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of, by French, 1781, accom-
plishes independence of United
States, 4, 114, 184; Sir
William Howe moves by way
of, against Philadelphia, 1777,
52; operations in and near,
1781, 169–174, 177–185; Brit-
ish control of, in 1781, prior
to arrival of de Grasse, 174;
de Grasse reaches, 1781, 178.

Clinton, Sir Henry, British General,

commands land force em-
ployed in Carolinas, 1776, 31,
32; in seizure of Narragansett
Bay, 48; left in command at
New York by Howe, 1777,
52; advance up the Hudson
River, 1777, 55; relieves
Howe as Commander-in-Chief
in North America, 56, 63;
evacuates Philadelphia, and
retreats upon New York,
1778, 63; narrowness of his
escape, 63, 64; evacuates
Narragansett Bay, 1779, 115;
operations of, in South Caro-
lina, and capture of Charles-
ton, 151; leaves Cornwallis in
command in Carolina, and re-
turns to New York, 152; sends
detachments to Virginia, for
diversion in favor of Corn-
wallis, 1781, 153, 169; seri-
ous difference of opinion be-
tween, and Cornwallis, 115,
175; orders of, to Corn-
wallis, which result in posi-
tion at Yorktown, 1781, 175.

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Sir H. Clinton, 115, 175; at
siege and capture of Charles-
ton, 152; left in command
of southern department, 1780,
152; defeats Gates at Cam-
den, 1780, 152; pushes on
to North Carolina, 152; em-
barrassments there, 152; en-
ters Virginia, and joins Arnold
at Petersburg, 1781, 153, 174;
ordered by Clinton to occupy
a defensive position which
should cover anchorage for a
fleet, 175; evacuates Ports-
mouth, and takes position
at Yorktown, 175; French
cruisers bar his retreat towards
the Carolinas, and occupy
York River, 179; enclosed
by French fleet and French

and American armies, 184;
compelled to surrender,
185.

Cornwallis, Sir William (brother of
Lord), British naval captain,
share in action between Byron
and d'Estaing, 1779, 108–
110, 153; in command of a
squadron, action with La
Motte-Picquet, 1780, 153; ac-
tion with de Ternay's squad-
ron, 155–157; characteris-
tics, and nickname of, 157;
distinguished part in Hood's
action with de Grasse, 1782,
201; share in Rodney's vic-
tory, 217; quoted, 156, 198,

200, 203, 211.
Crown Point, military post on Lake
Champlain, 8; seized by

Benedict Arnold and Ethan
Allen, 1775, 8; General Mont-
gomery embarks at, to in-
vade Canada, 1775, 9; Ar-
nold retreats to, in 1776, after
reverses in Canada, 12; part
in campaign of 1776, 24; re-
covered by British, 25; re-
... occupied by Americans after
Burgoyne's surrender, 28.

Cuddalore, British post in India,
on Coromandel Coast, be-
sieged by Hyder Ali and

Suffren, 242; taken by Hyder
Ali, 244; British attempt to

retake, 252; relieved by Suf-
fren, 252-254.

Darby, George, British Admiral,
commands Channel Fleet,
1780, 157; relief of Gibraltar
by, 1781, 186–188; blocked
in Torbay by Franco-Span-
ish fleet, 1781, 188–189.

Delaware, Naval Operations in the,
1777, 52–55; in 1778, 59, 62–
64

De Barras, French Commodore, com-
mands squadron in Newport,
1781, 174; opinion concern-
ing des Touches' conduct, 174;
junction with de Grasse in
Chesapeake Bay, 1781, 184.
De Bouillé, French General, governor
of Martinique, 1780, concerts
with de Guichen an attack
on British West Indies, 130;
project against Barbados,
1782, 197; capture of St.
Kitts, 197—205.
De Cordova, Spanish Admiral, com-
mands in allied fleet under
d'Orvilliers, 1779, 118, 119;
in chief command, at Cadiz,
125; in Channel, 1781, 188;
in 1782, 228; at Algeciras,
during Howe's relief of Gibral-
tar, 230–232.
D'Estaing, Comte, French Admiral,
in chief command, in 1778,
of first French fleet sent to
America, 59; biographical
summary of, 59 (note); Gov-
ernment instructions to, 59;
slowness of movements of,
62–64; failure to attack Howe
at Sandy Hook, 66–68; pro-
fessional inefficiency of, 67,
79, 111, 112; proceeds to
Newport, R. I., 69, and enters
the harbor, 70; joins Ameri-
cans in siege of the town, 70;
abandons it on Howe's ap-
pearance and puts to sea, 73;
manoeuvres against Howe, 73–
75; fleet scattered by gale,
75; refuses to renew siege
of Newport, and goes to
Boston, 77, 78; outgeneralled
throughout by Howe, 78;
goes to West Indies, 1779,
100; fails to recover Santa
Lucia, 102-104; captures
Grenada, 105; action with
Byron, 106–112; fails in at-
tempt to retake Savannah,
115; returns to Europe with
ships of his original command,
115; sent to Cadiz, in 1780,
to bring back to Brest French
contingent of Allied Fleet, 158.

De Grasse, Comte, French Admiral,

exercises the decisive effect
in obtaining American Inde-
pendence, 4; sails to take
chief command in America,
1781, 162; action with Hood
off Martinique, 163–165; Che-
valier's comment on conduct
of, 166; abortive attempt
against Santa Lucia, 167;
capture of Tobago by, 168;
goes to Cap François, 168,
176, and there prepares for
expedition against Cornwallis,
178; on this occasion shows
energy and foresight unusual
to him, 178; anchors in
Chesapeake Bay, 178; ac-
tion with Graves, 179–184;
regains Chesapeake, 184; re-
turns to West Indies after
Cornwallis's surrender, 185;
expedition against St. Kitts,
1782, 197–205; outgeneralled
by Hood, 201, 204, 205; St.
Kitts surrenders to, 205;
Hood escapes from, 205; re-
turns to Martinique, 206;
expedition against Jamaica,
plan of, 206; puts to sea,
207; transactions from April
8 to April 12, 207–212; de-
feated in great battle of
April 12, 213–221, and cap-
tured with flagship, 221;
professional character of, illus-
trated, 166, 178, 184, 198,
205, 207, 209, 214, 215, 216.

De Guichen, Comte de, succeeds

d'Estaing in North American
command, 1780, 115, 130;
biographical summary of, 115
(note); project of against
Barbados, 130; frustrated

by Rodney, 130; action of
April 17, with Rodney, 130–
135; orders of French Gov-
ernment to, 141; consequent
conduct of, 141–145; actions
with Rodney, May 15, 142,
and May 19, 144; broken
down by responsibility, 14.5;
under orders, accompanies
Spanish squadron to Cap
François, 147; there refuses
to coöperate with Americans,
147; returns to Europe, 148;
commands French contingent
to Allied Fleet under de Cor-
dova, 1781, 188; advises
attack upon British Fleet
in Tor Bay, 189; loses great
part of West India military
convoy entrusted to his charge,
196.
De Langara, Spanish Admiral, squad-
ron under command of, de-
feated, and himself captured
by Rodney, 122, 123; in-
efficiency of, 125.
D'Orves, Comte, French Admiral,
commands in East Indies,
1781, 235, 236; joined by
Suffren, 239; sails for Coro-
mandel Coast, 240; dies, and
succeeded by Suffren, 240.
D'Orvilliers, Comte, French Admiral,
commander-in-chief of Brest
Fleet, 1778, 82; puts to sea,
82; Government instructions
to, 83; encounter with Brit-
ish Fleet under Keppel, 83;
manoeuvres of, and action of
July 27, 83–91; comment
upon, 92, 97; summer cruise
of, 1779, 116–120; hampered
by instructions, 119 ; re-
turns to Brest unsuccessful,
120.
De Suffren, Bailli, French Captain
and Admiral, with d'Estaing
in Narragansett Bay, 1778,
69; in the action with Byron
off Grenada, 111 ; his comment
upon d'Estaing's conduct,
111; biographical summary
of, 111 (note); sails for East
Indies, 1781, 163, 236; effect
upon operations of, in India,

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Des Touches, French Commodore,
succeeds de Ternay in com-
mand at Newport, 1781, 170;
sails to enter Chesapeake
Bay, to check British opera-
tions in Virginia, 170; pur-
sued by Arbuthnot, 171;
action between the two squad-
rons, 171-173; gains tactical
advantage, but leaves the field
to the British, 174; justified
by de Barras, who arrives
and supersedes him, 174.
Vaudreuil, Marquis, French
Admiral, second to de Grasse
in 1782, 209; commands-in-
chief partial attack on Hood's
division, 209; quoted, 214;
succeeds to chief command
upon de Grasse's surrender,
222; condition of his com-
mand after the battle, 223;
pursued by Rodney, but
reaches Cap François, 225.
Doggers Bank, Battle of the, 1781,
189–194.
Dominica, British West India Island,
captured by French, 1778, 99;
battle of, 208, 209, 210, 213,
215.
Douglas, Sir Charles, British naval
captain, commands squadron

De

which relieves Quebec, 1776,
10; quoted, 11, 14, 17, 18,
22, 25, 26; energetic prepara-
tions by, to regain control
of Lake Champlain, 15–17;
force created by, 17; made
a baronet for his services at
this time, 26; captain of the
fleet to Rodney, 1782, 222;
opinion as to Rodney's con-
duct cited, 222.

Farragut, at Mobile, cited in illus-
tration, 66 (note).
Fighting Instructions, Additional,
point in, bearing upon the
failure of Rodney's plan of
attack, April 17, 1780, 133,
138, 139 (and note).
“Fleet in Being,” 73, 174;
regarded, apparently,
D'Orvilliers in 1779, 119.
France, intervention of France in
the American quarrel deter-
mined by Burgoyne's defeat,
and leads to Spanish inter-
vention, 3, 58, 116; vacil-
lating naval instructions of
Government of, 83, 118, 119,
141, 154; divergence of views
between Spain and, 120, 121,
147, 158, 186, 188, 189.
France, Ile de (now Mauritius),
French naval station in Indian
Ocean, 126, 234, 236, 239.

how
by

Gardiner's Bay, east end of Long
Island, station of British
fleet under Arbuthnot, watch-
ing French at Newport, 151,
170.
Gates, Horatio, American General,
defeated by Cornwallis at
Camden, 152.
George, Lake, a link in consecutive
water communications from
New York to Canada, 7, 51.
Gibraltar, d'Estaing ordered to
commence hostilities when
forty leagues west of, 59;
capture of, a leading object
with Spanish Government,
120; this desire affects the
major operations of Allies
throughout the war, 121, 186:

blockade of, by land and sea,
121 ; Rodney's relief of, 1780,
121-126, 157; Darby's relief
of, 1781, 186, 188; Howe's
relief of, 1782, 229–233.

Glossary, of technical terms used

in this book, 257.

Grant, James, British General, share

of in capture of Santa Lucia,
102–104.

Graves, Sir Thomas, British Admiral,

Great

brings reinforcement of vessels
to New York, 151; relieves
Arbuthnot in command of
North American Station, 1781,
176; difficulties of, owing to
interception of communica-
tions, 177; joined by Hood
off New York, 177; sails for
the relief of Cornwallis, 178;
action of, with French fleet
under de Grasse, 179–184;
conduct of, criticized by Hood,
181, 182, 184; returns to
New York, 184; relieves
Sir Peter Parker in Jamaica,
command, 185.
Britain, feeble hold of, upon
Canada, 1775, 10; shown by
rewards for saving the colony,
26; inadequate provision of
force by, 1774–1776, 29, 30,
59, 62, 79, 82, 99, 112, 116,
117, 120, 127, 148, 189, 193,
226; improper dispersion of
effort by, 30, 31, 48, 52, 56,
62, 63, 72, 113–115, 151–153,
175; distrust of Government
of, among naval officers, 79,
81, 93, 95, 97, 99, 135, 146,
157, 158, 193; alarm in,
produced by Allied fleets in
Channel, 1779, 117; declares
war against Holland, 1780, 158.

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Holland, brought into War of Ameri-

Hood,

Hotham,

can Independence by con-
curring in Armed Neutrality
of Baltic Powers, 1780, 3, 158,
236; colonial possessions of,
3, 158, 160–162, 236, 240,
246; St. Eustatius, St. Mar-
tin, and Saba, West India
Islands of, taken by Rodney,
160–162; battle of Doggers
Bank, 189–193; fleet of, held
in check by Howe, 1782, 228;
Cape of Good Hope menaced
by British, saved by Suffren,
236-238; Trincomalee, in
Ceylon, taken by British,
240, recaptured by Suffren,
247.
Sir Samuel (afterwards Lord),
British Admiral, arrives in
West Indies, 1781, with re-
inforcements for Rodney, 160;
sent to cruise off Martinique,
to intercept de Grasse, 162;
action between, and de
Grasse, 163–167; exceptional
ability of, 166, 184; French
tribute to, 167; sent by Rod-
ney with fourteen ships-of-the-
line to reinforce North Ameri-
can station, 176; under com-
mand of Admiral Graves,
sails for Chesapeake, 177;
part of, in action between
Graves and de Grasse, 180-
183; criticisms of, upon
Graves's conduct, 181, 182,
184; returns to West Indies,
185; in chief command there
for two months, 196-205;
brilliant operations of, at
St. Kitts, 197–205; super-
seded by Rodney's return,
205; part of, in action of
April 9, 1782, 208–210; in
battle of April 12, 212–221 ;
de Grasse's flagship strikes
to, 221; censures passed by,
upon Rodney's course after
the battle, 220, 222, 224, 225;
detached in pursuit, captures
a small French squadron, 224;
returns to England after the
peace, 226.

William, British naval

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