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crew and officers must be frequently exercised in making and shortening sail, reefing and furling.
222. The commanding officer shall see that all the small arms of the vessel are kept in good order, and he shall inspect them himself at least once a week.
223. He shall see that all the boats of the vessel are properly fitted, and have all the necessary appliances for performing efficient service and securing the comfort and safety of the crews when away from the vessel.
224. He shall see that the vessel under his command is in good order, and in an efficient state for the prompt performance of any service which may be ordered.
225. The guns, gun-carriages, and all the implements belonging to them are to be frequently overhauled, and kept in good order for service.
226. At sea, the captain or commanding officer will have his yards, masts, rigging, and sails properly protected from chafe.
227. At night, when on soundings, or approaching or in the vicinity of land, he will give strict orders and see that the lead is frequently hove, and the result reported to him. .
228. The commanding officer is responsible for the proper navigation of the vessel.
229. Masters of vessels being very careless in observing the law enacted March 3, 1849, designating lights to be carried by sailing vessels and steamers, the commanders of revenue vessels are enjoined that, while in the performance of their legitimate duties, they will report all such offenders and their vessels to the nearest portof entry, that the penalty may be enforced.
230. The captain only shall order punishment to be inflicted, which must be in conformity with the law of Congress prescribing the same. In all cases the name of the person, his rank or rate, and the nature of his punishment shall be entered upon the log-book, and reported in the monthly returns made to the Treasury Department. Firm and judicious treatment of officers and men, tempered by kindness, will ordinarily insure discipline and efficiency.
231. The captain is to encourage the officers under his command to improve themselves in every branch of nautical science, and in all the duties relating to the revenue service.
232. Every commanding officer shall, when relieved in the command of a revenue vessel, give to his successor such information as to her qualities and condition as he may think will be of use to him and promote the interests of the service.
233. Should any revenue vessel have had any communication with, or have visited, any infected port, or have any disease on board subjecting her to quarantine, it shall be the duty of the commanding officer to have a yellow flag hoisted, to warn others from improper communication with her; and every assistance in the power of the officers of the revenue service shall be afforded to the local authorities to enforce their quarantine laws. (See chapter 118, section 1, act of Congress February 25, 1799.)
234. Leave of absence for one week may be granted by the captain, with approval of the collector, but for a longer time only by the Department. The Department must be promptly informed of absences.
235. The commanding officer is authorized to grant liberty to the crew whenever he may think proper, having due regard to their health and the safety of the vessel. Strict justice and impartiality must be exercised in granting indulgences to the men, but commanders are not prohibited from withholding such indulgences from the unworthy and those who may have abused them.
236. In cases of shipwreck, or any other disaster whereby the vessel may be lost, the commanding officer, with the officers and men, shall stay by her as long as possible, and save all they can. He shall partic.ularly endeavor to save the muster, pay, and receipt books, and take special care to destroy or carefully preserve all signals, secret orders or instructions, to prevent their falling into improper hands; and he will use every effort to preserve discipline and prevent any irregularity which might give just cause of offense to the inhabitants where he may be.
237. In case of shipwreck without the limits of the United States, the commanding officer shall lose no time in returning to the district to which he may belong, with the officers and crew; to effect which he may dispose of the property saved, or draw bills, as he may deem most advantageous to the public interest. If within the United States, he shall repair to the nearest district; and in all cases make the earliest possible report to the Department. .
238. Unless under extraordinary circumstances, the allowance of water per man and per officer per day shall not be less than one gallon. When the men are restricted to an allowance of water, the officers shall be subjected to the same restriction.
239. Every commanding officer is enjoined to pay strict attention to the comfort of his crew; to see that their rations are issued in due time, and always in presence of an officer, and that their meals are served in a proper manner. When in port, fresh meat and vegetables shall be issued at least once a week, if they can be procured. The ration shall never be inferior to the usual quality when good provisions can be obtained.
240. Whenever a commanding officer is removed from a vessel, he shall deliver to his successor in command all property belonging to the vessel, together with an inventory of the same, in duplicate, which his successor shall receipt, after being satisfied of its correctness, retaining one copy to be forwarded to the Department.
241. When the commanding officer of a revenue vessel is ordered to another station, either with or without his command, he shall see that all bills against the vessel are properly certified and entered on the books of the vessel before leaving the station.
242. No female is to be allowed to live or mess on board of any revenue vessel without special permission of the Secretary of the Treasury.
243. No commanding officer shall, without the authority and permission of the Department, make, or allow to be made, any changes in the
internal arrangements, decks, cabins, or state-rooms of a vessel, or in the armament, masts, yards, sails, or rigging, except in cases of absolute necessity, and when there is not time to communicate with the Department. When such changes are made, he will report it to the Department by the first opportunity, and carefully note and report the effects which such changes have produced in the qualities, performances, and efficiency of the vessel. He will, however, in forwarding his reports of the qualities of the vessel, and at other times, if he deem it important, suggest any alterations which, in his opinion, would render the vessel more efficient or improve her qualities in any particular.
244. Each and every commanding officer of a revenue vessel shall cause to be kept on board his vessel a regular shipping-book and muster-roll of the crew and officers under his command, showing explicitly the name, rank and rate of all persons serving on board, and the date of entry on board for duty; a fair copy of which shall be made out in duplicate monthly, duly certified by the commanding officer, one copy of which shall be kept on board the vessel, and the other forwarded to the Department.
245. Each and every commanding officer of a revenue vessel shall, when ever any officer or other person reports or enters on board of the vessel under his command for duty or service, cause the name and rank or rate of the officer or person so reporting or entering to be recorded on the journal; and no petty officer, seaman, boy, fireman, or other person shall be employed or receive any pay or compensation from the United States until he shall have shipped, and signed the shipping articles in triplicate, in the presence of an officer or other competent witness.
246. Each and every commanding officer of a revenue vessel shall see that proper provision is made and proper comforts are provided for all sick and disabled officers and men under his command; and when in port, and the disability or sickness is of such a nature as in his judgment to require the removal of the sick or disabled person to the shore, he shall apply to the collector of customs of the port for his admission into the marine hospital.
247. No commanding officer of a revenue vessel shall, of his own authority, discharge or refuse to receive on board any officer ordered or appointed to the vessel by the Secretary of the Treasury, or by his order; nor shall he inflict any other punishment upon any officer under his command than suspension from duty for the time being.
248. When going into any port or harbor, or approaching shoals or rocks, whether with or without a pilot, he shall cause regular soundings to be taken; and he shall have the leads frequently used whenever the vessel is on soundings.
259. He will not permit smoking in the wardroom, steerages, cock-pit, or any part of the berth deck; but he will designate such places for smoking as will be best for the comfort of the officers and crew, having due regard to the safety of the vessel and her discipline.
250. He will permit a lighted lantern to be hung up in a suitable place during meal hours, and after evening quarters until tattoo, or the setting of the watch, from which pipes or cigars may be lighted. No pipes or cigars shall be lighted at the galley on the berth deck.
251. He shall cause all lights and fires, other than the lights in lightrooms, to be extinguished whenever it is necessary to receive or discharge powder; and all not absolutely necessary are to be extinguished whenever the magazine is opened for any general purpose. On all occasions of handling or passing powder the utmost precautions are to be taken to guard against accidents.
252. He shall keep a night order-book, in which shall be entered all orders given to the officer of the deck for his government during the night.
OFFICERS COMMANDING STE A M-VESSELS.
253. When an officer shall be appointed to the command of a steamvessel, he is to observe carefully the following directions, in addition to those prescribed in the next preceding section, relating to “officers commanding vessels."
254. He is to use all possible diligence to make himself acquainted with the principles and construction of the engines, the intention and effect of the various parts of the machinery, the time the engines were constructed, the repairs they may have undergone, the period when the last repairs were made, and when the vessel last received new boilers.
255. As a material saving in the consumption of fuel may be produced by reducing the engine power without reducing esseutially the speed, and as occasions for this exercise of economy may frequently occur, he is to make himself acquainted with the principle and effect of the expansion of steam, and to require that the expansion gear should at all times be brought into play when the engines are not worked up to their full power.
256. He is carefully to inform himself of the usual daily consumption of fuel, and to obtain all information in regard to the most economical and efficient use of the engines and their appendages.
257. In general cruising revenue steamers are limited to half speed, and they must never be driven to full speed except in emergencies, such as chasing vessels, or in carrying out special orders from the Department or collector of customs, requiring dispatch. In all cases where a full rate of speed is made, the fact will be entered on the log-book, and also on monthly abstracts, noting the time such speed is kept up and the reasons therefor. Care must be observed that only a sufficient pressure of steam is carried under these regulations.
258. To prevent accidents by spontaneous combustion, he is to order the greatest care to be observed that coal is not taken on board when wet, and that when on board it is kept as dry as possible. When a fresh supply is received, he is to direct that that remaining in the coalbunkers be, as far as practicable, so stowed as to be used first.
259. He will direct the engineer to have the flues, chimneys, and boilers cleaned whenever it may be necessary; and when repairs or cleaning are required for the engines or boilers, they are to be made, as far as practicable, by the engineers and firemen of the vessel.
260. He shall take care that the proper lanterns, to prevent collision at sea, are kept in good order and always lighted at night, except when it may be expedient to conceal all lights.
261. He is to have the force-pumps, hose, and all other means for extinguishing fires kept constantly in order and ready for immediate use; and he is to require the utmost care to be taken at all times in the storage of stores, the use of lights and fires, and in the adoption of all other precautionary measures to prevent danger from fire.
262. He shall examine the steam-log daily, and if satisfied of its correctness sign it every month, or oftener.
263. He will require the steam-engineers to conform to the orders of the officer of the deck for the time being; but they are not, except in case of great emergency, to be ordered to perform other duties than those immediately connected with the preservation, repair, management, or supplying of the engines and their dependencies.
264. He will cause the engineers and firemen to be arranged in watches, and when on watch they are to be under the immediate direction of the senior engineer of the watch, and are not to be ordered on other duties than those connected with the engines, boilers, and their dependencies, except in cases of emergency, and then the engineer on duty is to be informed, that he may adopt all necessary precautions.
265. He will cause the senior engineer to submit for his approval, watch, fire, quarter, and cleaning bills, showing the specific duties of the engineers and firemen.
266. He will require the senior engineer on board to examine daily the engines and their dependencies, and all parts of the vessel which are occupied by them, or by stores for their use, and to report them to the executive officer for inspection; to make immediate report should any defect or danger be discovered; to give timely notice to the commander of the vessel of the probable wants of his department; and whenever articles are received for it, to carefully examine if they are of proper quality, and report any which, in his opinion, may be objectionable.
267. He will make such regulations with regard to leave on shore that the vessel will never be left without the services of an experienced engineer. He will cause a full engineer watch to be kept constantly whenever the fires are lighted, and take care that one engineer at least, with a suitable number of firemen, is always on watch, even though the vessel be at anchor and the fires hauled.