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meetings, which were held nearly every evening. Some, in imitation of the prophet, employed magic stones, through which they professed to see, and to describe not only the persons, but the dress and employment of people hundreds of miles distant. Their conduct grew more and more eccentric and absurd, till they resembled a party of Bacchanalians. Sometimes they imitated the wild modes of Indian warfare, such as knocking down, scalping, and tearing out the bowels of the victims. At the dead hour of night they ran through the fields and over the hills in pursuit of balls of fire, which they declared they beheld in the atmosphere. Sometimes they mounted on the stumps of trees, and while absorbed in visions, they plunged into the waters of baptism, or harangued the imaginary multitude by which they thought themselves surrounded. Others fell into a trance, and having continued apparently lifeless for a long time, awoke to relate what they had learned respecting the future glory of the saints, and the destruction of the unbelieving. Sometimes their faces, bodies, and limbs were violently distorted and convulsed, until they fell prostrate on the ground. Three of the young converts pretended to have received a commission to preach from the skies, after having first leaped in the air as high as they could. All these performances were believed to emanate from the spirit of God."

We have already alluded to the opposition which is threatened by the Mormons to the State in which they have founded, built, and fortified a city. Joe, as Lieutenant-General, had been entrusted by the authorities of Illinois with cannon, for the purpose of vindicating the laws. Now, these very engines he is preparing to turn against the givers; having in many and flagrant ways transgressed against all that is regular and necessary. He has even had the audacity to institute a secret band, whose office it was to murder whoever should become obnoxious to the leaders, in respect of conduct or doctrine. But to Mr. Caswall's volume we must direct all who desire to read of thousands of equally audacious and strangely successful methods and measures in the history of Mormonism; for nowhere can a more curious array of circumstances, or more astounding results be met with.

ART. XIV.—An Essay on Punctuation; with incidental remarks on Punctuation. By F. FRANCILLON, Solicitor.

THERE is originality in this Essay. It contains first a history of punctuation; after which we have this view elaborately urged,-that the period, colon, semicolon, and comma, are not stops, but parts of the sentence. They are of service, in that they enable the reader more readily to comprehend the meaning of a sentence; which, if properly constructed, would almost point itself; for, if otherwise, although the author's meaning may be gathered, and it may be clear what he intended to say, yet he should have reconstructed the composition, rather than havet rusted to the punctuation as the means of giving perspicuity to what he has written. This is a useful and suggestive view, and it is well developed and enforced by the author, who has brought a legal precision to the illustration of his principle.

ART. XVII.-The Autobiography of Henrich Stilling; late Aulic Counsellor to the Grand Duke of Baden, &c.

A CHEAP edition of a book that has been pronounced by competent judges, to be the most delightful one that can be named in the whole circle of German literature. It is said to have been written at the suggestion of Goethe, to whom the life had often been orally related by Stilling. While as a story it is as natural and powerful as anything John Bunyan has written, de tailing extraordinary efforts and incidents in search oflearning, it presents a living and vivid picture of peasant-life and character as exhibited in Germany. It is remarkable that the work should have been so late in finding an English dress; but it is no doubt destined to appear in edition after edition, like the most popular books in our language, now that it has been brought out at a price so small as to invite every purchaser who has a trifle of pocketmoney to expend on literature of any class.

ART. XV.-Le Keux's Memorials of Cambridge.

THIS series of Views of "the Colleges, Halls, Churches, and other Public Buildings of the University and Town of Cambridge, engraved by J. Le Keux, from Original Drawings made expressly for the work; with Historical and Descriptive Accounts of the Buildings, &c., by Thomas Wright, M.A., and the Rev. H. Longueville Jones, M.A.," is now completed. The views consist of seventy-six highly-finished steel engravings, and as many wood illustrations, besides letter-press matter; forming, when bound up, two handsome volumes, and either in an octavo or quarto size, as may suit the purchaser.

To thousands of persons it cannot be necessary to dilate on the merits of this elaborate work. The highest praise and in fewest words that can be given of it is to say, that the Memorials of Cambridge equal in every point those of Oxford; which alone would have established Mr. Le Keux's name as one of the most enterprising, pains-taking, and accomplished illustrators in this age of picture-books. We must speak particularly of the good faith which was maintained wtth the public by this work. Not only has it been issued with exemplary regularity, but the engravings and every feature of the book, whatever department can be mentioned, has been anxiously and honestly finished according to whatever promise or pretension the first part held out.

Cambridge, as a subject, does not yield in importance or interest to Oxford; nor canthe possessor of the memorials relating to the latter, consistently deny to his library those of the sister university. Unquestionably, Cambridge offers a rich and teeming field for the pencil as well as for the pen; its edifices, its adjacent scenery, and its recollections, combining to form themes of unsurpassed interest. With regard to the historical and descriptive part of the present publication, we can safely state that it is ample, elegantly written, and the result of skilfully-directed research. It is

not too much to say, that information is here to be met with, that was never before made public, and which seems not to have been previously accessible. The artistic illustrations cannot be too highly recommended. In fact, these have features which are rare, compared with the most esteemed engravings of the day. We must particularly notice the distinctness and reality, so to speak, of the plates. The eye rests on perfect forms, and instantly detects the exact characteristics of the buildings, with their precise and individual appendages; instead of being confounded by means of fanciful lights and shadows, or being bewildered amid imaginary trees and shrubs. Altogether it is a true as well as a beautiful work, and worthy of the celebrated and venerable objects which it professes to exhibit. We must not dismiss the publication without mentioning that the last part of all contains a plan of the University and Town of Cambridge, that has the merits which characterise the other portions, and which appears to us to be a model of minuteness and distinctness. In a word, this is a sterling book; one of much labour, and that must have cost Mr. Le Keux great anxiety and expense, although published at a low price; the proprietor, no doubt, confidently trusting to a continuous sale, and having laboured to be permanently useful, as well as to gratify the lovers of art:-a book to be studied and admired. It is appropriately dedicated to the Duke of Northumberland, Chancellor of the University.

ART. XVI.-Night and Day Thoughts.

66

A VOLUME of poems, there being one in blank verse, called Home and its Duties," —a prosaic and familiar title, besides a lot of sonnets. We have spoken of the longer piece as being to a homely tune; and the author has thus far preserved consistency, that he has thrown a very considerable amount of readable prose into the regular shape of verse; but there is marvellously little poetry in this volume, whether spirit or choice of diction be regarded.

ART. XVII.-Day-Dreams By Ch. KNOX.

CAPTAIN KNOX, the author of "Hardness," &c., has risen rapidly into repute, and seems determined to sustain his literary character by the variety as well as abundance of his efforts. All his works convey to us the character of having been written by one who has full confidence in himself; and who at the same time has delight in what he is doing. As a poet he does not seem to us to be so original or vigorous as in his novels. Still these are very musical effusions, and appear to have had their birth at the moments when the moods of mind which they affect to express were actually experienced. They are sweetly illustrated with twenty engravings by Mason, from drawings on wood by H. Warren. In respect of binding, type, &c. this volume vies with the most tasteful of the Annual tribe.

XVIII.-The Covenant; or the Conflict of the Church.
other Poems.

With

These Poems are chiefly connected with the Ecclesiastical History of Scotland. The Covenant leans to the popular or non-intrusionist side of the controversy which is distracting the Kirk. It traces the history of that establishment from its foundation to the close of the Stuart dynasty, and urges with such considerable spirit and earnestness, passages and eras in its conflicts, as will serve to warm and keep alive the zeal of those who resist patronage, and stoutly stand up for the supremacy of the general assembly in all that regards the spiritual well-being of the people.

XIX.-The Gift-Book of Poetry; selected chiefly from Modern

Authors.

This is one of the most satisfactory collections of poetry that has been published; for the selections are not only made with good judgment, but the pieces are given in that entire shape, that is not less necessary in point of fairness to the poet than to the reader.

XX. Turning and Mechanical Manipulation. By C. HOLTZAPFELL. Vol. I. Illustrated by upwards of three hundred wood-cuts.

Mr. Holtzapfell intends to furnish the profession, and also the amateur, in a very extensive and elaborate work, with every necessary practical instruction for those who apply themselves to the lathe, or are desirous of learning what are the various pursuits followed by gentlemen given to mechanical manipulation. The work is to extend to five volumes; but each volume may be purchased separately, and will form a distinct treatise on the branch to which it is appropriated; while the first two may satisfy the greater number of amateurs.

The portion before us contains a deal of particular information with regard to the tools used, and the manner of their use. But a more interesting part is devoted to an account of the different materials employed in turning, these being taken from the various departments of the natural kingdom. We had no idea until looking into this volume, of the interest, and the vast variety of matter that attach to its subject. But as we shall return to it, and in an article of some length, we have only to state on this occasion, that the curious and the ingenious will find ample suggestions in the book, for the exercise of their minds and for engaging manipulation.

XXI.-Oliver and Boyd's New Edinburgh Almanack and National Repository, for the year 1843.

National indeed, as concerns Scotland, and universal if compared with other almanacks. It comes forth with every new year with new improve

ments, although it is difficult to conceive how these can be carried farther; whether the amount and variety of information and statistical facts, selection, the system of arrangement, the process of cramming into a compact volume, without huddling be considered. It is by far the most useful annual published; and it is entertaining withal. It is an indispensable companion and necessary daily remembrancer, to all who are general readers, or who have a generous curiosity.

There are considerable novelties in this year's book, the chief of which have been suggested and supplied by new legislative enactments, viz. :the laws and provisions of the Income-tax, the New Tariff, and a variety of changes relating to the laws of trade. The analysis in this almanack of these measures, appears to us to be a very able and carefully executed one, and to be as clear to the ordinary reader, as such technical, redundant, and involved compositions as acts of parliament can be rendered.

XXII. The Natural Principles and Analogy of the Harmony of Form. By D. R. HAY.

Mr. Hay is "decorative painter to the queen, Edinburgh;" but in this volume, as well as in a much smaller publication of an earlier date, into which we have looked, having for its subject "The Laws of Harmonious Colouring," we find ample evidence of a philosophic and original thinker, as well as of practical knowledge. The design of the present work is to ascertain what are the principles of beauty in form, and to reduce them to an exact science,—the theory being that a system of linear harmony is similar to that which regulates the arrangement of musical notes, just as the harmony of colours bears a relation, and is analogous to the harmony of sounds. The accuracy of the principles evolved, and the closeness of the analogy, as well as the novelty of the doctrine, appear yet to stand unimpeached; and should the attempt abide the necessary tests, we think that the results in architecture and various branches of the fine arts will be marked and important; while the methods of studying them will be much modified and facilitated.

According to Mr. Hay's theory, the primary forms are the circle, the triangle, and the square; while the secondary are the parallelogram, rhombus, elipsis, and hexagon. He lays it distinctly down as a fixed truth in the principles and analogy, that "there can be no perfectly harmonious combination of forms in which one of the primaries is wanting; and that the distinctions of harmony, like those of sound and colour, depend upon a predominance of one, and a subordination of the other two in the composition." But without a much fuller account of the theory, and specimens of the way in which it is worked out and illustrated, a very inadequate idea of its ingenuity can be gathered. Perhaps we may on a future occasion return to the subject. In the meanwhile, we may mention that Mr. Hay boldly goes the length with his analogy of using terms in the course of his problems, and a notation in figuring the results, such as are employed in musical science and art, expressive of the harmony of form: and this too when talking of such architectural marvels and models as the Parthenon and the Pantheon.

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