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To those who are at all acquainted with the absurd doctrines believed, and abominable practices followed by the bulk of the Hindoos, it will not appear surprising that the morals of this people should be in the lowest state of degeneracy. Even Dr. Hamilton, who does not write by any means in the style of a rigid censor, gives us the following picture of their character.

"These mountain Hindus appear to me a deceitful and treacherous people, cruel and arrogant towards those in their power, and abjectly mean towards those from whom they expect favour. Their men of rank, even of the sacred order, pass their nights in the company of male and female dancers and musicians, and, by an excessive indulgence in pleasure, are soon exhausted. Their mornings are passed in sleep, and the day is occupied by the performance of religious ceremonies, so that little time is left for business or for storing their minds with useful knowledge. Except a few of the Brahthey are, in general, drunkards, which, joined to a temper uncommonly suspicious, and to a consciousness of having neglected the conjugal duties, works them up to a fury of jealousy that frequently produces assassination." P. 22, 23.

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In other passages he alludes incidentally to still grosser and more indecent violations of morality. Now this is precisely what we should have anticipated from the prevalence of the Brahmanical superstitions, or any bearing an affinity to them. No part of the world, as far as we know, has ever presented a more detestable assemblage of vices than is to be found wherever their influence has extended. We have been alternately amused and disgusted by the apparent adoption of their spirit in the account which our author gives of the inhabitants of these mountains, and the half ironical, half laudatory tone in which he contrasts the recently introduced rules of Hindoo purity with the horrid abominations in which the beefeating monsters of the mountains and ulterior country continue to wallow. This must indeed be irony in many instances, as, e. g. when he talks of the pure but frail beauties with whom the sacred city, (Benares) is known to abound;-but it is repeated too frequently, and introduced too freely in even the gravest parts of the work, not to leave the impression that the customs of the Hindoos are regarded by him, if not with approbation, at least with indifference. A long residence in India may, perhaps, have reconciled the author to practices which their daily occurrence must have rendered familiar, and made him in some degree callous to their enormity. For our own part we should have been much better pleased with a decided exposure and reprobation of their spirit and effects. We cannot express strongly enough our abhorrence of the whole system, rendered doubly odious by its assuming the absurd name of purity, or our wishes and prayers for its speedy banishment from the face of the earth; a consummation we trust ere long to be effected by the introduction of a faith really pure, and principles of morality calculated to produce effects, very different indeed, on the state of society and the happiness of so many millions of our fellow creatures.

Our account of this work has extended to such a length, that we dare not enter into any prolix criticism on the style. It is in general plain, but perspicuous, without any attempt at ornament, and often sinking into a carelessness bordering on vulgarity. At times, however, it is relieved by a kind of epigrammatic tartness, apparently the result of native sarcastic humour, breaking out unintentionally where there seems to be little or no temptations to indulge it. We cannot conclude without remarking on the frequent annoyance we have met with from the limited assortment of proper names in use in India, and the confused and arbitrary spelling of the native appellations of both persons and places. We could hardly identify the Umr Singh, Bughtee Sing, and Bhum Sah of the Gazettes of 1816, with the Amar Singha, Bhakti Thapa, and Bhim Sen of Dr. Hamilton. We were sadly puzzled with two generals of the first mentioned name, whose separate personality we were enabled to ascertain only from the index, and not from the work itself; and we believe most of our readers would stare, as we did, to find the river Jumna transformed into Yumina, the city of Lucknow metamorphosed into Lakhnau; and the province of Oude, so well known in this country from Mr. Burke's pathetic lament for the wrongs of its Begum, lengthened out into the unutterable polysyllable Ayodhya. We are perfectly aware how difficult it is to transfer the faintly sounded vowels, and numerous consonants, of the oriental alphabets, into our letters; but still we cannot think it too much to expect from our numerous and intelligent orientalists, that they should agree on something like an uniform orthography of proper names, which, however imperfectly it might represent the pronunciation of the original, would remove what their readers in this country find a fertile and unpleasant source of obscurity and ambiguity. We must also observe that the map of the Nepalese territory annexed to this work, though on a large scale, and executed with neatness and apparent accuracy, loses much of its value from not having the usual distinctive marks of latitude and longitude affixed to it, and from the almost uniform omission of every place within the dominions of the British government and Nabob Vizir, by which we could have connected it with the maps of Hindostan previously in our possession.

We now take leave of Dr. Hamilton and his book, with gratitude for the large quantity of amusing and instructive information which he has afforded us, and regret that it has been presented in such an arrangement as must necessarily diminish, in no small degree, the pleasure and profit which his readers might otherwise have reaped from the perusal.

ART. III. Histoire Naturelle des Animaux sans Vertèbres, présentant les Caractères, Généraux et Particuliers de ces Animaux, leur Distribution, leurs Classes, leurs Familles, leurs Genies, et la Citation des Principales Espèces qui s'y rapportent, précédée d'une Introduction offrant la Détermination des Caractères essentiels de l'Animal, sa distinction du végétal et des autres corps naturels, enfin, l'Exposition des Principes Fondamentaux de la Zoologie. Par M. LE CHevalier de LAMARCK, Membre de l'Institut Royal de France, de la Légion d'Honneur, et de plusieurs Sociétés savantes de l'Europe, Professeur de Zoologie au Muséum d'Histoire Naturelle. Tomes 1-5, and 6th Premier Partie. Paris.

The Natural History of the Invertebrate Animals, exhibiting their General and Particular Characters, their Distribution, their Classes, their Families, their Genera, and the Quotation of their Principal Species, preceded by an Introduction, presenting the Determination of the Essential Characters of the Animal Being, its distinction from the vegetable and other natural bodies, in short, the Exposition of the Fundamental Principles of Zoology. By the CHEVALIER DE LAMARCK, Member of the Royal Institute of France, of the Legion of Honour,. and of several learned Societies of Europe, and Professor of Zoology in the Museum of Natural History. 5 vols. 8vo, and vol. 6, Part the First.

OUR zoological readers require not to be informed, that the author of this elaborate work is a distinguished veteran in the service of natural science, who has identified his name with the philosophical and commodious division of animals into those which are furnished with a vertebral column, and those which want it. As the latter includes all those tribes which do not belong to the mammalia, birds, reptiles, or fishes, it forms the most extensive portion of the animal kingdom, the most numerous in different races, as well as the most diversified in respect of organization, while, nevertheless, it was long treated with unmerited neglect. It is peculiarly fortunate, therefore, that its study has been so sedulously cultivated, during a long series of years, by a professor of vigorous intellect, acute talents, and confirmed habits of inquiry, and who has, at the same time, long enjoyed the envied opportunities of communication with some of the first naturalists of Europe, besides access to rich and ample stores of animal specimens, collected and arranged by himself and others. His writings, which are now voluminous, are generally characterized by the research and ingenuity of his speculations, and by

the clear and perspicuous language in which he has embodied them; but they also betray a decided propensity to generalize on assumed or deceptive premises, and they are all, more or less, tinctured with the influence of a few leading and favourite doctrines, which seldom rest on very stable foundations. The volumes before us obviously partake of these excellencies and defects. A prefixed notice apprizes us of their general scope and design, namely, a methodical exposition of the principal facts which the learned Professor had collected for his public instructions, accompanied by his own observations and reflections, and presenting his systematical arrangement of the classes, genera, and some of the principal species of invertebrate animals, deduced from their organization, and conveying a methodical illustration of the theory set forth in his Philosophie Zoologique, with some additional developements. Deeply impressed with a sense of the importance of his zoological creed, to the prominent tenets of which he often.recurs with the garrulity of age and vanity, the Chevalier bespeaks the favour of a second careful perusal of his lucubrations, before the reader presumes to question their accuracy or validity. In reply to the objection, that the whole system is derived from his own individual judgment, and consequently, incident to error, he maintains, that in certain cases, the force of circumstances controls the judgment, and that the present is precisely such a case. But this controlling force of circumstances is, we apprehend, far more manifest to the zealous theorist than to the sober and candid inquirer after truth. Another objection which he anticipates, is the irrelevancy of some of the topics which he has thought proper to introduce, but which, he contends, are so many essential elements of the conclusions deducible from his principles. Here, too, we suspect, that he magnifies these subsidiary discussions greatly beyond their value, and that, though he may regard them as very susceptible of demonstration, others may be disposed to consider them as extremely problematical.

It was our intention to have postponed our report of these volumes till the author should have completed his design; but we now learn, and with much concern, that he labours under a very serious defect of vision, which will infallibly retard, if not preclude the fulfilment of his plan. We hasten, therefore, to indicate the character and contents of the published portions, which embrace nearly the whole of the scheme originally contemplated.

The Introduction, which extends to no fewer than 382 pages, commences with stating the inadequacy of every definition of the term Animal, which has been hitherto suggested: and we will readily admit, that the precise line of demarcation between the

animal and vegetable kingdoms, has been imperfectly traced. But will our conceptions of this obscure problem in physiology be materially aided by the six fundamental principles and their two corollaries, which the Chevalier thus formally enunciates in all the confidence of their unerring stability?

1st Principle. "Every fact, or phenomenon, cognizable by observation, is essentially physical, and owes its existence, or its production, only to bodies, or to the relations of bodies.

2d Principle." All motion or change, all acting force, and every effect whatever, observed in a body, necessarily depend on mechanical causes, regulated by laws. 3d Principle. "Every fact or phenomenon, observed in a living body, is at once a fact, or physical phenomenon, and a product of organization.

4th Principle. "There exists not in nature any matter inherently endowed with the faculty of living. Every body in which life is manifest, presents, in the product of the organization which belongs to it, and in that of a series of movements excited in its parts, the physical and organic phenomenon which life constitutes, a phenomenoli which is continued and maintained in that body, as long as the conditions essential to its production subsist. 5th Principle. "There exists not in nature any matter endowed with the peculiar faculty of having, or of forming ideas, of executing operations among ideas, or, in a word, of thinking. Wherever such phenomena are manifest, (and they are observable among the more perfect animals,) there is always found a special system of organs. adapted to their production, a system whose extent and integrity bear an invariable relation to the degree of eminence and the state of the phenomena in question. 6th Principle. Finally, there is not in nature any matter endowed with the inherent faculty of feeling. Accordingly, wherever this faculty can be ascertained, there only is found in the living body that is endowed with it, a special system of organs, capable of giving rise to the physical, mechanical, and organic phenomenon which constitutes sensation."

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"To these principles, which lie beyond the reach of solid disputation, and without which zoology would be destitute of foundations, I shall add:

"1. That a perfect relation always subsists between the condition, whether of inte. grity, or alteration, of the extent or improvement of an organic faculty, and that of the organ or system of organs which produces it.

"2. That the more an organic faculty is distinguished by its eminence, the more complicated is the organization to which the system of organs that gives birth to it, belongs."

Now, with all due deference to the Chevalier's sagacity and penetration, we entertain very serious doubts if the rawest novice in metaphysics will tamely acquiesce in the accuracy of the very first of these invulnerable positions; for, can we not observe the facts and phenomena of mind as well as those which relate merely to material or corporeal existences? Or, will it be seriously maintained, that the whole world of spirit is chimerical, and no legitimate subject of contemplation? In regard to the second principle, we have only to remark, that while it involves the superfluous truism, that the external movements of all living bodies are performed according to certain mechanical laws, it by no means proves that they never originate in the volition of the animal. If the third has a reference merely to the physical constitution of a living being, it expresses, as we apprehend, a very harmless fact; but, if processes of thinking, judgment, compari

VOL. III. NO. IV.

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