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side, to tack is to turn round towards the wind, in order to be again close-hauled, with the wind on the other side. To wear is to attain the same object by turning away from the wind. Wearing is surer than tacking, but loses ground to leeward. To tack, or wear, in succession, the leading vessel tacks, and those which follow tack, each, as it arrives at the same point; the order thus remaining the same. To tack, or wear together, all tack at the same moment, which reverses the order. TACTICs. That department of the Art of War which decides the disposition and movements of an army, or of a fleet, on a particular field of battle, in presence of an enemy. TIDAL CURRENTs. Ebb tide, the outflow of the water due to the tides. Flood tide, the inflow of the water due to the tides. Lee tide, the set of the current to leeward. Weather tide, the set of the current to windward. TIDE. The rise and fall of the water of the oceans under the influence of the moon. Used customarily, but inaccurately, to express the currents produced by the changes of level. High tide, or high water, the two highest levels of the day. Low tide, or low water, the two lowest. Neap tide: the least rise and fall during the lunar month. Spring tide: the greatest rise and fall during the same, being soon after full and change of moon. TRADE, the. A term applied to a body of merchant vessels, to or from a particular destination. TRADE WIND. A wind which blows uniformly from the same general direction throughout a fixed period. In the West Indies, from the northeast the year round. See also “Monsoon.”

WEER. See “Cable.” VESSEL. A general term for all constructions intended to float upon and move through the water. Specific definitions applicable to this book: Ship, a square-rigged vessel with three masts. Brig, a square-rigged vessel with two masts. Schooner, a fore and aft rigged vessel with two or more masts. Sloop, a fore and aft rigged vessel with one mast. See pp. 9, 15, 17. WESSELS of WAR. Ship of the Line. A ship with three or more tiers of guns, of which two are on covered decks; that is, have a deck above them. See “Line of Battle Ship.” Frigate. A ship with one tier of guns on a covered deck. Sloop of War. A ship, the guns of which are not covered, being on the upper (spar) deck. Sloops of war were sometimes brigs, but then were usually so styled.

WAKE. The track left by a vessel's passage through the water. “In the wake of ": directly astern of. WAY. Movement through the water. “To get underway”: to pass from stand-still to movement. WEAR, to. See under “Tack.” WEATHER. Relative position to windward of another object. Opposite to Lee. Weather side, lee side, of a vessel; weather fleet, lee fleet; weather gage, lee gage (see “Gage''); weather shore, lee shore. WEATHER, to. To pass to windward of a vessel, or of any other object. WEATHERLY. The quality of a vessel which favors her getting, or keeping, to windward. WEIGH, to. To raise the anchor from the bottom. Used alone; e.g., “the fleet weighed.” WHEEL. So called from its form. The mechanical appliance, a wheel, with several handles for turning it, by which power is increased, and also transmitted from the steersman on deck to the tiller below, in order to steer the vessel. WIND AND WATER, between. That part of a vessel's side which comes out of water when she inclines to a strong side wind, but otherwise is under water. WINDw ARD. Direction from which the wind blows.

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eral. Effects following his
action on Lake Champlain
in 1776, 3, 4, 7, 25; with
Ethan Allen, seizes Ticon-
deroga and Crown Point,
1775, 8; captures or destroys
all hostile shipping on Lake
Champlain, 9; traverses
Maine forests, and joins Mont-
gomery before Quebec, 10;
maintains blockade of Quebec
till arrival of a British squad-
ron, 10; retreats to Crown
Point, and destitution of his
troops, 11 ; schemes for main-
taining command of Lake
Champlain, 12; his force,
and its character, 14, 15, 17;
compelled by shore batteries
to abandon lower Narrows i

of the Lake, 15; selects
Valcour Island as position
for defence, 15; decision to
risk destruction of force ra-

ther than retire, 18, 19; sound

strategic and tactical ideas,
20; Battle of Walcour Island,
21 ; successful withdrawal
after defeat, 23; overtaken
and flotilla destroyed, 25;
effect of his resistance in
delaying British advance, 25;
conduct, courage, and heroism
throughout, 27; his subsequent
treason, 18, 27, 152; commands
British detachment in Vir-
ginia, 153, 169, 170, 174.

Asiatic Immigration, Danger in-

volved in, 4.

Barbados, West India Island, head-

quarters of British Leeward
Islands Station, 99; advan-
tage of Santa Lucia over, 104,
144, 207; notably for crippled
ships, 144; devastated by
hurricane, 1780, 159.

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Hughes and Suffren, off Ceylon,
April 12, 1782, 242-244.
Hughes and Suffren, off Nega-
patam, July 6, 1782, 244-246.
Hughes and Suffren, off Trin-
comalee, September 3, 1782,
247–251.
Hughes and Suffren, off Cud-
dalore, June 20, 1783, 253.
N.B. Naval Battles end here.
Belle Poule, French Frigate. En-
counter with British Arethusa
marks beginning of War of
1778 with Great Britain, 61,
82.
Sir Gilbert, Physician to
British Fleet under Rodney,
quoted, 124, 219, 220, 221.
Burgoyne, Sir John, British Gen-
eral, 3, 6, 14, 23, 27, 28, 50-53,
55; decisive effect of Ameri-
can control of Lake Cham-
plain, in 1776, upon his ex-
pedition, in 1777, 3, 9, 13,
14, 25; his surrender at
Saratoga, 53; it determines
France to intervene, 6, 58.
John, British Admiral, in-
fluence of his execution, in
1756, upon the minds of
naval officers, 93, 139, 146.
Byron, John, British Admiral, or-
dered to North American
Station, 1778, 59; delayed
by heavy weather, and puts
into Halifax, 62; Howe sup-
erseded by, 80; goes to West
Indies, 105; action with
D'Estaing off Grenada, 105-
111; comments upon course
of, 110–112; returns to Eng-
land, 112.

Blane,

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Canada, Strength of, against attack
from southward, 7; its ad-
vantage in this respect over
New York, 8; comprehen-
sion of these facts by Ameri-
cans of 1775, from the old
French Wars, 8; attempt to
utilize, by British, frustrated
by Arnold's promptitude, 9;
invasion of, under Mont-
gomery, ordered by American

Congress, 1775, 9; failure of

Battle, Order of, defined, 93 (note),

200 (note).

Battles, Naval, Valcour Island, Octo-

ber 11, 1776, 19–23.
Charleston Harbor,

1776, 33.
D'Estaing and Howe, August

10 and 11, 1778, 73–75.
Ushant, July 27, 1778, 84–91.

June 28,

Barrington and d'Estaing,
Santa Lucia, December 15,
1778, 102–104.

Byron and d'Estaing, Grenada,
July 6, 1779, 105–112.
De Langara and Rodney, Cape
St. Vincent, January 16, 1780,
123.
De Guichen and Rodney, off
Martinique, April 17, 1780,
131–135.
De Guichen and Rodney, May
15, 1780, 143, 144.
De Guichen and Rodney, May
19, 1780, 144.
Cornwallis and La Motte-Pic-
quet, off Haiti, March 20,
1780, 153.
Cornwallis and de Ternay, June
20, 1780, 155–157,
De Grasse and Hood, off Mar-
tinique, April 29, 1781, 163–
167.
Arbuthnot and des Touches, off
Cape Henry, March 16, 1781,
171-173.
De Grasse and Graves, off Cape
Henry, September 5, 1781,
179–183.
The Doggers Bank, August 5,
1781, 189–193.
De Grasse and Hood, St. Kitts,
January 25 and 26, 1782, 199–
204.
De Grasse and Rodney, near
Dominica, April 9 and 12,
1782, 207–221.
Howe with Franco-Spanish Fleet
near Gibraltar, October 20,
1782. 231, 232.
Johnstone and Suffren, Porto
Prava, Cape Verde Islands,
April 16, 1781, 236-238.
Hughes and Suffren, Coro-
mandel Coast, February 17,
1781, 240-242.

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