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" Do unto others as you would be done by ;” often, nay, generally, is the cause of such occurrences. Let the ship-owners ponder on the consequences that may, and do often occur from their ships being undermanned. Let them consider for a moment the dreadful situation of one of these short-handed ships after having weathered a furious hurricane, springing a leak! Let them fancy the small band of stout hearts being obliged to take spell and spell at the pumps; the leak as the muscular power of the devoted men declines, increasing rapidly, and preventing the possibility of a thrumbed sail being passed over the bows, until at last, wearied to exhaustion they drop as the vessel sinks under them! Let them think seriously of such a result arising from the economy of sailing a ship at the least possible expense, regardless of the souls within her-and, apply a remedy.
5. « But there is a limit to the amount of exertion which the muscular system will bear; if this limit is passed, the muscles lose their vigour, and lassitude and a flaccid state supervene."
This is inevitable, and addressing myself to the captains of ships, I beg to remark that, when a weighty cargo is to be hoisted in, and stowed away by the crew, the performance of which would necessarily require the whole power of the muscles to be exercised, the sooner the labour is commenced after daylight the better, and it would be advantageous to all parties to lengthen the period allowed for meals by at least half an hour; and to leave off work half an hour, or even an hour sooner than on ordinary occasions. More work would be performed, and what is of equal importance performed well. The material point for the judgment to aim at, in laborious duty, being to avoid over-working the muscles, by which the change from a healthy tone or tension to one of flaccidity is prevented.
6. “ I have before stated that the weight of the body is proportioned to the cube, and the power of the muscles to the square, of some one of its dimensions : for instance, in two similar-formed men, whose heights are respectively five and six feet, the muscular power of the former to that of the latter will be as 25 to 36, but their weights will be as 125 to 216, or, as 25 to 43 very nearly; the weight, therefore, increases much more rapidly than the muscular power, and, consequently, a smaller man is stronger, in proportion to his size, than a larger one.” And, I may add that, he will do more general work, and endure more fatigue, and that for a longer time than the larger man. In our men-of-war activity is much prized, hence in the selection of top-men this point is always attended to.* If, therefore, the shipowner and captain, would leave prejudice, which is founded on error, aside, and, the former not allow his spirit of economy to interfere with the efficiency of his vessel, ships would be navigated with more ease and safety than they are at present.
There is a curious phenomenon exhibited in the paper from which these extracts have been taken, respecting the predisposition to corpulency from the neglect of the proper means of checking it; but I pass
* What the object was for weighing lads I do not know, but if it was from an opinion that weight implied strength, the above will show that it was likely to prove erroneous !
it by, as there is little fear of a seaman becoming plethoric, or adipous, whilst serving in a merchant-ship; the owner and the skipper taking especial care to prevent such from arising from good or over-feeding, or from lack of exercise !
MUSCLE versus Weight.
WRECKS OF British SHIPPING.
(Continued from p. 200,-cs, crew saved; cd, crew drowned.)
- C. Antonio Ap. 22. es Adelhina
Price Hartlepool St. John C. Sable Ap. 28. es Aldrman Thompson
Quebec London Anticosti Nov. 29, '42 Amos
Whitby Wilson Stockton Lincoln M. Joff Saltfleet May 8. Ariel
Turnbull Limerick London Margate S. May 19. es Barbara Ann 215
P. Talbot Alicant Carribbean
Foundered in ice Glasgow St. John, NBC. Bollard Mar. 8. Catherine
Billing run foul of land sunk off Longship Ap. 29. Charlotte
Ryan Cardiff Waterford S. Bishop Ap. 16. es Clyde Barbados Barbados La Guayra
April Conservative 220 Liverpool Lind Liverpool Cape Good Saldanha B. Mar. 18. Croft
Grangemuth Berwick Foundered Ap. 23.es Dale
Farley Liverpool New Orleans Abandoned Ap. 8.
run foul of and sunk off Lowestoft Ap. 29. es! Elizabeth
Liverpool Quebec St. Pauls May 2. es! Emerentine 225
Audette Quebec Dalhousie Anticosti Nov. 23. Emily
Halifax Liverpool Ap. 13. Enterprize
Whitehaven Corbett not heard of since Nov. 30 from Scily
Corton Sand May 16. Great Britain 230
Shuckson Newport, W. New York Abandoned Ap. 2. Harrington
Mercer Liverpool Benguela Benguela Henry
Sunderland Cogle Wurkworth London Blakeney May 9. Hercules
Liverpool Postile Liverpool Mobile Mobile B. (Ap. Hibernia
Whiteside run foul of and sunk off Linas Ap. 1. Isabella Brown 235 Aberdeen
Castle I reef May 20.
Liverpool Calcutta abandoned Dec.
May 23. Industry
Jenkins Yarmouth St. John B. of Fundy May 4. Jemima
Glasgow James Lock 240
Swansea Madeira Abandoned (Ap I.
Bantry Clyde Howth Ap 15.
-Wash March Mary Jane
Gatcomb St. Mary's B Gr. Manan Long I. Bay Ap. 17. Mary and Isabella Lieth
Sunderland Murray Fth. burnt Ap. 234 Mary
245 Montrose Blues Montrose Riga Hoburgh rf Ap. 21. es Majestic
Maldives Marcs! Ocean
Glasgow M'Ree Maryport Belfast Orlook Pt. Ap. 30. Portree Halifax Johnson Jamaica Cuba
Cuba Ap. 14. Reward
Wilson Shields Dublin off Bell rock Nay 24. Robert 250
Stephens Newcastle London Sizewell B May 8. Sarah
Bristol Nankivell Newport Plymouth Foundered Mar. 29. Solway
R.M. steamr Duncan Coruna W. Indies Ct. of Spain Ap. 7.
C. St. George Dec. 10.
May 20. Thos. & Elizh. 255
Shields Dublin Sinclair B. May 13.
Gainsbro' Colchester off Blakeny
St.John, NB Hd.Hr.Pt. Ap. 29. Washington
Grangemuth Rotterdam Binks S. Mar 18. W. Rippon
Sunderland (Quedec Sunk in ice Ap. 29.
For reducing Chinese Changs to English Fathoms, and English
Fathoms to Chinese Changs.
2:167 4.333 6.500 8.667 10.833
13.000 | 15.167
17.333 19.500 21.667 23.833
26.000 13 28.167
30.333 32.500 34.667 36.833 39.000 41.167
43 333 21 | 45.500
47.667 49.833 52.000 54.167 56.333 58.500 60-667 62.833 65.000
67.167 32 69.333
71.500 73.667 75.833 78.000 80.167 82.333 84.500
An Ancient Anchor. The old anchor of which the annexed is a sketch was trolled up in a net in the month of July last year, about three miles from land, opposite to a place called Burmiston, in nineteen fathoms water; Scarbro' castle bearing by compass S.W.b.W.
Wool CARGOES. SIR.-Referring to a point touched on in the paper on the “ Merchant Service," the wool cargo, I beg to make a few observations.
Can any other conclusion be drawn from the fact of the steam arising from the cargo being allowed to pass through the seamen's berth, than that, such has been permitted, because it was the most economical plan; a plan, which although it may save a few pounds to the owner, jeopardizes the health and lives of the crew!
The remedy appears to be easy. Wooden flues would carry off the steam into the atmospheric air, and prevent it from affecting any person on board the vessel. Why have these not been erected ?
It is deplorable to think how little care is bestowed upon the state of the seamen's berth on board of merchant ships. In the Australian traders the bulk-head between the hold and the nien's berth is purposely left wlth interstices to admit the steam and fume from the wool cargo to pass through! The effect has been described, and I have been assured that when a person holds his head over the scuttle, the steam condenses on his face and runs off in drops! If the Captain is appealed to by the suffering crew, his answer is, that he cannot permit the bulkhead to be closed, as, in that case, the steam would find vent aft, and annoy his passengers! Without imputing direct blame to the Commander, we may assert it to have been his duty before quitting the home port, to have pointed out to the owner the result that would follow from the general plan adopted, and to have urged the necessity for a
remedy; the neglect of which outrages the feelings of humanity and justice.
We have been further assured that, when a ship freighted with wool, arrives in the Docks, after a four or five months voyage, the beds of the men, to use their own expression, are as “ rotton as tinder”, and fall in pieces on being lifted! Alternately steamed and cooled, exuding at all pores, and suddenly having the moisture evaporated by a freezing atmosphere, it may readily be believed that, no human being could support uninjured such vissicitudes. Disease and death are the inevitable consequences, and as an awful responsibility rests somewhere, it is to be hoped that a speedy remedy will be applied to the evil.
H.M.S. Cornwallis, Hong-Kong, April 3, 1843. Sir.—The following meridian distances which I have endeavoured to measure accurately, while employed in the China expedition, are sent for insertion in your valuable Magazine, should you deem such information worthy of attention.
The chronometer vsed (being the standard of nine on board the Cornwallis,) is by Arnold and Dent, No. 801, and during the last seven months, the temperature varying from 24 to 92! has changed its daily rate from. 65-hundredths gaining to :79-hundredths gaining, which latter rate it has preserved the last three months ; such steadiness of rate under great and sudden variations of temperature is rather unusual.
No. 801 was rated off Nankin in the river Yang-tse-kiang, in the month of September last; at Chusan several times during the months of October, November, December, and January; at Amoy in the month of February; and at Hong-Kong in March.
Equal Altitudes were always used, and I have much pleasure in testifying to the superiority of the said chronometer by Arnold and Dent.
From north point of the canal leading to Nankin 1 10m. 41.29s. E.
16 3.95 w.
To Cow-loon point Hong-Kong harbour . . 16 26-10 W. Adverting to two measurements I made in the year 1842, from Aden to Bombay, between which you discovered a difference of 6" in time. I beg to acquaint you that the first measurement was from Ras Marbat to Bombay light-house, and the second from Ras Marbat to Bombay flag-staff. The light-house being about one mile and a half to the westward of the flag-staff.
During my services in the China Sea, I have been anxious to make some remarks and sailing directions for some places which were but