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THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF MEDICINE,

medical profession :-2nd ; That as general practiSURGERY, AND MIDWIFERY.

tioners, hitherto in possesion of no means of social

communion, we are resolved to furnish them for oorOn Tuesday, the 13th instant, a conversazione of

selves, and no longer to be solely dependent upon the the members of the National Institute of Medicine,

courtesy of other bodies. Surgery, and Midwifery, was held at the Hanover

“ I have been sixty years a member of the College of Square Rooms, which was attended by a numerous

Surgeons. I believe that I am the oldest member of assemblage of both metropolitan and provincial mem.

that body, and I fearlessly assert that no man has had bers.

better opportunities of judging than I have respecting For the gratification of the gentlemen present on

all that is connected with our profession, and of the the occasion, the Council had invited collections of

various relations of that profession to the public. My subjects of great curiosity, interest, and value, which

intercourse with every order of medical practitioners were displayed on tables down the middle of the great

during this long series of years, and my enjoyment, room. Among these were instruments for the inhala.

I may fairly say, of a very considerable share of the tion of æther and of oxygen; admirable models of

public confidence, has afforded mo means more esten. pathological subjects, after the invention of Dr.

sive than has falled to the lot of any other individual, Thibert; a great many specimens of articles of the

not only of judging what the medical requirements of Materia Medica, remarkable for purity and superiority

the community are, but also of the capabilities of of quality and character; and there was a collection

erery description of medical practitioner. of engravings and curious objects of virtu, referring

“You are all aware, gentlemen, that during the wholo to the archæology of medicine, the property of G. J.

of my life I have practised as a general practitioner. Squibb, Esq., this collection, comprising the largest

Cullen, William Hunter, Jenner, and Abercrombie, number of engraved portraits of eminent medical men

were general practitioners, and we have a right to feel of all ages and countries which is known to exist.

proud of the memory of such namos. Throughout the Mr. Ward, of Wellclose Square, exhibited many

lengthened period to wbich I have referred, I bare had natural curiosities, and also one of his close cases for the culture of plants, and kindly gave a short history

reposed by the public in the competency and skill of of his discovery of this most agreeable and useful

asetul | the general practitioner has been well merited, and adjunct to the cultivation and preservation of plants,

that the principles upon which the general practitioner in an atmosphere so unfavourable as that of the

stands are those of truth and justice; and may connec<metropolis, and also as respects great diversities of

tion with the National Association and the National temperature.

Institute bas assured me, that this confidence not only Mr. Ward, after citing the elegant hypothetical

continues, but is on the increase, and that I and others description of the physical peculiarities of climate in

who must snon pass from the scene, will be followed by paradise, from the writings of Guernerus Rolfiocius,

gentlemen who will equally enjoy it, and who in the a professor at Jena, 1669, (Nulla ibi immodica

progressive advancement of practical medical and ventorum ris, nulla tempestulum procella, nullus horror,

surgical science, will fully sustain the character and non torrens æstatis ardor, non molesta ct noxia antermin

the honour of their class. siccitas; sid temperala et pacifica omnium temporum

- Identified as I have been with this class-impressed cieler se consonantia,”) stated that, supposing the with the most thorough conviction that the welfare of description to be probable, it was not unreasonable

the community depends upon its prosperity-observing to conclude, that the atinosphere and climate of his

its progressive advancement in knowledge and recase might be nearly those of paradise itself.

spectability-it has for many years been a source of Following up the analogy, Mr. Ward did not doubt

deep regret to me, that so large and intelligent a body, that apartments for human habitation might be

embracing as it does so much sterling worth, should be similarly adapted for the occupation of invalids suffering

veribs ieprived of the advantages which would result to from pulmonary and cutaneous diseases, mentioning

themselves, to science, and to the public, from their - the instance of a lady who, having been ordered to a

association into an effective and permanent body; by warmer climate, from circumstances being unable as

which association only, can they take their stand as well as unwilling to leave home, rooms were adapted for

one of the recognized Medical Iustitutions of the her use on this principle, in which, after living for one

country. or two years, she was perfectly restored to health.

| “My energies have ever been directed to the attain. In the course of the evening Mr. Pennington, the ment of this object. I took an active part during the venerable and highly-respected President of the Insti- agitation of the years 1812, 1813, 1814, and 1815. tute, delivered the following address :

| With this object in view, I hailed with satisfaction the “ Gentlemen, After difficulties innumerable, we attainment of the Act of 1815. Defective as it was, have at length arrived at a period in the history of the the Act gave to the general practitioner the power of National Institute which I trust will be an evidence of educating himself up to the standard which his two things :-)st; That as a class we are determined important functions demanded. From that time to to sustain our position, and to assert with becoming the present, and totally apart from any bill introdąced dignity our right to be considered one of the scientific by any minister, I have never failed to advocate Tak bodies of the kingdom, and an essential part of the INCORPORATION OF THE GENERAL PRACTITIONERS, TRIAL FOR UNLAWFULLY PRACTISING AS AN APOTHECARY.

245

and the retaining this power in their own hands, and who are not present, and that no misapprehension may extending and perpeluating this important privilege. arise from any imperfection in my delivery. I will It was the contemplated abrogation of this privilege, conclude by stating, that upon this first occasion the and the tendency to lower the social and professional Council has laboured under great disadvantages, owing position of the general practitioner, and thereby to to our not having rooms of our own; but for the infict a serious injury opon my fellow.creatures, in the purpose of shewing what the nature of our social cbange recently adopted by the College of Surgeons, meetings will be, they have hastily collected together a and in the medical legislation recently attempted, few objects of interest. I hope every one present will which induced me, at my advanced period of life, pass the evening agreeably, and to the advantage of again to take an active part in asserting the claims to the cause in which we are engaged, and I trust that we consideration of the class 'lo which I belong.

shall separate with a renewed determination to employ “Persopally I have no interest in the matter. My our utmost zeal and energy to promote the successful comfort and convenience would have been better con. | issue of the cause." sulted by ease and retirement-taking.no part whatever The conclusion of this address was followed by the in political agitation. Still, I by no means regret unanimous expression of warm applause, and a resolu. the part I have taken, and I here again declare my tion of thanks was carried by acclamation, onlinching determination to do all that lies in my The usual refreshments were at hand in the adjoining power, by erery means that can be suggested, and to room. All appeared to enjoy the utmost satisfaction in the latest day of my life, to accomplish the object the proceedings of the evening, and separated with an which we have so much at heart, an object which, assured confidence in the expectation of the pleasure in my mind, involves the security and happiness of similar re.unions at future times, with improved and of the whole community. At the same time I should enlarged appliances, and means of social and intelDot be doing you justice if I hesitated to express my lectual enjoyment. deep regret and great disappointment, at the apathy, distrust, and lukewarm spirit, with which the profession bas regarded objects so highly important both to them. CIIARGE OF UNLAWFULLY PRACTISING AS selves and the community ; and that out of a body AN APOTHECARY: CONVICTION. Dumbering perhaps 12 or 15,000 individuals, only 4000 An important trial on a charge of unlawfully practising have as yet been found public spirited enoagh to enrol as an apothecary took place at the Bolton Quarter their names as opponents of a scheme of legislation Sessions before the Recorder in the early part of last based upon the most erroneous principles, while a still month. The offender, Ellis Flitcroft, appears to have smaller number have come forward to co-operate been somewhat changeable, as he originally commenced actively to promote a just and beneficial measure of the active business of life as a brick-setter, then became a MEDICAL REFORM.

policeman, then returned to his original occupation, ulti* Notwithstanding all this, I live in hope of better mately taking up with the trade of agent and assistant to things. The National Institute will try and carry an American herbalist, and occasionally it seems doing a ibrough its plans in the face of every discouragement or little business on his own account, so far at least as to difficulty which may present itself. It is contemplated bring him within the limits of the Apothecaries' Act. immediately to take a house, as a permanent abnde. The following is the evidence brought forward on the The representative council will be annually renewed, - part of the prosecution, as reported in the Bollon, ve shall hold our general, our scientific, and our social Chronicle, and on which a conviction took place :meetings, we have already commenced a collection of Lettice, wife of Thomas Bartley, stated : On the books, and a large and valuable library will be doubt-7th of December last, my son, Robert, was ill. I know less formed with great rapidity,-a museum will be the Ellis Flitcroft; I went to him on Tuesday morning, theDext object of our solicitude; and I trust, that before 8th of December, at his own house. I told him that long, we shall be enabled to give substantial encourage my child was poorly. He asked me how it was; I said ment to the members of the Institute for contributions it was very red in its cheeks. He said his child would w science. A great object of the present meeting has have been in its grave but for some stuff be called been to bring together the PROVINCIAL and the Coffin's medicine. He said if the child was red in its METROPOLITAN MEMBERS, that they may have the cheeks it must be the scarlet fever. I told him my opportabity of communing freely with each other upon mother had three children poorly. He sold me 1 d. all these subjects, and upon any and every other subject worth of raspberry leaves; he said I'must get one pennywhich may bear upon their political and social welfare, worth of penny royal, mix them together, and pour and for the especial purpose of promoting the greatest boiling water upon them. He came the same day to my desideratum of all-a mutual good understanding. mother's house, where the child was. He brought a

“I bare not deemed it right, gentlemen, to occupy your powder with him. He called for boiling water, but hetime upon the present occasion by any lengthy address; mixed the powder up in some cold water, and gave but I was anxious to arail myself of the opportunity, it to the child as well as he could. He said it was to to make my own views and my own determination well make it “sweat.” My mother gave the other to her understood, and for that purpose I have had these few child. He gave me a bottle of stuff; it was not so observations printed, ibat any gentlemen who desire it “terrible" strong; it was dark-coloured. He said it was may bare copies for themselves, or for those friends intended to make it sick. I gave it to the child uniil half.

past seven at night; it became sick, but could not vomit. with the rheumatism. I sent for Plitcroft, and he seat He came at the dinner time and put a bottle of water me some medicine,-a powder and a bottle. I took a to its feet and one to its back, after he had given it the little of the powder, which felt very warm ; and after powder. After eight o'clock the same night I went towards I took the whole powder. I only took one glass of his house. I got something from his wife. He came the bottle. I asked the price of the bottle and powder. the next day, between two and three o'clock. He did He said I must never mind it, there was something not bring any stuff with him. I gave the child the stuff between my master and him. He owed him something I got from his wife, and when he came he told me to for ale. give it it every hour. The child grew worse. I went Cross-examined. I got better of my rheumatism, but to his house on the Friday. He gave me some more to not before I applied to Mr. Chadwick ; I think he set me make it vomit. My father gave Mr. Denham the stuff up. I am in the habit of passing Flitcroft's place. He that was in the bottle, which was produced at the inquest. has a sign over bis door, which says, “ Ellis Flitcroft, On the Friday the defendant charged me ls. 9d. for the vender of herbs from America ; licensed to sell tea and stuff. My child died on the day following, Saturday. coffee. I have heard them say he was acting under Dr.

Alice Grundy, the mother of the last witness, deposed: Coffio's prescription. I saw the powder which the defendant brought to my Martin Finnigan : I am acquainted with Flitcroft. I house. I had three children ill of scarlet fever. The first knew him when he joined the police-force, five or six defendant looked at them, and said that, if we did not years ago. I know him to be a brick-setter. I received take care, one of them would go off in a decline. He from Margaret Rogerson some powders, which I delirered said he would engage them for half-a-crown each, but to Mr. Taylor, the coroner. I have been in Flitcroft's I did not approve of it. There was some of the powder place; I saw a quantity of bottles, of all sizes. left; he said it would do it no harm, and I gave it the Cross-examined: I was instructed by Mr. Taylor lo child, who cried and said “Mother its burning my inquire into this matter, in consequence of two inquisithroat.” She was red in the face before, but she went tions. I am the coroner's officer. I collected the more red. I afterwards went to the Dispensary, and whole of the evidence for the inquisitions, except that of my children are all well.

Mrs. Leach. I never endeavoured to get up a case. I Cross-examined : The defendant is known in Bolton appeared before the Magistrates to apply for a warrant as the agent of Dr. Coffin, a herb doctor.

in this case. Susannah Greenhalgh said: My husband (George Thomas Mewburn: I apprehended defendant on the Greenhaigh,) was aged 25 years. He died on the 16th of 28th of January on this charge. I read over the warrant January. He gave up work on the 7th January (Thursday.) to him ; he said he had no certificate-he did not require on account of being poorly. The day after he brought | any, and that he was not an apothecary, as he dealt in home a bottle of stuff. He took a portion of it every nothing but herbs and plants. three hours. He thought it did him good at first; he J. Taylor, Esq., solicitor : I am coroner of the borough. thought so till Tuesday. He was bed fast on Wednesday In the course of my official duties two powders were morning. He then sent me for Flitcroft. He (Flitcroft, given to me by Finnigan. Those are the same that have came and saw him in bed. He ordered hot water to his been submitted :o Mr. Denham. feet, and a vinegar cloth. He desired me to go to his Joseph Denham, Esq., deposed. I am a surgeon and house for some medicine, which was to sweat him, “pick” | apothecary in this town. By direction of the coroner, I him, and purge him. I went to his house and received made a post-mortem examination of the body of the two powders; one of them was green, and the other child Robert Bartley, who had died of inflammation of buff. He charged me 4d. for them. He said I must the lungs. It was a medical case. I have examined the take nearly a teaspoonful of the green powder, and mix powders produced. The green one is Lobelia, sometimes it with warm water and sugar in a cup. He said it was vulgarly called "Indian tobacco.” It is one of the to sweat him. I was to put two teaspoonfuls of the medicines in the Materia Medica. It operates as an orange powder into a gill and a noggin of warm water, in emelic; in large doses as a purgative. [n very large a pint jug, I was to give him not quite a leacupful doses it acts as a powerful narcotic poison. I should every twenty minutes. I gave it him together till he say it is likely to be injurious when it does not prodace would not have it any more. He got worse, and died on vomiting. The other powder, the buff one, consists of the Saturday. Margaret Rogerson gave some of the cayenne pepper and spices. It is a stimulant, and would powders to Finnigan, the police officer.

produce a warming effect. In my opinion it would be Cross-examined. For a day or two at first my husband injurious to a person labouring under inflammation, aad thought he was better from the medicine. He went out improper for a child of the age of Robert Bartley under two or three times. Flitcroft told him he was unfit for any circumstances. It is in the Materia Medica. I work. He went to his work on the following Tuesday, should say it would produce great thirst; that is its and could only work three-quarters of a day. He was natural effect. worse on Tuesday night. Flitcroft said he had got cold. Cross-examined : Cayenne pepper acts as a stimulant.

Margaret Rogerson deposed : I saw Greenhalgh in bed The smallest dose, say a grain, or half a grain, would on the Thursday before he died; he appeared to be in produce an increase in the circulating powers of a child. great pain; he complained of being thirsty, and called for It might be a proper medicine to administer in cases of water, by quarts at once. I remained with him during the great debility. The other powder is known as Lobelia night. I gave the powders to Finnigan, the police-officer. inflata. To the best of my recollection it was not in the

Ann Leach: I was about two months since afflicted Pharmacopoeia of 1819; but capsicum, which is also

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called cayenne pepper, was. Lobelia is a vegetable oil of bitter almonds and ten drachms of diluted hydroproduction. It is a description of tobacco. I believe cyanic acid (Pharm. Lond.) with twelve ounces of disit grows in America. Druggists are in the babit of lilled water. The mixture to be well shaken and then selling cayenne pepper lozenges, and many kinds of filtered. medicinal preparations. Cayenne pepper may be had The dose of either form is given as from ten to forty from grocers, as well as cinnamon. I am not aware that drops. Lobelia is sold by druggists or grocers.

Another substitute is the “ Emulsio Amygdalæ cum Re-examined: A great number of medicines are Amygdalina," of Wöhler; and this is made by forming vegetable preparations. Rhubarb, opium, and prussic one ounce of emulsion with two drachms of sweet acid are such. Druggists sell medicines when parties almonds, and dissolving in it seventeen grains of amygcome to ask for them, but it is no part of their business daline. The formula for amygdaline is as follows:to go out and prescribe medicines.

Boil well pressed cake of bitter almonds twice in The case was opened by Mr. Brandt and defended strong alcohol; strain through linen, and press the residue; by Mr. Sowler, whose arguments went rather to show remove any oil that may appear; heat the liquid again, that the venders of quack medicines in general rendered and filter. In a few days, part of the amygdaline themselves liable to the penalties of the Apothecaries' crystallizes. Concentrate the residuary liquor to a Act, than that his client had escaped the infringement sixth part, and add æther, which will throw down the of it. A witness was called for the defence, from whom, amygdaline. Press it between blotting paper ; wash it however, nothing material was elicited, and Mr. Brandt with æther; re-dissolve in boiling alcohol, and set aside having replied, the Recorder summed up at soine to crystallize. length, giving it as his opinion, that the acts named in According to the evidence given at the inquest, it the evidence, said to hare been done by the defendant, appears that they (at Crunin's,) made their own “bitter were practising as an apothecary, and the Jury, after almond water," and that it was in the proportion of six consulting together for some time returned a verdict of minims of essential oil of bitter almonds to a quart of guilty. The defendant was then ordered into custody water. and sentenced to one month's imprisonment.

From Gray's Supplement we find that the formula for “ Aqua Amygdal. Amar.,” is bitter almond-cake, bruised,

lb. draw off five gallons; and a second form is MR. CRONIN'S CASE.

given under the name of “ Aqua Amygdal. Amar. ConTO THE EDITOR OF THE PROVINCIAL MEDICAL AND

centrata.” But upon this I hold we should not dwell, SURGICAL JOURNAL.

nor should any comparison be drawn, as it may savor of

unfairness; for the “prescription" certainly does not Without examining the very unusual prescription" contain the word "concentrata," although it is quite produced at the inquiry into this case, for the purpose of certain that the patient died by taking a like preparation. sbowing how far it is compatible in a chemical point of The Aqua Amygdalarum Amarum., according to Cronin's view, and without arguing how far the "Artot Prescribing" | nostrum, as known to himself was perfectly harmless ; is thereio studied, taking the composition as a whole, surely but how uncertain or indefinite to every one else what there can be no objection in showing what the different be really intended to be given, or the dose he meant to articles so much doubted or questioned are.

be taken. I give the prescription as copied from the Times As regards the other unaccepted article, the receipt of newspaper, and of course as a copy I am not respon- | Brera runs thus:sible for its being a correct transcript of Mr. Cronin's

"Pulvis Strychniæ Compositus. latinily, por for any other errors or omissions which

R. Strychniæ · · · · gr. j. may be found in it:

Oxyd. Ferri Nigri - - . dr. ij. . “R. Spt. Ammon. Aromat. • • • • dr. ij.

Sacchari · · · · · dr. iij. Tioct. Opii.

· · git, svj. Misce et divide in partes sex.” Acidi Prussici, viz., (Scheele's strength,) · gll. iv.

The evidence given at the inquest farther informs us, Pulv. Strych, Comp. • • • • gr. ij.

that to make the “Compound Strychnine Powder," Aquæ Amygd, Amar. •

• oz. vj.

according to the defendant's mode, was, that he put two M. Fiat Mist. e qua sumalur coch ij. ter die.

grains of strychnine to half an ounce of sugar. Now in “ Feb. 3, 1847, Miss Collier,

this no mention is made of the black oxide of iron, which is "D.C.”

found in Brera's formula; and moreover, the proportionate The subjoined formulæ have been given for the Aqua quantity of strychnine is much greater. This is adduced Amygdalarum Amarum :

to shew the vagueness of what was ordered, although it " Aqua Amygdalarum Amarum.” i must be admitted that the small quantity of two grains “ Mix 2 lbs. of fresh cake of bitter almonds (from of the private form of the Palvis Strychoiæ Compositus, in which the oil has been expressed,) with enough water to

a six ounce mixture, could not contribute to the sad event, form a thin pap. In twenty-four hours distill 416. I it it had formed part of the compound.

A MEMBER. by means of steam, conducted to the boltom of the still by a tube connected with a boiler. Filter the distilled water

February 17, 1847. through wet paper."-Paris Codex.

M. Hænle proposes to mix ball a drachm of essential

SIR,

to have exercised care in their observations, and took General Retrospect.

the very necessary precautions after exposing a nerve,

to suffer the animal to recover from the immediate ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY.

effects of the operation, previous to resorting to farther ON THE NERVES OF THE TONGUE.

experiment.-Gazette Méd., Mars 6, 1847. An important memoir on this subject, by MM. Biffi

PATHOLOGY. and Morganti, contains the following conclusions:

BUFFY COAT OF THE BLOOD. 1. The glosso.pharyngeal nerve, independent of its special sensibility, possesess an exquisite sense of touch,

In a memoir on the sigoification of the buffy coat as was demonstrated by experiment on dogs and horses. and on the production

and on the production of the blood corpuscles, Remak 2. The pharyngeal branch of the glosso-pharyngeal

concludes with the following practical remarks :is not constant in its manifestations, sometimes it 1. In order to arrive at a certain appreciation of the possesses an exquisite sensibility, at others it is quite diagnostic and prognostic value of the bung coal, it insensible.

is requisite that the blood, in all cases of venesection, 3. The glosso-pharyngeal does not possess motor

should be collected in high and narrow vessels. It powers.

frequently happens that when broad vessels are used, Müller maintains that the nerve exhibits motor func.

and the coagulation proceeds irregularly, no buffy tions after it has merged from the cranium. To

coat is formed; when, if collected in another manner, verify this assertion, the authors have repeatedly per

it would have undoubtedly appeared-& fact which formed the following experiment:-Having sawed the

though generally known, is very little attended to. cranium of a living animal into lateral halves, so as to

Since attention has been paid in Schönlein's "Clinique" expose also the pbarynx and tongue (!!), they removed

to the mode of collecting the blood, and its coagalmion the brain and cerebellum, and isolated the medulla

has been carefully watched, a buffy coat has been oblongata and the fasciculus of nerves which emerge

observed in every case. by the posterior foramen lacerum. The glosso-pharyn.

2. The microscopic examination of the buffy coat geal is then pinched, upon which it is found that no

in relation to the quantity of colourless blood.cells, movement takes place in the pharynx or tongue ; but

may be made highly useful in determining its in. on the other hand, that vivid contractions are induced

portance, as indicative of the stage of inflammation. by irritating the accessory nerve of Willis.

The absence of many colourless, blood-cells in the The movements which bave been witnessed by

buffy coat, affords a much more certain indication Longet, Guizot, and Mayo, upon irritating the nerve,

of an unusually large amount of fibrin arising from the author believes to be excito-motory, as the same

inflammation, than does the presence of a great number, may be excited by irritating the cerebral extremity

the latter condition being generally dependent upon of the nerve after its division.

the regeneration of blood after repeated venesections, 4. The glosso-pharyngeal is the nerve of taste for

and probably connected with an imperfect metamorthe velum and pillars of the palate and the posterior phosis of the cellular elements of the blood in dyscrasic two-thirds of the tongue.

diseases, such as typhus, glanders, scurvy, and cancer. 5. The anastomotic branch of Jacobson is neither -British and Foreign Medical Review, April, 1847, motor nor gustative, but possesses acute tactile sensi. p. 507. bility.

ANALYSIS OF Lymph. 6. The pharyngeal branches of the pneumo-gastric The analysis of lymph by M. Laugier, given below, are not gustative, but are mixed motor and sensitive differs somewhat from those previously given. The nervos.

specimen experimented upon contained 7. The lingual branches of the fifth pair, besides other specific sensibility, possess the sense of touch, but Fibrin . . . .

0.4 to a less degree than the other branches of the fifth.

- Albumen 8. The lingual branches of the fifth pair have no Extractive matter : ; . 2.7 motor function, but may be the incident nerves of a

Fixed salts

7.0 reflex movement.

Fats, &c. : .. .. traces 9. The anterior third of the tongue receives its sense of taste solely from these nerves.

1000.0 10. The corda tympani is sensitive but not motor;

The chief difference between this and other analysis it exercises some influence over the intensity of the consists in the small amount of fibrin. which varias sense of taste.

usually from 1.2 to 5.2.-Ibidem. 11. The hypo.glossal nerve has no specific sensibility,

ON THE FIBRIN OF THE BLOOD. but is the chief motor-nerve of the tongue.

In a long memoir, Zimmerman engages in numerous Such are the results of the authors' experiments, enquiries connected with the chemical composition of many of which, our readers need uot be told, are at the blood, the principal results of which are embodied variance with those of other physiologists, more par. | in the following propositions: ticularly those connected with the corda tympani, a 1. The fibrin of venous blood is soluble in a nerve which, in the opinion of Bernard, (Gazette Méd., solution of nitre. The solution always takes place 1845,) is thought to possess motor powers as well as to irrespective of the quantity of the salt, or of the water, be instrumental to taste. The authors at least appear' or of the degree of temperature.

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