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a ruinous and useless expense saved, and a depressing check be removed from the commercial spirit and enterprise of numerous localities.
2. Throughout our Eastern Coasts, piers of all descriptions, and in every variety of position are to be met with, thus, some are seen with circular, some with angular, and some with square terminations; some are straight, some are crooked, some curved, some are parallel, and others again retire from each other as they extend outwards, or, as they are termed, bell-mouthed; opening their jaws as it were for the reception of all the moveable matters in their vicinity. Piers with either circular, square, or angular ends have the effect of admitting a high and dangerous cross sea; which, on the flood, by disturbing the bed of the river, materially assists the internal sea deposit; but, with piers of the proposed description, a portion of the advancing wave would be cut off, this would advance upward by easy undulations, until it was finally overcome by friction, and the increased width of the channel.—(For the effect in each instance see figures 2 and 3.)
3. The ebb of (he river, as it approached the pier heads, would gradually increase in velocity in proportion to the contraction, and the inclination of the embankments and piers, would have the effect of causing the body of the descending current to concentrate itself at a point considerably beyond the limits usually occupied by bars, outlying shoals, &c. At the same time it cannot be denied, that cross-going tides at the entrance, would partly neutralize the effect of the scourer; this, however, might be obviated by placing the ends of the piers well out, so that the deposit on their exterior sides caused by their own obstruction, might form a bight sufficiently extensive to cause the stream of the sea-tide to harmonize with the outgoing set of the river—(For illustration see figure 4.)
4. According to the authority of Du-Buat and others, it appears that a velocity at the bottom of 36 inches per second, will sweep along angular substances of the size of an egg. If so, the rate of the proposed scourer, which is nearly double the amount, will hold in subjection all interruptions for a considerable distance outside the pier heads.
5. An accumulation of sea-deposit at the entrance, which, under existing circumstances, is generally the obstacle to be surmounted, would prove an important auxiliary in securing the success of the proposed place. From the force of the outset, the deposit must necessarily assume the form of a continuance of the piers, and would serve to convey the scourer to a greater distance, and into deeper water than would otherwise be the case.—(See figure 5).
6. Quays or wharfs might be erected well down towards the mouth of the river. This would prove a great advantage in whichever way it may be considered; the demands of commerce would not only be facilitated, but it would also tend materially to preserve the integrity of the entrance, for it is a well established fact, that the action of the current under a ship's bottom is to set in motion the particles collected there; and it is clear, that if once set going, they would find their way out of the harbour's mouth; the agent which conveyed them in, is surely equal, with increased powers, to take them back again.
In conclusion, an important auxiliary to the foregoing principle, would be the establishment of a reservoir as near the source of the river as possible. The water from which (if the river was of moderate length) would find its way down to the sea about half ebb, and materially assist the scouring effort.
It will be perceived, that while advocating a trial of this particular principle of harbour making, I have assumed the inexpediency of a greater rate for the scouring power than five miles per hour; also, that it would be useless to take into consideration the minor points of local formation, &c, as they appear to be so completely outbalanced by this one great object—" the right constitution of the scouring power,"—this hypothesis might not hold good for a single instant, if tried by the test of experience; nevertheless, I offer it merely from never having seen a harbour constructed on the principle; and from the knowledge, that if the foregoing proposals be found possessed of the least particle of novelty, they cannot fail of provoking a very useful species of enquiry.
Outline Of The Sulphur's Voyage.—By Mr. C. George, R.N.
In placing the outline of the Sulphur's voyage under your notice, I have endeavoured to give the results of the expedition, as connected with the hydrographical department. To relieve the dry reading of astronomical data, I have endeavoured to introduce a few remarks to amuse the reader who may not be exactly intent on the result of computation.
It will be shown that the Sulphur has equalled, if not surpassed, any vessel that has left England in the like interesting expedition.
Many of your nautical readers have, doubtless, been anxiously expecting to hear what the Sulphur has added to scientific knowledge; had time permitted Sir E. Belcher to have gone over the re-computations, and made the final arrangement of the documents himself, they doubtless, would have appeared long before this; but, as they have fallen into humbler hands, I trust they will be found to have received every care and attention which could be bestowed on their completion.
The Zoology* resulting from the Sulphur's voyage under the command of Sir E. Belcher, C.b., F.r.o.s., is edited and superintended by Richard Brinsley Hinds, Esq., Surgeon, R.N., attached to the expedition, and the following gentlemen, animated by a devotion to science, have liberally engaged to undertake those departments, with which each respectively is best acquainted; viz.:—
Mammalia, by Mr. J. E. Gray, F.i
Fish, Dr. Richardson.
The extensive series of magnetical observations resulting from this voyage, have been placed under the care and arrangement of Colonel Sabine, and will shortly appear before the public. The addition to the Hydrographical department in charts and other documents will be shown, as we proceed in the details of the voyage.
The Sulphur was commissioned by Captain J. W. Beechey, F.r.s., on the 25th of September, 1835, and sailed from Spithead on the 22nd of December following, to survey on the western coast of America, and examine the ports from Callao, in lat. 12° 4' S., as far northward as Prince William Sound, in long. 6° 21' N.
After making the circuit of the globe, she returned to Spithead, July 19th, 1842, under the command of Sir E. Belcher, having been absent six years, seven months, and thirteen days. In this voyage she passed over 64,560 miles, and was at last paid off at Woolwich, August 2nd, 1842, havingbeen in commission nearly seven years.
Leaving Spithead the 22nd December, the Sulphur on going down channel called off Plymouth for her consort, the Starling, under the command of Lieut. Kellett, who had been despatched a few days previous to pick up some chronometers, and then bidding farewell to " the
* 1 he work will extend to about twelve royal Ito. parts; the publication commenced on 1st of April, and will be continued on the 1st of every third month, in the order as before mentioned; Mammalia and Birds are therefore published.
shores of Old England," commenced the voyage. After a passage of fifteen days we reached Madeira, and found here H.M. surveying vessels ./Etna and Raven ; these vessels had fitted out at the same port and time as the Sulphur and Starling,—former friendships were renewed, which made the meeting very agreeable, during the short time we remained together. Upon exchanging notes it was found that the .Etna and Raven had sailed from Portsmouth, a week or so before the Sulphur, and, had taken a more westerly route, but had experienced bad wea her in some parts of the passage: both vessels seem to have taken the same time in running from port to port; they had, like ourselves been making traverse courses over the reported position of the Eight Stones, a dangerous nest of rocks said to exist a few miles to the northward of the island of Madeira. The track of these four vessels, when projected, prove the danger does not exist in the position assigned them,—they were reported to be in lat. 34° 30' N., long. 16° 3W W.
As the JElna, was on her way towards that part of the African shore which lay in our track, we proceeded on the 7th of January in company towards Tenerife. On the evening of the I lth of January, two days before we arrived at Tenerife, we were gratified with one of those interesting sights, which alone fall to the lot of seamen to witness; a short time before sun set the " lofty peak of Tenerife" shewed out in delicate outline, the sun setting behind it, gave it a most beautiful appearance; by computation it was 110 miles from us, and appeared like a small peaked, sugar-loaf shaped hill on the distant horizon. This was the only time we saw it, for during our stay at Tenerife it was enveloped in clouds and mist.
Having procured a few refreshments; tried the performance of the chronometers, and tested some of the magnetical instruments, we sailed in company with the .Etna and Raven, and when in lat. 21° 10' N-, long. 20° 20' W., the vessels parted company. On separating we exchanged the usual parting farewell of " three hearty cheers": the united effort of the whole crew being concentrated by a known signal into one loud shout, has a most thrilling effect; and this being responded by the other vessel, the feeling of excitement is thus kept up. If three cheers produce such an effect among friends, that we can scarcely describe it, what must be the sensation produced when we know it comes from a determined enemy, bent on destruction.
I have heard it remarked that, in many of (he Naval engagements with France during the last war, the French officers noticed that the cheers of the British tars in the act of boarding, had the effect of daunting the spirits of their seamen, more than if a whole broadside had been poured in.
The power of conception will not I trust be painfully strained to picture these vessels on the wide Ocean, out of sight of land, and to all appearance the only moving objects on the surface of the globe; the effect of thus parting was somewhat heightened by the time and circumstances attending it; the sea was smooth, and the breeze sufficient to "lull evert/ sail to sleep"; the vessel was passing through the water so noiselessly, that she scarcely appeared to be moving, and the sun, now sinking in the western horizon, threw its subdued lustre along the surface of the ocean, which being mellowed by the reflection of the sea and sky into a pleasing softness, was in unison with the feelings produced by the parting farewell.
The officers and men still remained on deck. All seemed to enjoy the pleasing melancholy of the scene ; many doubtless suffered their thoughts to wander from the friends they had just given a parting cheer, to those much dearer in the circle of domestic or paternal affection. Darkness now threw its veil insensibly over us all, and both vessels thus lostv sight of each other, and quietly proceeded on their respective voyages.
We shaped our course towards the Equator, and crossed it in longitude 23° West. On reaching this important boundary of Neptune's domains, the ancient custom of introducing strangers was scrupulously adhered to. The account of this peculiar ceremony may be interesting to the juvenile portion of your readers, who have not yet had the pleasure of an introduction, and will therefore prepare them for it; to those who have witnessed this ceremony it may remind them of bye-gone times, when in early days they were setting out in life, every thing passing before them was new, and interesting, and especially the excitement attending this watery ordeal.
On the evening of the day previous to crossing the line, the weather was fine, the wind light from the westward, and the ship going steadily through the water. At about three bells in the first watch, the ship was hailed by a voice which was instantly recognised by the old seamen to be that of Neptune himself. The look-out man reported to the officer of the watch, "Some one ahead Sir, hailing the ship"; the officer coming to the fore part of the quarter-deck, exchanged compliment with old Neptune, and asked the purport of his visit; Neptune replied that on passing close to the ship, he had merely hailed, to pay his respects to the Captain and hoped he was well; .the officer reports the same to the Captain who desires him to tell Father Neptune that he would be glad to see him on board.
Neptune accepted the invitation by saying, as it was now rather late he should wait upon the Captain the following morning, and so wished us good night. It being dark, none of us abaft could see how Old Neptune arranged this part of the business. He certainly was somewhere a-head, most probably on the flying jib-boom.
All hands now went to work in making preparations to receive Father Neptune, and here for the present we will 1 eave them busily employed.
(To be continued.)
On The Muscular Power Of Seamen, Etc
Sir.—The general opinion being, that a tall stout seaman must necessarily possess strength according with his size, perhaps, the following extracts from a paper on the locomotion of animals, may be useful to those who have to select ciews for vessels,
1st. "Muscles are the active organs of motion in animals, and are endowed with great power.
ENLARGED SERIES. NO. 9.—VOL FOR 1843. 4 H