I have already described the manner of their proceeding, the hurried uncertain course of their existence, and the singular vivacity with which they wriggle their way along the crowded streets, threading the busy multitude, apparently without fatigue to either party. These boys must run several miles in the course of a few hours; and their very looks betray the nature of their avocation. The countenance is always haggard, pale, and anxious, their breathing hurried, their whole visage and demeanour sharp and restless. As we might expect, they shorten their days, and very many of them die of a diseased heart. They are not predisposed to consumption; for this is a disease that is seldom to be met with in Egypt; nor is asthma so frequent in its occurrence as we might imagine à priori that it would be: still it occurs, and, I have no doubt, is brought on in these youths by violent exercise, and frequent exposure to the heavy dews of the night. But " use is second nature;" and if they lived better, they would probably not only be unable to perform their work, but they would be rendered more susceptible of disease. They are generally satisfied with three or four piastres a day, and think themselves well paid. Many do not give them half that sum, and others take their donkies by force, especially the soldiers and "jacks in office," and give them nothing, except, perhaps, a severe beating. No wonder, then, that they prefer the service of a Frank, and particularly of an Englishman, who still preserves his character for liberality even in Egypt.

The volumes, according to the prevalent fashion, are enriched by means of illustrations of an artistic kind.

128

ART. XIII.—The Works of Jeremy Bentham. Part XX. Edinburgh. Tait.

DR. BOWRING's "Memoirs of Bentham, including Auto-biographic Conversations and Correspondence," are drawing to a close; another part promising to complete the work. We may at some future time feel it necessary not only to enter upon an examination of the character of the great jurisconsult and legal reformer, and also of his works, but of the biographer's performance. In the meanwhile, it is scarcely needful to do more as regards the present instalment, than to say, that in so far as the correspondence is in this portion of the publication to be spoken of, extending for about forty years over the lifetime of the philosopher, and reaching his eightieth year, it is as vivacious, as abounding in native simplicity, candour, and cordial love of what would in most men be the mere theme of dry abstractions, or of worn-out and unheeded speculations, as were his first impulses and theories, and he as he was when he first promulgated them. Whether right or wrong in his doctrines and mode of disquisition, Jeremy was to be beloved, and will be revered for his honesty, his unaffected vanity if you will, his unselfish discoveries, his permanency in all that he believed to concern the lasting interests of human society. Indeed, were it for nothing but the labour, the ardour and good-will, the perfect self-denial, with which to the last he pursued his grand objects for ameliorating and elevating the condition of his fellow men, he would be deserving of high honour; but when one studies his works as well as his character, and finds that he was a great originator and wise cultivator, it is impossible not to look upon him in the most exalted light of a doer as well as a projector. Just hear how Edward B. Sugden adressed Jeremy on one

occasion:

I do myself the pleasure of sending you a copy of a pamphlet, on a subject which you have so long since so entirely and happily exhausted, as to leave nothing to future writers to attempt. Truth, however, requires sometimes to be repeated; and this is all that I have done. It is not without hesitation that I venture to intrust to you my humble production; but Mr. Brougham assures me that it will be kindly received; and, as he justly observed, it is a tribute due to the father of the subject. I beg to express my regrets that I have so long delayed to render it.

But how playful, how affectionate,—what a character-reader and plain-spoken person,-what a prophet and what a lover, the shy yet garrulous old man! How gay yet how grave! How doting yet how wise! It needeth only to pluck, and fruit full of knowledge, flavour, and mellowness you will grasp. These to Henry Brougham, whose accession and adhesion to the cause of legal reform were the subjects of boundless gratulation on the part of the philosopher.

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