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according acre actual advantage allowed amount appear Appendix application arrangement assessment authority average Board boundaries cause circumstances claim collections collector complete consideration considered course courts crop cultivation dated demand Directions district division duty effect entered entirely existing extent field fixed former give given Government held hold important increase interest irrigation joint jumma land less letter limits means measure ment mode mouzahs nature necessary North-Western Provinces notice object observed obtained officers operations opinion para parties pergunnah person portion possession practice present proceedings produce proportion proposed proprietors question rates reason record reference regarding Regulation remain remarks rent respect result revenue revision rule rupees separate settled settlement settlement officer share soil Sudder sufficient superintendent survey taken tenures term transfer village whole
148 페이지 - They seem to last where nothing else lasts. Dynasty after dynasty tumbles down; revolution succeeds revolution; but the village community remains the same. This union of the village communities, each one forming a separate little state in itself, has, I conceive contributed more than any other cause to the preservation of the...
148 페이지 - In times of trouble they arm and fortify themselves : a hostile army passes through the country : the village communities collect their cattle within their walls, and let the enemy pass unprovoked. If plunder and devastation be directed against themselves, and the force employed be irresistible, they flee to friendly villages at a distance, but when the storm has passed over, they return and resume their occupations.
148 페이지 - The sons will take the places of their fathers ; the same site for the village, the same position for the houses, the same lands will be reoccupied by the descendants of those who were driven out when the village was depopulated ; and it is not a trifling matter that will drive them out, for they will often maintain their post through times of disturbance and convulsion, and acquire strength sufficient to resist pillage and oppression with success.
297 페이지 - The fixed field assessment for the term of thirty years, introduced by our surveys, thus secures to the cultivator the full advantages of a thirty years' lease without burdening him with any condition beyond that of discharging the assessment for the single year to which his engagement extends. He has thus all the security of tenure which the longest lease could confer, without the attendant liabilities and risk which his limited capital and precarious circumstances would be quite inadequate to...
310 페이지 - Furthermore, to assist in tracing the causes to which the prosperity or decline of villages, or tracts containing several villages, are to be attributed, independent statements of the annual revenue Settlements of each village should be prepared ; and from these again, a general statement for the whole district, or any portion of it should be framed, and its accuracy tested by a comparison with the general accounts of the taluka, and from the returns so prepared and corrected, the diagrams should...
308 페이지 - ... the best mode of fixing the absolute amount of assessment to be so distributed. The first question for consideration is, the extent of territory for which a uniform standard of assessment should be fixed. This will depend upon the influences we admit into consideration with a view to determine the point. Among the most important of these influences may be ranked climate, position with respect to markets, agricultural skill, and the actual condition of the cultivators.
16 페이지 - India resta upon the principle that by the ancient law of the country, the ruling power is entitled to a certain proportion of the annual produce of every beegah of land, excepting in cases in which that power shall have made a temporary or permanent alienation of its right to such proportion of the produce, or shall have agreed to receive instead of that proportion a specific sum annually, or for a term of years, or in perpetuity.
338 페이지 - Division), on the practice and objects of your respective surveys, 1 have been directed by the Right honourable the Governor in Council to transmit to you...
16 페이지 - ... is held to be perpetually hypothecated to the Government. Secondly. It is determined who are the person or persons entitled to receive this surplus profit. The right thus determined is declared to be heritable and transferable, and the persons entitled to it are considered the proprietors of the land, from whom the engagements for the annual payment of the sum assessed by the Government on the Mehal are taken.
148 페이지 - ... those who were driven out when the village was depopulated ; and it is not a trifling matter that will drive them out, for they will often maintain their post through times of disturbance and convulsion, and acquire strength sufficient to resist pillage and oppression with success ... all acting in union with a common interest as regards the Government, and adjusting their own separate interests among themselves according to established usage.