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M. Dubois, (d'Amiens,) has been elected Secretary, the Council, of the Provincial Medical and Surgical to the Academy of Medicine, Paris. The unsuccessfui | Association. candidates were MM. Royer-Collard, Réveillé-Parise, Sept. Ist, in Gloucester Place, aged 74, Sir Richard Mélier, Bousquet, Renauldin, and Bourdon. At the first

Dobson, M.D., F.R.S., &c., Inspector of Hospitals and scrutiny, the numbers were, for

Fleets, and a Knight of the Foreign Orders of St.
M. Roger Collard . . . . 27

Vladimir, and of Dannebrog.
M. Dubois ....

Lately, at Frankfort on the Maine, Sir

Hamme', M.D.
At the second scrutiny-

M. Roger Collard · ... 42
M. Dubois . . . . . . 41

BOOKS RECEIVED. As neither of the candidates had yet obtained a majority of the votes present, a third scrutiny was then A Guide to the Use of the Buxton Waters. By held, when the numbers were, for

William Henry Robertson, M.D., Physician to the M. Dubois - - - - - 56

Buxton Bath Charity. Fourth Edition revised. London: M. Roger Collard . ... 43

Churchill. 1817. pp. 32.

The Consciousness of Right and Wrong, a firse Test of the Plea of losanity in Criminal Cases, &c. By C.

Lockhart Robertson, M.D., Medical Staff, attached ROYAL COLLEGE OF SURGEONS.

to the Military Lunatic Asylum, at Yarmouth, &c. Gentlemen admitted Members on Friday, August 20, Edinburgh. 1847. 8vo. pp. 18. 1847 :-S. G. Bousfield ; T. A. Rogers; W. H. Cook;l Health of Towns and of London Associations. Vo. E. B. Sinclair; W. A Roche; R. E. Jones; M. A. healthiness of London, and the necessity of Remedial Levan ; M. Halley; E.C. Curran; R. Gunn; J. Newton; Measures, &c. By llector Gavin, M.D., F.R.C.S.E., D. G. Jones.

Lecturer on Forensic Medicine at Charing.Cross Hospital. Gentlemen admitted Monday, August 23rd :-W. &c., &c. London: Churchill. 1847. 8vo. pp. 69. L. Cashel; R. T. Spark; C. Ferraley ; T. W. Crosse ; The Microscopic Anatomy of the Human Body, in R. Abercrombie; J. M. Camplin; M. J. Booth; C. T. Health and Disease, &c. By Arthur Hill Hassall, F.L.S., Wagstaff; W.O. J. Wollaston ; B. F. Matthews. &c. Part X. London: Highley. 1847.

On the Structural Relation of Oil and Albumen in the

Animal Economy, and on certain Physical Laws conSOCIETY OF APOTHECARIES.

pected with the Origin and Development of Cells. By

John Hughes Bennett, M.D., F.R.S.E., &c., &c. (Read
Gentlemen admitted Licentiates, Thursday, August 12, to the Roval Society of Edinburgh, April 19, 1847.)
1847 :-Benjamin Fielding Matthews, Bedford; Joseph
Meldon Dempsey ; Thomas Green, Grassmere.
Gentlemen admitted Thursday, August 19.-T. Hunter,

R.N., Budleigh Salterion, Deron; M. F. Bush,
Trowbridge ; S. Griffith ; J. Simmonds Nedham,

Page 456, col. 1, line 14 from foot, for measure parted Leicester.

read manner secreted; line 10 from foot, for hæmoGentlemen admitted Thursday, August 26:h:- Thos.

rrhagia read menorrhagia. Morris Ward, Ollerton ; Patrick Downey, York; William

Page 466, col. 1, line 16, for natural read mutual. Hand, Northwich; George Alfred Rhodes, Wakefield;

Page 467, col. l, line 5, for representation read Sherard Freeman Statham, Cranford, Middlesex ;

representative. William Emerson.

Page 458, col. 2, in Mr. Higginbottom's paper, On the Use of Nitrate of Silver in Erysipelas, the quantity of

water employed in the solution is erroneously stated at OBITUARY.

four ounces instead of four drachms. The prescription

should stand thus :Died, Aug. 9th, at Edinburgh, Andrew Combe, V.D. R. Argenti Nitratis ........ scr. ii. Dr. Combe was the author of several highly esteemed

Acidi Nitrici............ gtt. vj. works on Popular Physiology and Hygiène, and

Aquæ destillatæ ........ dr. iv deservedly respected by his numerous friends, and M. Fiat Solutio. by his professional brethren.

Aug. 10th, at Condonstown, of fever, David Barry,
Esq., M.D.

Aug. 17th, at Lakeview, Mountnugent, of fever,
Thomas Draper, Esq., Medical Attendant of the Dispen.

Communications have been received from Mr.A.Prichard; sary and Fever Hospital of Ballymachugh, Cavan.

C. A.; an Admirer of Zeal; Mr. F. Buckell ; Mr. H. Aug. 2012, at Roscommon, of sever, Stephen

Clark; Scrutator ; Mr. Daniell; Dr. Campbell; Mr.

H. Browne, Esq., M.D., Surgeon to the Infirmary and

H. B. Pickess. County Gaol, Roscommon.

A London Surgeon. The Council Prize is open to Aug. 26tb, at Oxford, aged 47, John Wootlen, Esq., ' general competition, and not confined to members of M.D., of Balliol College, Physician to the Radcliffel the Association. Infirmary.

| The continuation of the report of the proceedings at the Aug. 28th, Kenrick Watson, Esq., of Slourport, Annual Meeting of the Newton Branch will be given P.R.C.S., one of the earliest members, and a member of in the next number.


THE LAW OF THE MORPHOLOGY OR META. especially along the interior margin of the walls of the MORPHOSIS OF THE TEXTURES OF THE nutrient vessels. (Fig. II.) The fluid excreted (by HUMAN BODY.

this texture in health is very small in quantity, merely (Fourth Series of Experimental Researches.) sufficient to moisten the eye, and more resembling

| water than mucus. By WILLIAM ADDISON, M.D., F.R.S., Malvern.

CASE. (Concluded from page 342.)

Inflammation of the Tunica Conjunctiva : Purulent “It were disgraceful, with this most spacious and Ophthalmia.- A labouring man, aged twenty-seven admirable realm of nature before us, where the reward years, applied for relief from purulent ophthalmia ever exceeds the promise, did we take the reports of in the left eye, which had existed seven days. The others upon trust, and go on coining crude problems eye-lids were closed and much swollen, and upon my out of these, and on them hanging knotty and captious opening them, a large quantity of thick white matter and petty disputations. Nature herself is to be escaped. On examication, the cornea appeared almost addressed; the paths she shows us are to be boldly buried beneath a very red texture-a fungosity “having trodden; for thus, and whilst we consult our proper a kind of flesby appearance," into which the natural senses, from inferior advancing to superior levels, texture just described had become transformed. shall we penetrate at length into the heart of her with a pair of curved scissars I cut off a portion of mysteries."-Harvey.

this red and flesh-like mass, the patient at the time INFLAMMATION.- (Continued.)

complaining of considerable pain. The texture thus The texture covering the outer and front part of the

removed was, upon trial, found to be strong, elastic,

and not tearable; and on submitting it to examination eye-ball is termed tunica conjunctiva, and is ranked as a mucous membrane. Analysed with a microscope, it is found in its natural and adult condition to be a thin, elastic, transparent, and simply fibrous texture, sparingly supplied with blood vessels. (Fig. I.) But in its embryonic or growing state, numerous nuclei and corpuscular forms are dispersed among the fibres,

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Fig. 1.-Nutrient vessels in the fibrous texture of the Fig. II.-Nutrient vessels in the fibrous areolar texture adult conjunctiva.

Tof an infant two days old.. No, 19, Septemter 22, 1847.

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with the microscope, it was found composed of determine which were due to refraction and which numerous blood vessels containing the usual red and were not. colourless particles, and of four distinct elements, The fibres were of two kinds; the one simple and colourless cells, fibres of different kinds, granular identical with those seen in the areolar textures, and matter, and molecules. The colourless cells greatly in the fibrillated protoplasma (buffy coat) of the blood; predominated, occupying the interstices of the fibres. the other thicker, with a double outline, and terminating They were filled with molecules; and in some there in, or springing from, a cell at its extremity. With a was one, in others two or three larger rounded or oval little care I obtained a good view of, and was able to particles termed nuclei, with a dark or light spot in tace for a considerable distance, some of the smallest of their centre. Of these nuclei, it was impossible to say the vessels, with a power 750. Their coats or walls were which were natural and belonged to the normal consti, comparatively very thick-that is to say, they were tution of the cells, and which were spurious, or formed on either side twice or three times the breadth of the subsequently to the removal, by the corrugation of the slender blood-column still visible in their interior. molecular elements; and of the dark and light spots They were composed of the four elements before seen in the centre of these nuclei, I could not mentioned-viz., colourless cells, fibres of two kinds,

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Fig. III.-Vessels in the inflamed, red, and thickened conjunctiva, (purulent ophthalmia.) nuclei, and molecules. (Fig. 3). No distinction among the pre-existing and new-formed normal fibrous could be drawn between the fibres of the coats of the

elements. vessels and of the more distant texture; and it was impossible also to distinguish any difference between It is unnecessary to give any account of the treatthe colourless cells still visible in the blood, and those ment of the case which resulted in the injured eye of the coats of the vessels of the texture distant from being restored to its natural state;" and, as before the vessels, and of the white opaque excretion, except observed, with respect to the fractured bone.) the it was observed, that the cells at the inner margin of

organ being restored to its natural state, the metathe vessels, those nearest to, or in actual contact with, the blood column were smaller, and had smaller nuclei morphosis was natural; and being natural, it was than those at the outer margin of the vessels, and of also conformable or regular. During the progress of the purulent excretion.

the cure, (that is to say, during the return of an In this example, then, there was an increased abnormal nutritive activity and an irregular morphology, redness and vascularity, an energetic nutritive activity, to normal nutrition and a regular morphology) the and new nutritive elements constituting the phe- following events and changes were noticed :—The eye pomenon termed inflammation. The physical and became less impatient of the impressions from touch vital properties of the texture being at the same and light; the swelling or fullness of the eyelids time exalted and not diminished; for the texture diminished; the quantity of opaque wbite matter diswas not brittle, but equally, if not more strong, charged was less, and the red and flesh-like texture elastic, and untearable than before; it was not less but diminished in bulk, and daily became paler and less more sensible and impatient to the impressions of light vascular; the colour of the discharge at the same time and touch, and the microscopic apalysis proved that its altered; its whiteness and opacity diminished; it was Spelling in growth was due not to any retrograde more transparent and mucus-like, then thinner and change or transformation of the natural fibrous more watery, the later stages of the diminishing raselements, but to the increased quantity of blood to the cularity and excretion being more rapidly passed new vessels and the new cell-elements interspersed through than the former.

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I have avoided multiplying facts, about which there the physical and vital properties of a texture, and the can, I think, be no reasonable question raised; and function of the organ of which it forms a part. Thus in taking therefore this case as typical, it furnishes in inflammation of the lung, (pneumonia,) the texture of telligible grounds of distinction between inflammatory some of the infamed lobules is denser, and quite as coheand scrofulous diseases, and a rational explanation why rent as the normal texture, grating against the edge of the the former, as a class, are susceptible of cure, with knife like a fibro-cartilaginous texture, the morphology a return of healthy function, and why the latter, as being of the abnormally ascending order, whilst the a class, are so difficult. But first let us notice more texture of other lobules is soft, brittle, and almost particularly the points of relation or identity, and purulent. - In both conditions the air-cells are filled up then the essential distinctions between inlammation and obliterated, and both, therefore, though differing and scrofula. Both inflammation and scrofulous essentially in their morphological types, are equally diseases are found in the same textures-in living incompatible with, and destructire of, the respiratory vascular textures, in which a nutritive action or function, metamorphosis is already going on; in both there is XV.-STAENIC AND ASTHENIC INFAMMATION : a more or less increased supply of blood,-an increased

ACUTE AND CHRONIC DISEASES. number of new vessels,-a new nutritive energy, and in the case of inflammation of the outer texture of new cellular or protoplasma elements; these being the eye-ball just related, the normal fibrous elements the points of relation between inflammation and preserved their integrity, and the new corpuscular scrofulous disease. The essential points of distinction elements accumulated by the nutritive energy were are, that in inflammation the natural elements remain, discharged, or thrown off in the excretion. But now the new blood-vessels, the increased quantity of blood, we have to examine analytically, other instances of and the new nutritive elements, being interspersed inflammation in which the abnormal corpuscular among the normal elements, which do not undergo elements, from the situation of the part affected, cannot any essential change, or retrograde transformation; be excreted, but become organized, assume a morphoon the contrary, the microscope proves that their logy, and constitute adventitious texture upon the amount is increased rather than diminished ; and normal structure. experience declares that the vital properties of the “In no part of the organism” says Hasse, “are the texture are exalted. Whereas in scrofulous diseases organized products of inflammation more marked than the microscope proves that the natural elements of upon the free surface of the pleura, where we meet the affected textures are changed and disappear, the with solid and Auid matters of every gradation and new vessels, the increased supply of blood, and the variety."* new nutritive elements, establishing a morphology of The first appearances of inflammation of the pleura a different kind, and of a lower grade than that consist in a congested state of its blood vessels, which necessary for the preservation of the normal elements, are seen congregated here and there in dense though bones, cartilages, fibrous and the coherent parenchy | delicate nets beneath the still transparent membrane, matous textures, being reduced to highly vascular and which now, however, speedily loses its smoothness and energetic fungosities, or villous corpuscular textures, transparency, becoming thicker and more dull. At excreting abundantly early protoplasmatous and cor- numerous points the bright red colour deepens; these puscular forms, to the prejudice and destruction of points are somewhat prominent, and crowd together, the higher natural elements, experience at the same being encompassed with a progressively enlarging zone time corroborating the testimony of the microscope, of congested blood-vessels. The first rudiments of an by testifying to the gradual disappearance of both the adventitious product now become perceptible, the physical and vital properties of the affected textures. points originally reddened presenting little dull white

Hence, therefore, in inflammation, when the nutritive or yellowish spots, which rise above the serous surface, energy and its accompanying phenomena have been and often veil the inflammatory redness so thoroughly subdued by appropriate treatment, the normal elements that it requires a practised eye at once to detect it. not having been destroyed, again resume their accus. During the above proceeding in the serous membrane, tomed appearance and healthy functions; whereas, the areolar texture between the fasciculi of the intera in scrofulous diseases, when the abnormal nutritive costal muscles, and also that between the pulmonary energy has been subdued, there are no longer the lobules, is distinguished by an increased vascularity, requisite normal elements to resume their usual and its interstices are filled with a half-fluid, half appearance and healthy function. Hence the difficulty gelatinous effusion. of curing these diseases; and why, when cured, we Hasse describes the adventitious products of inflama meet with opacities of the cornea, scars upon the skin, mation of the pleura under the following heads :The stiff joints, deformed bones, shortened fingers, and gelatinous, the conditional, the purulent, and the puckering in the lungs. But in the morpbological tubercular. study of disease, it is necessary to distinguish between " Pathological Anatomy,

"Pathological Anatomy," Syd. Ed., 1847, p. 184

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In all cases of inflammation of the pleura, a gela- operation has been sometimes once or twice repeated. tinous product is speedily diffused between the costal The first operation frequently gives rent to a clear and pulmonary surfaces, blood-vessels form in it with serum, but when a second or third is required, an surprising rapidity, and where the two surfaces approach opaque and flaky pus escapes. The former occurrence each other, a few days appear sufficient to effect a denotes that the gelatinous and conditional products tolerably firm coalition between them.

have undergone a fibrous morphology, analogous to Ĩ several bomogeneous or else distinctly different layers, in renesection, and it is well known to be the most largely investing, and adherent to, the pleura. They | favourable to the recovery of the patient; whereas the tear easily, and display a pseudo-fibrous texture. | latter occurrence depotes an unconformable morphoTheir surface directed to, and adherent on, the pleura, logy and is unfavourable. Moreover, persons who corresponds in character to that membrane ; but their have recovered from an attack of pleurisy, and have free surface facing the cavity of the pleura is usually afterwards died of other diseases, have been carefully soft, and displays a villous fabric. When these con examined; and in such cases the adventitious products ditional products are present, the cavity of the pleura of the pleurisy, are found fibrous or fibro-cartilaginous; usually contains a considerable amount of either a whereas, in those who die of pleurisy, we find the light-brown, or a reddish, or else a focculent fluid, conditional and purulent products-the early, soft, bearing, it would seem, a close relation both in quantity | vascular, and corpuscular excreting textures. and quality to the false membrane itself.

Hence, then, it appears that as scrofulous dise In the purulent form of the product, the surface of eases are retrograde morphological conditions of the pleura is dull, and of a dingy grey, covered with the growing normal textures, and chiefly, therefore, very soft granulations, or with soft and brittle puriform observed in children and youth, so inflammatory false membranes, which are either loosely adherent to diseases are asthenic, and the constitution bad, when the pleura, or else float as soft fakes in the collected the products accumulated by the nutritive energy or fluid.

inflammation, persist in a morphological type or The tubercular constitution," says Hasse, “is the growth, which is below or retrograde in comparison frequent source of peculiar modifications; it changes with the texture from which they spring. The truth the products of nutrition, and exerts a palpable influe of this conclusion cannot be rightly estimated during ence upon the formative process when heightened by life by the health of the patient, and it is necessary ipflammation.” The peculiar modifications here alluded again to point to the distinctions between the more to bave been treated at length in the present memoir, and phology, which has regard to the forms of elements it remains only to remark, tbat tuberculous matter fre- and textures, and the office or function of the organ quently manifests itself in the false membranes of the of which they form a part. The morphology of the preceding conditional form, which, as Hasse remarks, adventitious products of pleurisy may be conformable, is inaccessible to the vascularity pervading the texture assuming a type identical with that of the texture from in which it is embedded.

which they arise ; but if they be so abundant or so Now, the gelatinous and conditional products of related as to impede the motions of the lung, the pleurisy, are early morphological forms, consisting function of the organ will be impaired, and, notwithof protoplasma and slightly cobererent cells, which, standing the conformability of the morphology of the when they become organized and vascular, are in all pleuritic products, the nutrition of the whole body respects analogous to an embryonic texture, and it will thereby be asthenically inclined ; and thus many appears that by the subsequent morphology of these persons who have recovered from an attack of plenrisy, elements, the sthenic or asthenic character of the disease, (considered in its inflammatory form,) bave from this and the good or bad constitution of the patient are source, had their constitutions weakened, and incurred determined. For if a severe form of pleurisy be cured, a liability to asthenic forms of disease for the future. it is so by the gelatinous and conditional, or purulent! These observations regarding the distinction between products,-the soft vascular excreting textures,-under- sthenic and asthenic diseases, and the conclusions going the fibrous or fibro-cartilaginous metamorphosis. | deduced therefrom, are further illustrated and copa So also, if a scrofulous joint or a pulmonary consump-firmed by the history and phenomena of gout and tion be cured, it is by the same morphological forms,- phlebitis. Gout is a sthenic disease. The ordinary the soft, vascular, excreting textures, passing onward phenomena of a first attack of gout,—the pain, heat, into the non-excreting and less vascular fibrous or redness, and swelling, are well-known; but the morfibro-cartilaginous types; and in all these instances phological results of this increased nutritive energy we say the constitution of the patient is good. In bave not been accurately regarded. Their conforma. cases of severe pleurisy, the cavity of the pleura has ble character, however, in the first or early paroxysms, been opened to allow of the escape of the fluid and is shewn by a copious exfoliation of the cuticle or non-adherent matters accumulated within it, and the epidermis over and for a long distance around the part

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