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List of Illustrations with Notes

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THE DUPLESSIS PORTRAIT OF FRANKLIN Frontispiece.

Painted from life by Duplessis in Paris in 1778, and
believed to be the best likeness of Franklin. The repro-
duction is from the original in the Academy of Fine Arts,
Philadelphia, by permission of the owner. Duplessis also
made a pastel drawing of Franklin in 1783, which has often

been reproduced.
FRANKLIN TOWED BY HIS KITE

This picture is copied from an engraving on the title-page
of the old English edition of Franklin's Works, published

in 1806 by J. Johnson & Co., London. THE SUMNER PORTRAIT OF FRANKLIN

Painted, as is supposed, in London in 1726, when he was
twenty years old, and now in the possession of Harvard
University. Its history and the doubts as to its authenticity

are given in the text.
THE MARTIN PORTRAIT OF FRANKLIN

Painted by Martin in England in 1765, at the request of
Mr. Robert Alexander, for whom Franklin had performed
a service in examining some documents and giving his

opinion.
The GRUNDMANN IDEAL PORTRAIT OF FRANKLIN

Painted by Otto Grundmann, a German artist in America,
after a careful study of Franklin's career and of the por-
traits of him taken from life. The original is now in the
Boston Art Museum.

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42

HOUSE IN WHICH FRANKLIN WAS BORN

Franklin's parents lived in this house, which stood on Milk

Street, Boston, until 1810, when it was destroyed by fire.
PRINTING-PRESS AT WHICH FRANKLIN WORKED WHEN
A BOY IN BOSTON

From a photograph kindly furnished by the Mechanics'
Institute of Boston, in whose rooms the press is exhibited.

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THE BOOK OF COMMON PRAYER AS ABRIDGED BY
LORD DESPENCER AND FRANKLIN

The changes in the Venite on the left-hand page are by
Franklin, and perhaps also those in the Te Deum. The
changes in the rubrics are by Lord Despencer, and pos-
sibly he also made the changes in the Te Deum. The
copy of the prayer-book from which this reproduction is
made is in the collection of Mr. Howard Edwards, of
Philadelphia.

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105

JOHN FOXCROFT .

Reproduced by permission of the Historical Society of
Pennsylvania from the painting in their possession. It
has been supposed by some to be a portrait of Franklin ;
but it has not the slightest resemblance to his other por-
traits, and the letter held in the hand is addressed to John
Foxcroft.

108

WILLIAM FRANKLIN, ROYAL GOVERNOR OF NEW
JERSEY

Born 1730, died 1813; son of Benjamin Franklin ; was
Governor of New Jersey from 1762 to 1776, when he be-
came a Tory. The reproduction is from an etching by
Albert Rosenthal of the portrait once temporarily in the
Philadelphia Library and owned by Dr. T. Hewson Bache,
of Philadelphia.

113

WILLIAM TEMPLE FRANKLIN

Born 1760, died 1823, son of William Franklin, Governor
of New Jersey. He was brought up principally by his
grandfather, for whom he acted as secretary in Paris, dur-
ing the Revolution, and by whom he was saved from fol-
lowing his father to Toryism. The reproduction is from
an etching by Albert Rosenthal of the portrait in the
Trumbull Collection, Yale School of Art.

116

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MRS. FRANKLIN .

This reproduction is from the portrait painted by Matthew
Pratt, and now in the possession of Rev. F. B. Hodge,
of Wilkesbarre, Pennsylvania.

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119

MRS. SARAH BACHE

This picture is copied from an engraved reproduction
which has often appeared in books relating to Franklin ;
but none of these reproductions are faithful copies of the
original painting, which represents an older and less hand-
some woman, with more rugged features and more resem-
blance to Franklin. Permission to reproduce the painting
could not be secured.

.

135

FRONT PAGE OF THE FIRST NUMBER OF THE “ · Penn-
SYLVANIA GAZETTE",

Reproduced by permission from the collection of the His-
torical Society of Pennsylvania.

TITLE-PAGE OF POOR RICHARD'S ALMANAC FOR 1733. 144

Reproduced by permission from the collection of the His-
torical Society of Pennsylvania.

188

FRANKLIN'S MARITIME SUGGESTIONS

These figures accompanied Franklin's letter to Alphonsus
Le Roy on maritime improvements.

267

FRANKLIN'S LETTER TO STRAHAN.

William Strahan was Franklin's intimate friend, although
they differed on the subject of the Revolution. The letter
was half jest, half earnest, and in this tone Franklin always
wrote to him on political subjects. In 1784 he wrote him
an affectionate, but teasing and sarcastic letter on the suc-
cess of the Revolution.

275

FRANKLIN CANNOT DIE

From an old French engraving in the collection of Mr.
Clarence S. Bement, of Philadelphia. Death has seized
Franklin and is dragging him to the lower world. The
figure half kneeling is America, with her bow and arrows
and the skin of a wild beast, imploring Death to spare her
deliverer. Fame is flying in the air, with a crape on her
arm and a trumpet, announcing that le grand Franklin has
saved his country and given her liberty in spite of tyrants.
The spirit of Philosophy and a warrior are weeping at the
foot of the monument, on which is a lightning-rod; while
France, a fair, soft woman, seizes Franklin in her arms to
bear him to the sky.

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309

AMERICA SET FREE BY FRANKLIN .

From an old French engraving in the collection of Mr.
Clarence S. Bement, of Philadelphia. Like the preceding
one, from the same collection, it represents America as a
savage, in accordance with the French ideas of that time.

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312

FRANKLIN TEARS THE LIGHTNING FROM THE SKY
AND THE SCEPTRE FROM THE TYRANTS

From an old French engraving in the collection of Mr.
Clarence S. Bement, of Philadelphia. The figure with her
arm on Franklin's lap is America.

330

FRANKLIN RELICS IN THE POSSESSION OF THE HIS-
TORICAL SOCIETY OF PENNSYLVANIA .

The cups and saucers are Dresden china, given him by
Madame Helvetius. The china punch-barrel was given
him by Count d'Artois; the wine-glass is one of the heavy
kind then in use; the picture-frame contains a printed
dinner invitation sent by him to the members of the Con-
stitutional Convention of 1787.

346

PORTRAIT OF LOUIS XVI.

The kings of France at that time usually gave their por-
trait to a foreign ambassador on his return to his country.
This one, by Sicardi, which was given to Franklin, was
formerly surrounded by two rows of four hundred and
eight diamonds, and was probably worth from ten to fifteen
thousand dollars. It is now in the possession of Mr. J.
May Duane, of Philadelphia, by whose permission it is

reproduced.
FRANKLIN PORTRAIT IN WEST COLLECTION

This portrait is a pencil sketch recently sold with other
property of Benjamin West, and purchased by the Hon.
S. W. Pennypacker, of Philadelphia, by whose permission
it is reproduced. It is supposed to be a drawing by some
unknown artist of the bust by Ceracchi.

350

360

FRANKLIN'S GRAVE IN CHRIST CHURCH GRAVEYARD,
PHILADELPHIA

The flat stone marks the grave of Franklin and his wife.
The larger upright stone is in memory of John Read, Mrs.
Franklin's father, and the smaller one is in memory of
Franklin's son, Francis, who died in infancy.

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