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antenniferous head; and their gills, when known, are disposed, internally along the body. They are subdivided into sections, namely, the Hirudinian, and the Echiurean. The former have. no genuine bristle projecting outwardly. They are, for the most part, aquatic; but some have been observed in Madagascar, which are permanently terrestrial, attached to plants, and keen blood-suckers. M. de Blainville, who has formed several genera of the Linnéan Hirudo, has supplied the Chevalier de Lamarck with their respective characters. Their titles are, Hirudo, Trochetia, Pontobdella, Piscicola, Phylline, and Erpobdella.
The Trochetic are nearly allied to the Hirudines, and have a similar aspect; but their mouth is furnished with two lips, and presents no vestige of teeth or jaws. They are likewise distinguished by a somewhat protuberant ring; and M. Dutrochet, who discovered them, and instituted their genus, informs us, that they perish in water, and require to breathe in air. The term Pontobdella is borrowed from Leach, and denotes marine Annelides, having the body cylindrical, covered with warts, or tubercles, and wanting a protuberant circle. The Piscicola are sufficiently discriminated by their cylindrical body, dilated at the two extremities by a somewhat rounded membrane. The two remaining families of this section are inserted only provisionally in this department of the system, and with much doubt and hesitation.
The Echiureans are furnished with bristles which project outwardly, but are not retractile; and their genera are formed chiefly at the expence of the Linnéan Lumbricus. Their dwelling is in moist soil, or the ooze of the sea. Their gills have not been recognized. They are distributed under Lumbricus, Tha lassema, and Cirratulus: but no non-descripts are mentioned.
The second order is styled Antennated: and the families belonging to it have a head furnished with antennæ and eyes. They are, moreover, provided with a protractile proboscis, which is often armed with jaws. They are furnished with setiferous, foot-like, and retractile mammillæ, but not with hooked bristles. Their gills, when known, are external, and ranged along the body. These, which are all marine, form a very numerous and diversified tribe, comprising the Nereides of Savigny. Without regard to their sections, the genera here particularized, are,Palmyra, Halithaa, Polynoe, Lycoris, Nephtys, Glycera, Hesione, Phyllodoce, Syllis, Spio, Leodice, Lysidice, Aglaura, Enone, Chloe, Pleione, and Euphrosine. Of these many of the species are non-descript; and their characters are derived from the manuscript papers of M. Savigny. The singular and beau
tiful Aphrodita aculeata of Linné and Bruguières, is now classed with the Halithaœ.
The third order is designed Sedentary, because all the species belonging to it reside permanently in tubes. They have no antenniferous head, eyes, or jaws, but setiferons, pediform, and retractile mammillæ, and hooked bristles, which are also retractile. Such of their gills as have been discovered, are most frequently situated at, or near one of the extremities of the body. Their genera are, Arènicola, Siliquoria, Clymene, Dentalium, Pectina ria, Sabellaria, Terebella, Amphitrite, Spirorbis, Serpula, Vermilia, Galeolaria, and Magilus.
"By introducing to our acquaintance the singular family of Clymenes, M. Savigny has thrown light on a peculiar structure, which we should not have expected to find in the annelides. I now perceive what may, and what ought to be the animal of the dentalia. M. Savigny having fruitlessly searched for gills at the anterior extremity of the clymenes, concluded that they had none, as if they could exist without them. Were we not acquainted with the doris, we might have some difficulty in believing that the gills could be transferred to the circumference of the anus. In such of the annelides as are always inclosed in a case, which is open only at the anterior extremity, the gills of the animal require to be placed at or near that extremity of its body; but it is certainly not without cause that the tube of the clymenes is open at both ends, and the funnel-shaped apparatus, which encircles the vent, sufficiently indicates that the gills are situated there.
Only one species, namely, the Amphistoma, has been discovered; and it occurs on the coasts of the Red Sea.
Several of the Vermilia, which are nearly related to the Serpulæ, are introduced, for the first time, into the system; and specimens of them are deposited in the Parisian Museum and the same remark applies to the two known species of Galeolaria.
On the whole, the author has evinced his usual precision and discriminative talents in the arrangements and definitions of this important class, but he might have rendered some portions of his exposition far more interesting, and relieved his readers from the dryness of technical details, had he somewhat dilated on the manners and habits of some of the species, as, for example, of the leech and earth-worm, the natural history of both of which involves many curious facts, which have been only lately ascer tained.
The next class, Cirrhipeda, relates to softish animals, destitute of head and eyes, testaceous, and fixed. Their body, which has the appearance of being reversed, is inarticulate, furnished with a tunic, and with tentacular, cirrhous, and many-jointed arms above. Their mouth is always inferior, not projecting, and provided with transverse toothed jaws, disposed in pairs. The arms are variable in number, unequal, disposed in two rows, and composed each of two setaceous, multi-articulate, ciliated cirrhi, of a corneous skin, set on a common pedicle. The vent
terminates in a trunk-like tube. They have a knotty, longitu-. dinal spinal marrow, external gills, which are sometimes concealed, and their circulation is performed by means of a heart and vessels. Their shell is either sessile, or elevated on a tendinous. flexible foot-stalk, composed of several unequal valves, sometimes: moveable, sometimes consolidated, and internally lined with the tunic. Such characters obviously appertain neither to the Anne-: lides, nor to the Mollusca, properly so called. They are divided. into two Orders, viz. the Sessile and the Pedunculated. To the former belong Tubicinella, Coronula, Balanus, Acasta, Creusia, and Pyrgama; and to the latter, Anatifa, Pollicipes, Cineras,. and Otion. For some of these modifications and distinctions, the author is indebted to the observations of Dr. Leach; but we can no longer stop to explain them in detail.
Indeed, it is now time to close this notice, cursory as it is, of a work, which, with all its defects, promises to hold a distinguished station in the library of the zoologist, and to impart both an impulse and facility to the study of the various tribes of beings of which it treats. That the distressing privation of sight which retards its completion, may be speedily removed, is unfortunately more to be desired than expected.
ART. IV.-The Munster Cottage Boy; a Tale. By REGINA MARIA ROCHE, Author of The Children of the Abbey," &c. &c. In 4 Volumes, 8vo. London: Newman & Co. 1820.
THAT the exertions of real talent are so frequently unsuccessful, we are disposed to think proceeds greatly from misdirection of its peculiar powers. Many a man has passed through life in obscurity, whose mind, like Aladdin's lamp, might have commanded a world of treasures, if the possessor had but known how to use it aright.
It is to this cause we attribute the failure of the author of that enchanting tale, "The Children of the Abbey," in the present work. Miss Roche, we imagine, has, like many chiefs, political and literary, abandoned her native territories to usurp those of another. She has thrown away her own " mellow horn," to seize the gay voluble clarion of Lady Morgan. It has refused to answer her efforts; and "The Munster Cottage Boy" fails
to affect the heart. It is evident that the feelings of the author have been discomposed-that they have lost their tone-and that a spirit of satire, we could almost say invective, has poisoned the purity of her sentiment.
That patient merit of the unworthy takes"
are, no doubt, galling; but of what avail is talent, we ask, if it cannot exalt the mind above the paltry bickerings of life? Why should the channel of literature, destined only for the tide of generous and superior thought, be converted, as it often has been by our contemporaries, to a common sewer, into which writers think themselves at liberty to empty the filthy product of their private grudges, and party-spirited malignity? But regretting, as we do, the inferiority of the production now before us to the earlier fruit of Miss Roche's genius, as well as the cause of it, we venture with pleasure on a short abstract, for the purpose chiefly of introducing some notices of Irish scenery and character, which we may not soon have so good an opportunity of transcribing.
Mr. and Mrs. Bryerly and family, with Fidelia Hawthorne, a young beautiful girl, whose origin is unknown, leave England for Ireland, and settle at Strandstown, one of the villages on the coast of Munster. The little town and its society are minutely described.
"During the season it (Strandstown) exhibited a good deal of gaiety and bustle; but till then, had a melancholy aspect; its ranges of closed-up houses, giving it the air of a depopulated place. To those, however, who did not depend on varied society for amusement, it was never entirely devoid of interest; its cliffs and caves being ex-' tremely romantic and beautiful; while the extent of its magnificent bay, with the hoarse murmur of its waves breaking like peals of artillery upon the shore, filled the mind with admiration and awe.
"Inanimate objects, however, were not those which most delighted the Miss Bryerlys or their mamma: accordingly, they did not disdain the overtures that were made for an intimacy with them, by the few families that made it their place of abode, consisting of the rector's, the apothecary's, (whose little practice compelled him to bear woeful testimony to the salubrity of the place,) a coast surveyor's, and a widow lady who owned several of the lodging houses, to which list was to be added, the mistress of the chief hotel, who, after passing half of the year in all the bustle of business, retired for the remainder, to enjoy herself like the bees on the spoils of the summer."
Thus the Bryerlys (the profani) were occupied; but Fidelia, true to her calling of a heroine, wandered forth in quest of adventures, and found one, which differs from most of its kind, inasmuch as it possesses the semblance of an earthly incident. It also exhibits a more genuine representation of the state of the Irish peasantry, than, we believe, will be found in whole volumes of statistical reports. She meets a peasant in the act of
hurling his dog from off a rock, and who thus answers her inquiries as to the nature of the culprit's offence
“Och, musha! nothing in the world, Miss honey, but that myself can't keep him. Things, do you see, Miss, have got cross somehow with us lately; and so, not being able to give a bit as we used to do to poor Barnee (the dog), he's taking a little to thieving, and no shame to him the creature; the d—l an honester dog in all Strandstown, if you believe me, Miss, while we had wherewithal; but hunger, as you know they say, Miss, will break through stone walls; (and a ghastly smile too plainly indicated his having had but too much experience of its urgency,) and so, Miss, this getting me ill-will from the neighbours, I am forced to make away with him. Myself is almost with grief to do so, and Biddy and the children are breaking their hearts
crying, but sorrow bit of me can help it,-d-1 a thing we have for ourselves but pra
ties, and little enough of them too."
Thus did this modern Brutus condemn his dog, for the good of his little commonwealth. Poor Barnee, however, as every admirer of the race will rejoice to learn, is delivered from his dangery and Fidelia goes shortly after to the peasant's cottage, where
"The poor woman herself sick and helpless, shivering over the embers of a few turfs which had just sufficed to boil a small pot of potatoes; round which the squalid children, with their father, and poor Barnee in the midst of them, were sitting with a cup of salt water to supply the place of salt for them."
Such is the full amount, we fear, of the comforts to be found in the cabins of the Irish cottier, or labourer; and here it may not be ill-timed briefly to particularize his humble economy, his hopes, and too frequent misfortunes. Those cabins, to which is commonly attached a strip of ground, from half an acre to two acres are rented from the farmer at generally four guineas per annum, besides the consideration of the occasional labour of the cottier. The ground supplies him and his family with their scanty store of potatoes; and his chance for the payment of the rent depends on his being able to fatten two or three pigs. As the cottier holds these wretched tenements from year to year, he is always exposed to the despotism of the person in office; and on the non-payment of the stipend, the bailiff comes, and after having canted or auctioned off his little furniture, even to the last blanket, turns him and his shivering family upon the merciless world. His thoughts then turn to America-his second home: he comes to a sea-port town; engages to work his passage, and after all, leaves with regret the land of his suffering, because it is the land of his birth. During the last five years, it has been confidently stated, little short of half a million of these unhappy emigrants have left Ireland for America and the Indies. But, to recur to the tale
Fidelia, during her stay at Strandstown, becomes acquainted with Mr. Grandison, a descendant of an old Irish family. On the first glance at this gentleman, we knew him for the lover of