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Tyne, 26, Capt. W. Glasscock, part, serv. Ireland.
C.B.K.H., China, Viper, 6, brigantine, Lieut.-com. J. Carter, South America. Virago, st. v. 6, Com. E. Otway, Chatham. Vixen, steam frigate. Com. G. Giffard, East Indies. Volage, 26, Capt. Sir W. Dickson, bart. North America and West Indies. Volcano, st. v. Lieut.-com. J, Featherstone, part. serv. Wanderer, 16, sloop, Com. G. H. Seymour, East Indies. Warspite, 50, captain Lord J. Hay, C.B., West Indies. Wasp, 16, Com. A. Drew, West Indies. Waterwitch, 10, brig, Lieut. com. H. J. Matson, Cape of Good Hope. Widgeon, 1, st. v. Master-com. T. Swain Scriven, Dover. Wilberforce, st. v. (iron) Com. H. F. Seagram, Woolwich. Wildfire, 1, st. v. Lieut.-com. C. A. Petch. Deptford. William and Mary, yacht, Captain Sir F. Augustus Collier, Kt., C.B., K.C.H.,
Cape of Good Hope.
H.M.S. Pexelore.— The attention of the nautical world is at this moment especially directed to the experiment that has been made upon the Penelope, in converting her from a sailing frigate to a first class war steamer. If the result should prove satisfactory, and of that there does not now appear to be the least doubt, two very important advantages will be gained. In the first place, a steamer of a novel class, and of greater magnitude than any now in the service, will be introduced into the navy, which will be enabled to carry what none of the present war steamers can, a powerful armament on her main deck as well as on her quarter-deck and forecastle. She will have engines of 700 horse power, whereas the largest engines now in use are under 500 horse power. In addition to which she will be rigged in the same manner, and carry as great a spread of canvas, as when she was only a sailing frigate. But the more important part of this experiment is the fact that we shall be enabled to obtain a powerful steam frigate at a saving of upwards of £40,000, for, from a calculation that has been made, it appears that the conversion of this vessel into a steamer, notwithstanding all its greater capabilities, does not cost so much by the above sum as the building and equipping one of the present first class steamers. The Penelope was of a class of the old school of frigates, of which there are at present lying in ordinary in the river and at the outports, somewhere about forty sail, all in good preservation, but all, nevertheless, useless as sailing ships, owing to their inferior qualities,
The Penelope steam frigate was commissioned on Wednesday by Captain William Jones, who formerly commanded the Vestal. The attention of the naval word has of late been directed to this vessel, recently converted from a sailing frigate, of a useless class, to a powerful war steamer, 245 feet long, and fitted with engines of a power surpassing anything hitherto made, either for
land or sea purposes, the cylinder being 92 inches in diameter. The Penelope is one of the old class 46 gun ships, built on the lines of the French Hebe, at Chatham, in 1830. There are nearly forty of this class of vessels lying in ordinary at the several ports, none of which are, from their comparative dimensions, suited to cope with the frigates of foreign navies, either in size, capability of armament, or equipment, and have, therefore, become nothing more than blanks in the list of the British navy, although they could not have been built at a less cost than £2,000,000 sterling. The Lords of the Admiralty, with the commendable view of rendering these vessels serviceable to the country, have caused the Penelope to be converted, as an experiment, into a steam frigate, in order to ascertain if they can be made available to the service as war-steamers. If the experiment should prove successful, and of that there is now hardly a doubt, these ships can be converted into a steam-fleet of enormous power, and at a cost of less than one quarter of the amount it would require to build them.
The Penelope can stow fuel to last her sixteen days with full steaming power; and by husbanding the consumption of coals by working at the full, half, or quarter stroke in cutting off the steam, the capabilities can be increased to twenty-four days' steaming, which, with the aid of sail, will take the ship to the Cape of Good Hope in about a month from England, with a regiment of 800 soldiers, in addition to her crew of 300 men, giving ample accommodation to all. She will be furnished with an armament that is astounding to all who are acquainted with the power of naval gunnery-namely, 2 10-inch pivot guns of 84 cwt. each, 8 68-pounders (all shell guns), and 14 32-pounders on the spar and main-decks, making in all twenty-four guns of a description that will enable her, having the power from her steam of taking a commanding position, to bid defiance to any two ships of the line. She is to be fitted with her masts, yards, and spars at Chatham, to which port she will proceed, having yesterday been inspected by the Lords of the Admiralty.- Naval and Military Gazette.
New Books. The Closing Events Of The Campaign in China; the operations in the Yang
tse-Kiang.-- By Capt, Granville G. Loch, R.N.-London : Murray, 1842. This is the work of an officer and a gentleman. Capt. Loch sees passing events and scenes with the eye of an officer of experience and judgment, and relates them with the tone and expression of an English gentleman. We are indebted for this account of the closing events of a war, which will be memorable in history as the first ever effectually waged against the Chinese by any European power, and which humbled the pride of the celestials, let us hope to their improvement, and to the advantage of this country. All the principal events of this war, have been successively placed before our readers, in the public despatches, but the journal of Capt. Loch, before us, supplies many an interesting anecdote of personal adventure, attending those events which throws considerable light on this extraordinary people, and their country. We shall therefore turn at once to the main object of the expedition, the capture of Nanking, which produced the celebrated treaty, the first interview leading to which is thus related : 2" Operations would have commenced at daylight, but Mandarins," says Capt. Loch, “came off at midnight beseeching that another interview might be arranged for the following day, when the Imperial commission would be produced.
“14th, after breakfast I accompanied Major Malcolm and Messrs. Morrison and Thom, on shore to the interview, which was to decide whether the Chinese would yield to our demands.
" It took place in a large temple situated in the suburbs under the south wall, and a short distance from the canal up which we proceeded in the Queen's ENLARGED SERIES. NO. 8.-VOL FOR 1843,
cutter, by an opening cut through heavy rafts of timber drawn across its entrance to block up the passage. Several large junks full of stones had also been sunk athwartships, but these were burst and broken up into various portions by the strength of the current, leaving ample room for an unobstructed onward progress to the largest boat.
"We landed on a rickety bamboo pier constructed for our accommodation, and were instantly surrounded by a crowd composed of the lowest order, who appeared eager to see specimens of the formidable barbarians,' and the sight to men, who judge by size and muscle, must have been humiliating to their self love, as we were all of slight build, and moreover, had come quite unprepared for the show. Linen, clean I hope, but for weeks unacquainted with iron or mangle; shoes that would have done good service on the moors, and coats of modest cut and old acquaintance, with the exception of the gallant Secretary's gaily braided affair, which by the by, was most unhappily contrasted with his nether garments.
“Two of the party, if not all four, were under thirty,—an age in a Chinaman's eyes undeserving of respect.
“We were received at the entrance of the spacious court of the temple, by a levy of mandarins, from the blue to the brass button. Different from us, they rusiled in embroidered silks and flowered muslin of a design and beauty of texture, worthy even to deck the forms of our own fair dames. They marshalled us with many obsequious bows, and really much graceful courtesy into the great hall of audience, where Mr. Secretary Whang,' and the Tartar General • Chin,' were standing to receive us. After Mr. Morrison had severally introduced us, we sat down in chairs that would have held two Daniel Lamberts, round a square table. Whang opposite Malcolm, I next to Chin, and Mr. Thom opposite to me. Mr. Morrison retired to another table to translate some papers.
“Whang, a man of seven or eight and thirty, is considered one of the most rising statesmen in China, and his manners and conversation marked him a perfect gentleman. I do not remember ever having met, even in my own country a person of more gentle and polished manner or courteous breeding than this Chinese, so different from the majority of his countrymen in their intercourse with foreigners. The General was a portly old veteran of about sixty, wearing a little grey tufted beard, a plain dress, crystal ball and peacock's feather. His red ball had been taken away for some offence shortly before our arrival,
“The other mandarins stood round among the servants, and listened, as is the universal custom to all that was discussed.
“ At the door were a few peacekeepers or police, wearing red felt conical caps, each topped with a peacock's feather, which traversed round upon a swivel. They were armed with cow-hide whips, which they kept in pretty frequent use upon the shoulders of the pressing and chattering rabble outside.
« While Mr. Morrison was transcribing copies of his papers, tea was handed round by the attendants, and whether drank or not, a hot cup every two or three minutes superseded the colder beverage.
“When the writing was finished Malcolm produced the patent from Her Majesty, appointing him Secretary of Legation; this was to shew that he was the accredited and proper person to negociate on the part of the Envoy. After this was looked at he displayed Sir Henry Pottinger's, which was translated verbatim by Mr. Thom, and the Queen's seal and signature pointed out to the deputies.
*Major Malcolm then demanded to see the Emperor's commission, which, after some little delay and great ceremony, was brought forth from a chest by a mandarin under whose special charge it appeared to be. He carried the roll of yellow in both his hands, and proceeded, his eyes reverentially fixed upon it, with slow and solemn steps towards the table, and placed it in the hands of Whang with tenderness and forced resignation. The produce of the silk wrap
per was a little shabby yellow box, badly made and worse painted, containing the power, which Morrison on examination pronounced, as far as he was able to judge, authentic.
"I was greatly amused watching the anxious and horrified faces of the various Chinese, when Mr. Morrison touched the commission, and I thought the old keeper would have fainted on the spot when he, for an instant, held it in his hand,
“In China the same respect is paid to an imperial edict, or the mark of the vermillion pencil, that with us, the sovereign only receives in person. There are many powers delegated by sign manual throughout the empire, and in these cases the same homage is bestowed upon the written name of the emperor, that is, in other countries, only yielded to the prince himself.
“After our skeleton treaty was satisfactorily arranged, and written both in Chinese and English, one copy being kept by the Mandarins, the other by Malcolm, for Sir Henry's inspection, we rose to depart, and the old general laughingly remarked that the conditions were hard, but after all, were only what they would have demanded under similer circumstances; that a war between nations might be likened to a game of chance, in which the loser must pay the winner; that this time they were the unfortunates, from having neglected the art of war during centuries of peace and prosperity; that our ships were our stronghold and glory, and had proved their curse.”
The Chinese general will prove wrong in the course of time, and could he live long enough, would gladly acknowledge it. The time has arrived, when the exclusive policy of the Chinese, forbidding the approach of all external benefits, must cease. With the outline of their treaty the party repaired to the ships to prepare for the subsequent ceremony, which our space tells us must be reserved for our next number. The Ship Owners' AND SHIPMASTERS' Directory to the Port Charges, and all
the depths of water, at the varions places for loading and discharging vessels in Great Britain and Ireland; together with similar information respecting many of the principal Foreign Ports, 8c.-By James Daniel.-Taylor, 103, Minories; and Daniel & Co., Aberdeen. A valuable collection of important facts, which every one having an interest in shipping affairs should possess for reference. The conception of such a work was excellent, and here is a good beginning to what must hereafter become another standard work for mariners; but it can only become so by constant watchfulness on the part of the compiler, to enhance its value by the particulars of each new port as they become known. We recommend the author to follow it up with another series as soon as possible, there are many important ports such as Funchal, the Cape, Callao, &c., and scores of minor ones which should not be neglected. A TREATISE ON ARITHMETIC IN THEORY AND Practice; with an appendix, con
taining an introduction to Mensuration.-By James Thompson, L.L.D., Professor of Mathematics in the University of Glasgow.-London, Simms
and McIntyre. We can commend this as a concise treatise on arithmetic, to those of our readers on shore or afloat, engaged in, or entering on, the subject. The different terms of arithmetic are well explained, the rules for the various branches clearly laid down, and the examples explicit and satisfactory. The rules for brief or mental calculation are given in an appendix, which may be consulted with advantage, and a note is also added on Horner's Method of Resolving Equations. To these commendations we must not omit to add that the work before us is the twenty-third edition, in itself no unimportant mark of its value. ELEMENTS OF PLANE AND SPHERICAL TRIGONOMETRY, with the first principles of
Analytic Geometry.-By James Thompson, L.L.D. &c., 3rd. edition.-Bel
fast, Simms and McIntyre. It will be sufficient to state here, that the author's aim has been, “ throughout the whole work, to comprise, in a small compass, much useful and interesting matter; and, that he who shall make himself well acquainted with what it contains, will find it easy to acquire a knowledge of all that is yet known in trigonometry, and to apply it in astronomy, and other branches of science. To the ordinary branches of the subject, are added miscellaneous investigations, and problems for exercise, dialling, multiple arcs, miscellaneous propositions, concluding with analytic geometry.
New CHARTS. (Published by the Admiralty, and sold by R. B. Bate, 21, Poultry.) YANG-TSE-KIANG RIVER :-Surveyed by Capt. C. R. D. Bethune, H. Kellett,
and R. Collinson. Thanks to the exertions of our indefatigable naval surveyors we have here a chart of this noble river, with which a ship may easily find her way up it, as far as Nanking. The scale is a quarter of an inch to the mile, by which the whole is included on a double elephant sheet: we trust this will soon become a well worked chart.
BIOGRAPHICAL MEMOIR. REAR ADMIRAL SIR JAMES HILLYAR, K.C.B. and K.c.n. (See Obituary) was universally known to all classes of the profession as having gloriously indicated the supremacy of the British arms during the late war. By his death a good-service pension of £300 will revert to the Admiralty. It was this distinguished officer who, when in command of the frigate Phoebe, captured the American frigate Essex, after a most gallant action. The two vessels were in a neutral port, and the officers and men of the Phæbe were constantly subjected to severe taunts and insults from the Americans, which, under their gallant Captain's advice, they endured with firmness, he promising them a better opportunity of avenging themselves, and serving their country at the same time, than by resorting to the usual practice of individual conflict. And he performed what he had promised. On both vessels getting into “blue water," so eager was the crew to chastise their insolent enemy, that they implored Captain Hillyar to board, but he refused, saying he would play at long balls, and would take the enemy and save his men. It is but a just tribute to the humanity of the gallant deceased and his brave crew, to remark that after the Essex had surrendered by striking her colours, and the boats from the Phoebe were pulling towards the Essex, they sacrificed their natural feelings of exultation, and their desire as speedily as possible to take possession of their prize, by turning out of their course to pick up some of the enemy who had been swamped in a boat, and were crying out for assistance. Previous to this action he led the boats in cutting out two Spanish corvettes at Barcelona, and assisted in the Phæbe in the reduction of the Mauritius, and in the capture of La Nereide, French frigate. The dates of his commission are as follow:-Lieutenant, 8th March, 1794; Commander, 16th April, 1800; Captain, 29th February, 1804; Rear-Admiral, 10th June, 1837.
ADMIRALTY ORDERS. Admiralty, May 30th, 1843. of London, in Doctors' Commons, for the purWith the view of obtaining and preserving an pose of being registered. authentic Record of Marriages solemnized on A fee of One Pound being required by the board Her Majesty's Ships, my Lords Com- officer of the Bishop of London's Court for misioners of the Admiralty are pleased to direct registering such marriages, that sum is to be rethat in future, when Marriages are solemnized ceived from the parties and remitted to this on board Her Majesty's Ships out of the United Office with the above Certificate. Kingdom, a declaration of the Marriage, signed By Command of their Lordships, by the Minister of the Church, by the contract
SIDNEY HERBERT. ing parties, and by two competent witnesses, shall be entered in the Log Book of the ship. specifying the fact, the day on which the Marriage was solemnized, and the place where
Admiralty, June 3d, 1843. the ship then was. And the Captain or Com The Board of Ordnance having caused boxes manding Officer of the ship is to transmit to to be made, lined with tinned copper, for the this office a certified copy of such declaration package of the Percussion Tubes, for the great which will be forwarded officially to the Regis guns on board Her Majesty's ships, their Lordtrar of the Consistory Court of the Lord Bishop ships are pleased to desire, that the bores