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very soft at night-which, indeed, is no luxury in a warm climate, generally laying themselves down with their blanket about them, in the hall or lobby of the house, or about the landings of the stairs. The "cow-skin" is not much used in the field. The driver is always a black man, who has the immediate oversight of the hands in the field. Sometimes he carries a bundle of small wands, perhaps five or six; some have a horsewhip, which they apply to the shoulders of the women, and the bare buttocks of the men, when they make bad work, or misbehave in any way; but this sort of punishment is not very severe. It is when the "cow-skin," a piece of hide twisted into the appearance of a riding-switch, sometimes painted red, is applied to their bare back for some heinous offence that they make the woods ring with their cries, which I have heard; but I never saw the punishment inflicted, and I hope never shall.

But truth is all the end I aim at in writing these pages. Truth, then, compels me to say that the planters in general treat their slaves with great humanity.

Our traveller appears to have mixed a good deal amongst the people, both in Canada and the States, at public meetings, fieldpreachings, lectures, mobs, the raising of log-huts, and so forth. A scene of the last-mentioned sort, witnessed in Canada, is thus described:

Four blocks of wood, about a foot and a half above the ground, marked out the corners of the dwelling that was to be erected before night. On these blocks were laid the first tier of logs, dove-tailed in a very rough way. Four of the most experienced hands took their station, one at each corner. whose duty it was to make the joints and carry up the angles perpendicular. I observed that they took particular care not to let the logs touch each other, except at the corners where they rested. After the walls got so high that they could not lift up the logs, two saplings were cut, and the bark being stripped off to make them smooth, they were placed against the wall in a slanting position. This answered for a slide, on which the people below pushed up the logs with crutches, or long poles with forked ends.

At first they went to work moderately and with quietness, but after the whisky had been handed about several times they got very uproariousswearing, shouting, tumbling down, and sometimes like to fight. I then left off working, thinking I would be as safe out of the way a little; but this would not do, as they would have no idlers there. The handing round of the whisky was offered to me, but I declined the honour, being a teetotaller. So I had now no choice but commence working again, as I wished to see the end of the matter. I was sick of it before this; for most of them were drunk and all of them excited. The manner in which they use their axes was a "caution." Many accidents happen, and lives are frequently lost on these occasions, both from accidents and quarrels.

In all there were about twenty-four men, one half Irish; on the whole about the roughest specimen of humanity I have ever seen. So much was I disgusted at their conduct, that, even if paid for it, I would not live amongst them.

A house of very considerable dimensions was up before night, the doors and windows having to be cut out next day. But the Scotchman declares he would not like the foundation of his house laid with so many oaths to consecrate it as he heard that day.

From a chapter on Religion, we quote a notice of the Mormonites, with which we shall conclude. The passage also glances at the number of sects and the general state of religion in America. The view is gloomy and repulsive.

One of the newest lights is a sect called Mormons, whose leader is Joseph Smith, whom I saw in the city of Rochester, a chuckle-headed looking fellow who asserted he had found a new Bible, hid in a rock, written in an unknown character on leaves of gold; and that, by the gift of the Holy Spirit, he was enabled to read it. It is now published in one volume, about the size of the New Testament. From it they learn that our Saviour was in America, and underwent the same trials and sufferings as he did in the Old World, somewhere up in "the west, where a ship cannot go, neither a galley with oars." They believe that the Saviour will return in about sixty, or, I believe fifty-eight, years from the present time, and assume the temporal government of the world for 1000 years, in which there will be nothing but milenial peace and happiness. He is to make his advent in Illinois, where they are building a city called Navoo; and they are at present raising a temple for his dwelling.

When I was in Cincinnati, I lived a fortnight with a family that believed in this doctrine, as likewise did some of the boarders. They call themselves "Latter-day Saints," and do not disbelieve our Bible and New Testament; but profess to be the only party who understand it aright. They can prophecy, heal the sick by laying on of hands, and raise the dead; and they say churches that cannot perform or exhibit these signs of their authority and power are of the Devil; for it is said, "these are the signs by which they shall be known."

I had several arguments with a gentleman who lived with us a few days, and was an elder in this only true church. He was a staid, respectablelooking man, and maintained his faith with great moderation. He mentioned several cases that had come under his own observation, of persons who had been recovered from sickness by the laying on of hands, and by the prayers of the saints; and, on the whole, he had probably the best of the argument. However, that was no great triumph.

Unitarianism is making great progress. All the preachers of this denomination that I have heard appear to me to be men of considerable power of mind.

I did not witness any of the large and continued camp-meetings, about which so much has been said and written; but, from what I could learn, I have little doubt but they sometimes exhibit human nature in a way that would astonish the natives of the year 2842, if it should ever reach their ears. It would fill a volume to give an account of all the different sects that have arisen-some calling themselves Saints, and some Sinners,-Quakers and Shaking Quakers. I think they might all be shaking.

Taking a general view of the state of religion in America, it appears to

me that the active and energetic minds of that enterprising people are in hot pursuit after truth. It is true, they appear to be groping in the dark— extending their arms in all directions, like a blind man searching for a lamppost-catching at, and carried away by some unsubstantial shadow, "finding no rest for the soles of their feet.

What the end of the matter will be cannot be told. But, looking at the whole circumstances of the case, as a man of the world, it seems not improbable that, in process of time, by adding and substracting, pulling down and building up, denying old established faith, and inventing new, they will fritter down the whole Christian faith, until they leave not a vestige of it in the public mind.

ART. IV.—A Pedestrian Tour in Calabria and Sicily. By ARTHUR J. STRUTT. Newby.

SICILY, and still more Calabria, offer some of the freshest fields in Europe for the tourist. The latter country, although in the vicinity of Naples, and having both its coasts continually passed by ships, is seldom explored, and consequently is but little known. Several features in the character of the region and of the natives necessarily present in these circumstances singularities and curious points for description. Roads, means of travelling, and accommodation are wanting; modern art has done little to recommend the country to the man of taste, while the inhabitants, whether belonging to the aristocratic rank, or the order of peasants, remain in a condition not far removed from that which characterized other parts of Europe during the dark ages. This circumstance, however, might be supposed to present attractions to the philanthropist, as well as to the artist or the traveller in search of the picturesque and the romantic. But the fact is that Calabria has got such a bad name for being infested with brigands, and is generally understood to expose the tourist to so many dangers, not merely as respects property, but life, that the majority of people, without perhaps assigning the real cause, prefer to direct their steps in more secure and in better beaten tracks.

These prudential reasons and this personal timidity appear to get the mastery even of gentlemen who loudly proclaim their love of adventure, and who seek to relate stories of hair-breadth escapes. Otherwise, how can it be that a country which presents so much that is magnificent in scenery, so charming a climate at a certain season of the year, and so many exciting recollections, should remain next to a terra incognita in this age of galloping wonder-seekers?

Society in Calabria at this day is not only old-fashioned and primitive in many of its modes and prejudices, but peculiar in sundry respects. There are, we believe, still vestiges of the Saracen as well as of the Albanian among the people, whether costume, arts, or language be considered. Then the owners of the soil, while retain

ing much that is feudal in manners and ways of thinking, have been allowed to receive influences from the want of settled government in modern times, have continued to cherish their family feuds, and readily resort to such lawless practices, as render them in some measure unique in the history of the different stages that occur in human society. The peasantry may be said to be still more grotesque ; while the banditti, although greatly disorganized as compared with their system and strength at no very remote period, supply topics for many an arousing chapter.

Sicily, as already observed, is not such a strange land to the general reader as that about which we have been speaking. But still it admits of a much more thorough exploration than has in recent times been made in it by any of the swarm of English travellers; for, with the exception of the large towns, the island is not much safer to penetrate than the other territory; brigands being numerous and audacious in parts where one would reasonably suppose no such gentry could be met with in a country pretending to long-established and systematic government. In these circumstances Mr. Strutt's volume would be welcome, although it had fewer attractions and contained less information than actually occur in its pages.

Our author being an artist, started from Rome on a pedestrian tour through the countries mentioned, with the purpose of enriching his portfolio with sketches. He had for a companion an English gentleman, who wooed the poetic muse; several Frenchmen joining them for a considerable part of the route. But their journey was not without characteristic adventure and incident; for they got robbed by brigands, being consequently delayed by the mishap; but, on the other hand, they were brought much better acquainted with the domestic life of the Calabrians, and the form of their judicial proceedings, than they could otherwise possibly have been; for the robbery interested some of the upper classes in their behalf.

Mr. Strutt's work consists of a series of letters to his family, and exhibits the ease and liveliness which might be expected from an affectionate writer, an accomplished artist, and a man of taste; while the novelty of the topics and scenes are advantages which few tourists have enjoyed to an equal amount. Even when his sketches are rapid and brief, he gives you a pretty complete picture, the writer having an accustomed eye for the seizure of the proper points. We now make room for three short specimens, beginning with an illustration of the domestic life of the brigand order.

One incident was related to us, which is not calculated to show their domestic transactions in a very favourable light, in spite of the usual romantic ideas of the eternal fidelity of a brigand's bride. The chief of a band which infested this province had a young wife, very much attached to him, who

followed him in all his perilous wanderings, and presented him with a son and heir worthy, she hoped, of imitating the glorious exploits of his sire. This unfortunate little bambino, however, so disturbed the peace of the brigand's tent with its infantine cries, that he threatened more than once to put an end to its wailing; and one night, when returning savage and disappointed from an unsuccessful expedition, he was again provoked by its squalls; rising suddenly in a fury, he put his threat into execution before the eyes of

the terrified mother.

From that moment love gave place in her heart to hatred and the desire of vengeance; whilst her husband, enraged at her continually regretting the child, and perhaps suspecting some vindictive intentions on her part, resolved, after some domestic squabbles, upon putting her also to death. One night, having confided his project to his nephew, whom he had left at the head of the camp of brigands, he told him not to give the alarm if he heard the report of a gun, as it would merely be himself giving a quietus to la Giuditta and with this warning he departed to his own tent, a little distant from the others. Now it so happened that his loving spouse had fixed upon this very evening for the performance of her own long-nursed schemes of revenge; and having deferred her own fate by her more than usually. amiable demeanour, and artfully got her victim to sleep, she discharged the contents of a rifle into his body; and cutting off his head, escaped with it to Reggio, where she claimed and obtained a reward from the authorities for his destruction. The nephew heard the report of the rifle in the night; and being forewarned, merely muttered to himself, "'o zio ch' ammazza la Giuditta," and turned quietly round to sleep again.

Next we quote a passage that speaks of the filial principle as cherished and manifested in Calabria.

We staid conversing some time with a young man, who had a fine natural taste for music; and with some young priests, who envied greatly our facility of travelling. "How is it possible," they cried, "that your parents should have allowed you, so young, to leave them and travel so far, to girar il mondo; whilst we cannot even get permission from our fathers to go and see Catanzaro ?" This is one proof among many others we have had occasion to remark, of the height to which filial duty is carried in this country : a young man, who had certainly arrived at years of discretion, being at least three or four and twenty, complained in our presence that his father would not give him leave to go to the next village; but the idea of going without leave seemed not for an instant to have entered his head. The great respect and deference paid to parents throughout Calabria has been adduced, I think, by Galanti, as one proof of its inhabitants being descended from the ancient Samnites, who carried the filial principle to its highest perfection.

Take as our last sample a sketch from Mount Etna.

It took us an hour of laborious walking to reach the summit of the cone; but we were well repaid on our arrival by the magnificence of the prospect, and the awful grandeur of the vast crater, whose precipitous dark abyss sunk

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