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TURKEY. No. 28 (1878).




Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of Her Majesty.


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Dec. 22, 1877 Meeting of Christians at A pokorona. Landing of

military stores from Greece..

Arrival of Commission from the Porte, to attempt

to satisfy Christians. Despatch to Mr. Layard.

31, Proceedings of a Chief who lately landed in Crete.

State of affairs. Movements of Her Majesty's

ship“ Rupert" .. ..

.. Jan. 18, 1878 Approves proceedings on landing of the Commission

of Inquiry. (No. 2)

Proceedings of Commission of Inquiry. Efforts to

bring about understanding ..

State of affairs at Rethymno. Attack on M. Trifilli.

Outrages by Mussulmans in Candia ..

Petition of the General Assembly of Creians, ad-

dressed to foreign Consuls, protesting against

proceedings of Ottoman Government ..

State of affairs in Candia. Government of Crete

unable to maintain order. Despatch from Vice-

Consul at Candia ..

Proceedings of Costaki Pasha, and prospects of

Commission of Inquiry ..

Things quiet in Suda Bay. Greater feeling of

security prevails at Canea ..

Approves proceedings with a view to facilitate

settlement between Cretans and the Commission

of Inquiry. (No. 5)

Ditto. (No. 9) ..

Attack on M. Trifilli. Sufficient satisfaction

given ..

Migrations of Mussulmans into Candia and Rethymno

the work of Mussulman agitators. Value of Cos-

taki Pasha's efforts

Increase of excitement. Return of Cretans from

Greece ..

Election of Christian Delegates. Proceedings of

Commission of Inquiry ...

Programme of Cretan Committee for the govern-

ment of the island. ..

Attack on M. Trifilli. Approves No. 13

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Approves proceedings with a view to facilitate meet-

ing of Christian Committee and Commissioners.

(No. 16)

Migration of Mussulman peasantry. Explanation

of causes

Movements of Costaki Pasha. State of affairs ..

Appointment of Costaki Pasha as Civil Governor of

Crete, and Mehemet Ali Pasha to military com-

mand of the island..

Articles embodying demands of Cretans presented

to Commission. Apprehensions of disturbances..
Announcement of appointment of Costaki Pasha.

Matters gone too far to make this step useful ..
Protest of Mussulmans against autonomy of Crete..
Arrival of battalion of Nizam from Bengazi, 500

strong ..
Delegates from western districts vote for annexation

to Greece. Outrages by Mussulmans.. ..

State of affairs in Crete. Progress of insurrection.

Outrages in the neighbourhood of Rethymno ..

General wish of Cretans for deliverance from Turkish


Declaration of Cretan Committee breaking off nego-

tiations with Commissioners and appealing to the

Great Powers

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M. Delyanni to M. Gennadius Feb. , 1878 | Further information as to insurrection in Crete ..

To Consul Sandwith

Copy of No. 28. To report as to outbreak of


Consul Sandwith ..

Transmitting memorial of Cretans to foreign Con-

suls. Demand of General Assembly ..

Conflict between Christians and troops at Bay of

Suda and various other parts of the island

Progress of insurrection.' Consul Sandwith's offer

of good offices declined from prudential motives

by Governor ..

| To Consul Sandwith

Approves proceedings as reported in No. 35 ..

Consul Sandwith ..

Insurrection continued for four days. Cessation of

fighting, and hopes for a suspension of hostilities .

Arming of Mussulman population. Outrages by

then. Panic among Christians .
» . ..

Cessation of hostilities agreed on through the media-

tion of Vice-Consul Moazzo ..

To Consul Sandwith

Approves proceedings as reported in No. 40. Satis-

faction at Mr. Moazzo's conduct ..

| Consul Sandwith ..

Truce continues. In the interior the authority of

the Government has ceased entirely.

u „ ..

Condition of affairs in Candia. Despatch from Vice-

Consul Calocherino ..

Reinforcements of regulars from Constantinople.

Osman Nouri Pasha in command of forces on the

island ..


45 | M. Delyanni to M. Gennadius

Further news of state of affairs in Crete ..

Consul Sandwith ..

Further reinforcements. Total number of regulars

now amounts to 17,000 men..

Report respecting insurrection, in answer to Lord

Derby's despatch of the 4th March. (No. 33) ..

Landing of munitions of war by blockade-runners ..

State of affairs since the outbreak of the insurrec-

tion. Destruction of property and destitution of


March of troops into district of Alikianee

| Safvet Pasha to Musurus | Apr. 2, State of Crete and limits of the provinces


M. Delyanni to M. Gennadius Mar. Los Résumé of news from Crete ..

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Correspondence respecting the Affairs of Crete.

No. 1.

Consul Sandwith to the Earl of Derby. (Received January 4, 1878.)

My Lord,

Canea, Crete, December 22, 1877. IN my despatch of the 15th instant I had the honour to inform your Lordship that a great meeting of Christians was to be held in the village of Fré, in Apokorona. That meeting took place on the following day, and the Committee has been sitting there ever since. Ten delegates from each sub-district of this half of the island have proceeded thither, the town of Rethymo having even sent delegates of its own to represent the townspeople. The fact of these representatives having been publicly elected by the people under the eyes of the authorities conveys some idea of the state of feebleness to which the Government is reduced. The meeting in Rethymo was convened by the Bishop in the principal church, and seven of the most respectable Christians were chosen and sent forth on their mission. The instructions they received were the following :

1. That they must insist on obtaining the demands put forth by the last two General Assemblies, and remain assembled until those demands are granted.

2. That the Christians must give no reason to the Mussulmans to complain of their conduct.

3. That they are to assist in appointing a police force, charged with the duty of preserving order and of putting down robbery and disorder.

A central village was chosen for carrying out the elections of the delegates for the three. western sub-districts of Kissamos, Selino, and Kydonia (Canea). The thirty men elected on this occasion, who have since joined the Committee at Fré, addressed a letter to my colleagues of France and Greece and to myself, in which they assured us that in thus assembling they were far from harbouring any designs against their Moslem fellowcountrymen, whose interests were identical with their own, and further declaring that they were bound in self-defence to take steps for putting down robbery and disorder by appointing a police of their own.

In spite of the protestations of the Christians that they will do nothing to the detriment of the Moslems, the latter have taken the alarm. At Rethymo, as I am informed by the Vice-Consul, the Mussulman villagers began flocking into the town a week ago. At first the authorities shut the gates against them, but the stream of fugitives became so great, the men being all armed, that the Mutessarif Pasha thought it prudent to admit them, and their admission created a certain terror among the Christians. During the last few days a similar movement is taking place here, though on a smaller scale; nevertheless there is a constant flow of these poor creatures, who are running away from an imaginary danger, as there can be no doubt that the mot d'ordre given out by the Committee is, that the persons and properties of the Mussulmans are to be respected.

A noted Chief, whose departure from Greece had been telegraphed ten days ago, landed in this bay on the 20th instant, within sight of Canea. He was accompanied by fifteen or twenty followers, and brought with him several hundred rifles and about 100 cases of ammunition. He was no sooner landed, than, as if by a previously concerted signal, more than 100 men, with mules and asses, were on the beach to receive him, and all the warlike stores were rapidly carried off to the mountains. He at once repaired to the village of Lakos, where he was welcomed by the people, but told in unmistakable terms that they would not abet him in any insurrectionary designs. It becomes more and more apparent, indeed, that the inhabitants in this part of the country are disinclined for any hostile movement, being anxious for the advent of spring before embarking on a course of hostilities. They know that their families would be exposed to cruel sufferings if forced to take to the mountains in mid-winter. This circumstance is of

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