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perienced pilots on board, broke adrift from her anchors in the roads, during the night; they attempted to run her out lo sea to the northward, as their only means of escape, but not being able to see their way, and having nothing to guide them, the vessel struck on the " Barber Sand," and they gave themselves up for lost; providentially the cutter beat over the sands into deep water, and was saved. If this happen to experienced pilots what must be the fate of numbers of our colliers when caught in a S.S.W. gale by night in Yarmouth Roads! Let the thriving trade of the Yarmouth wreckers answer.—Ed. N.M.]
Plan Of Harwich Harbour.
We congratulate all our sailor friends, hut especially all those connected with the shipping interest at Mistley, Manningtree, and Ipswich, on the publication of a Plan of Harwich Harbour, surveyed in H.M.S. Shearwater, Captain Washington, by Mr. E. K. Culver, ma3ter and assistant surveyor of that ship. This plan was drawn upon the scale of 12 inches, and is engraved on that of eieht inches, nearly, to the nautic mile; and it is the only harbour in the British Islands hitherto published by the Admiralty on so large a scale. This is of peculiar value at the present moment, when it has just been unanimously agreed upon by all parties that, if the capabilities and resources for traffic of the Eastern Counties' Railroad are to be fully developed, its terminus must be in the sea; and when, consequently, many engineering questions are likely to arise as to depth of water, best position for piers, &c.
The plan before us extends from the Cork Ledge, or Fairway Buoy, on the east, to Dovercourt church on the west, and shews about a mile of the lower parts of the rivers Stour and Orwell; the channels into the harbour are distinctly marked, and a new western channel well brought out, the soundings are numerous, and expressed in feet, and the height of all the ground is given above the level of high water. It is fully illustrated by views drawn by Mr. C. E. Davison, of the Shearwater, and accompanied by complete sailing directions engraved on it, a novel feature, we believe, in Government charts, but one which, we hope, will be generally adopted; and though last, not least, the plan is sold at the low price of 3s., thus putting it within the reach oferen our coasters.
But while congratulating ourselves on the capabilities for shelter which Harwich Harbour still offers (and we see in one narrow channel, close along Landguard beach, that there is depth for a frigate even at low water springs), yet we cannot shut our eyes to the fact that this plan reveals some remarkable changes in the port for the worse during the last 40 years: at that period there was a deep channel into the harbour, carrying seven fathoms of water, where now the shingle beach is as many feet above high water mark. Then the sea washed the foot of Landguard Fort; now the point projects fully 500 yards beyond. But what the land has gained on this the Suffolk shore, the sea has more than gained on the opposite or Essex coast; here the Beacon Cliff extended far into the sea, with a breakwater of cement stone at its foot, forming an admirable barrier against southerly gales; but all this is changed, and the progress of deterioration is daily going on. The cause of it is obvious, namely, the removal of the cement stone from Felixstow Ledge and the foot of Beacon Cliff". But is there no guardian of the harbour, we would ask? What has happened to the mayor and corporation of the borough, the natural conservators of the port, that they can calmly look on and see their port—their only source of revenue, day by day becoming of less value f
But our space compels up to stop till we can return to this important subject; in the meantime we would implore those who have the power to arrest the progress of destruction to exert themselves, ere too lute, to preserve to our poor sailors, and the shipping interest of the kingdom in general, the only real harbour of refuge on the east coast of England between the Thames and tie H umber.—Ettex Standard
Wrecks Of British Shipping.
(Continued from p. 604,—cs, crew saved; cd, crew drowned.)
Agnes & Barbara
Ann Kennez 275
Ouke of Wellington
Henry and Thomas
Singapore" Quebec shore at
washed on Calcutta Dundee
sprung a Archangel Honduras
Petersburg Ancona Cardiff Caernarvon
seen to Newcastle Dublin
St. Lawrnce foondered Angle Bay Newry Bi-.iumaris
Sunderland Seabam founder off jOff Bideford Petersburg Boghnd
Red wharf B
263.—The bodies of the crew floated up, except the boy.
272,—The crew all drowned, and boat washed on shore off Bude.
274.—The crew saved by Lotus, Watson.
285.—The crew saved by a Prussian vessel, and most kindly treated.
288.—From England with coals, crew saved by Midas.
290.—The crow saved by brig Marquis of Normandy.
309,—The crew saved under the gallant superintendence of Captain J. Williams.
327.—The crew saved by Emma, Zoller, abandoned lat. 47*, long. 53°.
339.—Ship surrounded by 500 Bedouin Arabs, crew saved by boat, are at Alexandria.
349.—The crew drowned off River Bann attempting to land from boat.
354.—The crew saved by Hebe, Henderson, master, In a gale of wind off Fern Islands.
428.—The crew taken off by Maid of Kent, and landed at Whitburn.
3b7.—The crew saved by Apollo, Walker, of Dundee.
The Life, Voyages, And Exploits Op Admiral Sir Francis Drake.— By John Barrow, Esq., 1 vol. Svo.—Murray, Albemarle Street.
For some time past we have been on the look out for the publication of this work, and are enabled at length, befote the close of the year, to call the attention of our readers to a book, the perusal of which, -we believe, will afford them more than usual interest.
The life of such a man as Sir Francis Drake, whose name from childhood has been familiar to our lips, and ears, could not well fail to afford ample materials for an interesting volume; but the great merit of Mr. Barrow's woik consists in having succeeded for the first time,—notwithstanding there are many published narratives of the adventures of Drake, and among others one by Dr. Johnson,—in bringing to light a series of Original letters of Sir Francis Drake, and of Howard Earl Op Effingham, the Lord High Admiral in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, collected chiefly at the State Paper Office from " the almost illegible manuscripts"—a glance "at the best specimen," of one of which (printed at page 300,) fully corroborates the fact of their being so: we confess to us it is "perfect Hebrew," In addition to these Mr. Barrow has procured much new and curious information from manuscripts in the British Museum, and has consulted largely all the old chroniclers, Camden, Stow, Strype, Speed, Holinshed, &c, together with many rare tracts communicated by Mr. Bolton Corney, "a private gentleman of great literary acquirements and research."
We shall, in this present notice, confine ourselves entirely to a few piquant extracts from some of the original letters, which appear to have been written chiefly during that eventful epoch in the history of our country, the attempted "Spanish invasion," by the miscalled " Invincible Armada;" and in the next, for the benefit of those " who read no more than is set down for them," w« propose to give a general outline of the work.
The letters are in themselves so irresistible that we hope to be excused for thus deviating from the usual routine.
The first extract we shall quote is from a letter of the Lord High Admiral, which gives a pretty clear insight into the general state of the finances of the country in those days; and is certainly highly amusing.
It will be recollected that Sir Francis Drake, who took an active part in the defeat of the Spanish Armada, had the good fortune to seize a vessel, on board of which was one Don Pedro, together with a large amount of treasure; a little of which the Lord High Admiral appears to have stood somewhat in need.
The letter is dated from the Ark in Dover road, the 27th August, 1588, and addressed " To my verie lovinge freinde, Mr. Secretarie Walsinghame, at the Courte.
"Sir, I send you heer inclosed a note of the many that Sir F. Drake had abourd Don Pedro. I did take now at my cornyng downe 3000 pystolets, as I told you I wold, for by Jesus I had not [three pounds] left in the worlde, and had nor anythinge coulde gect mony in London. And I dow assur you my plate has gone befor, but I will repay it within ten days after my comyne home. I pray you let her Majestie know so; and by the Lord God of hevne I had not on crown mor, and had it not byne mcer nesesite I wold not have touched one; but if I had not sum to have bestoed apon sum pour and myserable men I should have wyshed myselfe out of the worlde. Sir, let me not lyve longer then I shall be most wylling to dow all sarvys, and to take any paynie I chan for her Majestie's sarvys. I thynk Sir F. Drake wyll say I have lyttell rest, day or nyght."
The following letter from Sir Francis Drake to the Queen, recommending an attack upon the Spaniards on their own coast, will be read with interest.
"Sir Francis Drake To The Queen.
"most Gracyous Soveraione,
"I have receaved from Mr. Secreatary som particuller notes and wi.hall a comandment, to answere tliem unto your Majestie.
"The first is that your Majestie would willyngly be satysfyed from me how the forces nowe in Lysborne might best be dystressed.
"Trewly this poynt is hardly to be awuswered as year, for tow specyall cawses, the fyrst, for that our intelligences are as yeat uncertayne. The second, is the resolucyon of our owne peoyle, which I shall better understand when I have them at sea. The last insample at Calles is not of dyvers yeat forgotten, for one such flying nowe, as Borrowghes dyd then, will put the wholle in perille ffor that the enemyes strengthe is now so great gathred together and redy to invade ;—but yf your Majestie will geve present order for our preceding to the sea, and send to the strengthning of this fleett here, fower more of your Majestie's good shippes, and those 16 saill of shipes with ther penaces which ar preparing in London, then shall your Majestie stand assured, with God's assistance, that yf the flett come out of Lysborne as long as we have vittuall to leve withal], uppon that cost, they shall be fowght with, and I hope throwghe the goodness of our mercyfull God, in suche sort as shall hynder his qwyett passage into Yngland, (or I assure your Majestie, I have not in my lyfle time knowen better men and possessed with gallanter minds than your Majestie's people are for the most parte, which are here gathred together, vollontarylly* to put ther hands and hartts to the fynishing of this great peice of work, wherin we ar all perswaded that God, the gevr of all victoryes, will in mercye lowke uppon your most excellent Majestie, and us your power subjects, who for the defence of your Majestie, our relygon, and natyve country, have resolutly vowed the hassard of our lyves.
"The advantage of tyme and place in all marciall accyons is half a victory, which being lost is irrecoverable, wherefore, if your Majestie will comaund me away with those shipes which ar here alredye, and the rest to follow with ail possible expedycyon' I hold it in my power opynyon the surest and best cowrse, and that they bring with them vittualls sufiycyent for themselves and us, to the intent the service be not utterly lost for want thereof: Whereof I most humbly beseche your most excellent Majestie to have such consideracyon as the wayghtenes of the cawse reqwyrethe. For an Ynglyshman being farre from his country and seing a present wante of vittuall to insue, and perseaving no beneffyett to be lowked for, but only blowes, will hardlye be browght to stave.
"I have order but for tow monthes vittualles begynning the 24th of Aprell, whereof one wholl monthe may be spent before we com there, the other monthes vittuall will be thowght, with the least to bring us back agayne; here may the wholl service and honor be lost for the sparing of a few crownes.
"Towching my power opynyon how strong your Majesties fleett should be to encounter this great force of the enemy, God increac your most excellent Majestie's forces, both by sea and land, dayly: for this I surly thincke ther was never any force so strong as theris now redyeor makyngeredye agaynstyour Majestie and trewe relygyon, but that the Lord of all strengthesis stronger and will defend the trewth ot his word, for his owne name's sake, unto the which God be all glory geven. Thus all humble duty, I contynewally will pray to the Allmvghtye to blesse and give you vyctorye over all his, and your enemyes.
From Plymothe this 13th of Aprell, 1588.
Your Majestie's most Ioynll,
To the Queen's moste excellcnte Majestie.
We would continue further extracts of these most interesting documents, but must necessarily defer doing so, till our limited space affords another opportunity; but in the mean time, we earnestly recommend to the service at large,