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$ 501.4 Use of reading rooms for serials; service of materials. Applications for materials in the custody of the Serials Division (current and unbound periodicals, bound and unbound newspapers, Government documents, pamphlets, ephemera, etc., not allocated to other divisions), are submitted to the staff on forms provided for that purpose in the Division's special reading rooms. Within the resources of the staff, readers receive reference aid in the Division's collections and in Government publications in the general classified collections. Access to the Division's stack areas is permitted only on the approval of the Chief or of other authorized officials. Inquiries concerning the collections and services of the Division, and requests for reference assistance may be made to the Office of the Chief of the Division,
$ 501.5 Loans of library materials. The Library of Congress is not a public circulating library and no material in its collections may be taken from the Library buildings except upon approval by the Chief of the Loan Division or the Director of the Reference Department. Members of Congress and their staffs and officials of executive departments and agencies have the privilege of withdrawing books by virtue of their office. Subect to regulations and conditions established by the Librarian of Congress, special permits to withdraw materials may be issued to individuals and institutions in and near the District of Columbia to meet particular needs. Applications for such privilege are acted upon by the Chief of the Loan Division, who is responsible for the interpretation and enforcement of the regulations governing lcans. Except for Members of Congress and their staffs and officials of executive departments and agencies, persons having the borrowing privilege must present materials to be borrowed to the Loan Division for recording and for issuance of a door pass. Borrowers must present the materials for inspection to the guards on duty at the exits to the Library buildings and must surrender their door, passes upon leaving the buildings. Materials are issued on interlibrary loan to other libraries outside of the District of Columbia under regulations established by the Librarian of Congress. Applications for such loans and requests for information about interlibrary loans and the loan service generally should be directed to the Chief of the Loan Division.
8 501.6 Loans of library materials for the blind-(a) Definition of blind. In connection with the Library's program of service under the act of March 3, 1931. as amended, entitled “An Act to Provide Books for the Adult Blind," the blind readers entitled to service under this act shall be defined as “Residents of the United States, including the several States, Territories, Insular Possessions, and the District of Columbia, sixteen years of age or older, whose visual acuity is 20/200 or less in the better eye with correcting glasses, or whose widest diameter of visual field subtends an angular distance no greater than twenty degrees.” The degree of such blindness shall be certified by a duly licensed phy-, sician or ophthalmologist. The reading materials for the blind provided under the authority of the act cited above, including sound reproducers, may be leaned not only to readers who qualify under the above definition but also to institutions and schools for the use of such readers.
(b) Loans to residents. The Division for the Blind lends books in embossed characters and talking-book records to the adult blind under regulations and conditions of use established by the Librarian. The area to which this service is extended is limited generally to the District of Columbia, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina and South Carolina. Inquiries by mail concerning this service should be addressed to: Chief, Division for the Blind, Washington 25, D. C.
(c) Loans to residents temporarily domiciled abroad. In accordance with the definition given in paragraph (a) of this sertion, and the intent and purpose of the Act to Provide Books for the Adult Blind Residents of the United States, its Territories, Insular Possessions, and the District of Columbia (2 U. S. C. 135a), the distributing libraries which have been designated by the Librarian of Congress to serve as local or regional centers for the circulation of such books (2 U. S. C. 135b) shall lend such book to adult blind residents of the United States, its Territories, etc., who may be temporarily domiciled outside the jurisdictions enumerated by the act. The following regulations shall govern loans of this kind.
(1) Prior to the approval of such loan to a borrower, the local or regional library shall require him to submit in writing the following:
(i) A statement of his intention to absent himself from the jurisdiction of the United States or its Territories, etc., for a temporary period ;
(ii) The passport number of borrower, together with the date of issuance;
(iii) An agreement by the borrower to take necessary safeguards for protection of the loaned materials, to assume responsibility for any damage to them resulting from his negligence, and to pay all transportation charges.
(2) Embossed or talking books for the blind may be transmitted, under cur-
(3) Since the authorized distributing libraries and the Library of Congress
(4) When requests for loans of the character authorized in this section are
(5) Talking book machine lending agencies are authorized to permit blind
$ 501.7 Use of Aeronautics Reading Room. Readers requesting reference and
8501.8 Reference and bibliographic assistance; use of card catalogs; assist-
8501.9 Service of materials in the Hispanic Foundation. Services to readers
$ 501.10 Investigation and use of manuscript materials. Services to readers
$ 501.11 Service of maps. Services to readers in the Maps Reading Room are
$ 501.12 Use and service of music materials. Services to readers in the Music
of the Music Division. Recordings of folk music may be purchased from the
$501.13 Use and service of Orientalia. Services to readers in the Orientalia
8501.14 Use of prints and photographic collections. Services to readers re-
8501.15 Service of rare books. Services to readers in the Rare Books Reading
$ 501.16 Service of microfilms and micro-print materials. Services to readers
8501.17 Use of law reading rooms; circulation of legal materials; reference
(b) The collections of the Law Library are available in part, for use outside
(c) Reference inquiries, and requests for service, which cannot be satisfied by
$ 501.18 Offers of materials for purchase; evaluations. (a) The Library so-
(b) Materials should not be sent "on approval" unless specifically requested by the Order Division.
(c) Reference inquiries as to the probable present cost and possible source for purchase or sale of a specific book or other piece of library material should also be directed to the above address. An exact transcription of the title page and any additional information such as edition, series note or copyright date should be submitted with the inquiry.
$ 501.19 Card distribution. Printed catalog cards are supplied under the procedures specified in the latest edition of the Handbook of Card Distribution, supplemented by emendations in the bulletin, Cataloging Service, published by the Library of Congress, Processing Department. Cards may be ordered by author and title or by serial number. Card order slips required for the purpose are furnished to subscribers upon request.
X. THE “NATIONAL” LIBRARY In a report to the House during the 83d Congress, 2d Session, the House Appropriations Committee said:
As a corollary to the study and development of adequate legislative authority, the new Librarian should be mindful that the Library is the instrument and the creature of Congress. Its duties historically have been to meet the needs of the Members of Congress first and to limit its service to others to that which can be furnished with the funds and staff available. 33
A reading of sources would indicate that identification of the Library of Congress as a “national” or “Federal” institution has been persistent and recurrent on the part of its friends in contrast to an apparent desire on the part of Congress to treat the Library as its own. Nearly all of this identification has proceeded from past Librarians, associates of the Library itself, the press, and some Presidents of the United States. Collaterally, the Congress, by authorizing the Library to accept gifts and bequests, to buy special collections, and to enter into expanded fields of Library activities, has increased the Library's services to the public beyond any concept of a strictly congressional library.
A pamphlet issued by the Library's Personnel Division (Washington: 1953) says:
The Library of Congress is also identified as the National Library. In the words of former Librarian Archibald MacLeish, “The Library of Congress is a people's library which rov to the people, through their representatives in Congress, and their officers of government, as well as directly, the written record of their civilization. It is also, and at the same time, a reference library which provides scholarly facilities for the study of that record not to a limited number of selected scholars only, but to the Government, and to the people, of the United
Before its destruction by the British in 1814, the Library of Congress was primarily a collection of books useful to the immediate needs of the Senate and House Members in their legislative capacities, and was a collection also administered part time by the Clerk of the House.
The acquisition of the Jefferson collection increased its breadth and usefulness generally. Those who proposed the purchase of Jefferson's books said “hat so valuable a library, one so admirably calculated for the substratum of a great national library, was not to be obtained in the United States; etc.” 35
33 H. Rept. 1614, 83d Cong., 2d sess., p. 4.
34 The Library of Congress and You, Library of Congress, Personnel Division, Washington, 1953, p. 1.
35. The Story Up to Now, by David C. Mearns, p. 30. Annual Report of the Librarian of Congress, June 30, 1946 (H. Doc. No. 6, 80th Cong., 1st sess.).
Of those who served during the 19th century, three, George Watterston, Ainsworth Rand Spofford, and John Russell Young were the most active in soliciting, acquiring, and prompting Congress to expand the Library's collections and activities.
George Watterston, appointed on March 21, 1815, by President Madison was the first full-time Librarian. In a desire to restock the shelves destroyed by the British, he inserted a card in one of the Library's public prints, and so fastened upon the Library the definition of its national character. He wrote:
Congress, having supplied the loss occasioned by the rule and conflagrating hand of our late enemy by the purchase of a library perhaps equal in value, as far as it extends, to any in Europe, and intending, as they no doubt do (Congress was in recess), to make it the great national repository of literature and science, and in some instances of the arts also, it is desirable that American authors, engravers, and painters who are solicitous to preserve their respective productions as mementos of the times, would transmit to the Library a copy of such work as they may design for the public eye.
Dr. Herbert Putnam told the American Library Association at Waukesha, Wis., in 1901:
If there is any way in which our National Library may "reach out" from Washington it should reach out. Its first duty is, no doubt, as a legislative library to Congress. Its next is as a federal library to aid the executive and judicial departments of the government and the scientific undertakings under government auspices. Its next is to that general research which may be carried on at Washington by resident and visiting students and scholars. . . . But this should not be the limit. There should be possible also a service to the country at large: a service to be extended through the libraries which are the local centers of a research involving the use of books."
President Theodore Roosevelt said in his annual message to Congress delivered December 3, 1901 :
Perhaps the most characteristic educational movement of the past 50 years is that which has created the modern public library and developed it into broad and active service. There are now over 5,000 public libraries in the United States, the product of this period. In addition to accumulating material, they are also striving by organization, by improvement in method, and by cooperation, to give greater efficiency to the material they hold, to make it more widely useful, and by avoidance of unnecessary duplication in process to reduce the cost of its administration.
In these efforts they naturally look for assistance to the federal library, which, though still the Library of Congress, and so entitled, is the one National Library of the United States. . . . It is housed in a building which is the largest and most magnificient yet erected for library uses. Resources are now being provided which will develop the collection properly, equip it with the apparatus and service necessary to its effective use, render its bibliographic work widely available, and enable it to become, not merely a center of research, but the chief factor in great cooperative efforts for the diffusion of knowledge and the advancement of learning. 38
Earlier in the nation's history, in his second annual message to Congress, December 2, 1878, President Rutherford B. Hayes referred to the library as “national in character”; later, President Chester A. Arthur said that the protection of its books had become "of national importance." Accessions
A greater part of the Library's present-day national services to the public can be attributed to congressional acts. Under an 1832
26 Ibid., p. 41. 27 Ibid., p. 188. $ Ibid.