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Howe,

Captain, in operations against
New York, 1776, 42; convoys
reinforcement of troops to
West Indies, 100; left in
West Indies in temporary
command, by Rodney, 148.
Richard, Earl, British Ad-
miral, appointed to command
North American Station, 1776,
30; invested also with powers
as peace commissioner, 39;
arrives at New York, 39;
failure of peace negotiations,
39; operations at and about
New York, 39, 42–47; trib-
ute of, to force under his
command, 47; accompanies
army expedition to Chesa-
peake Bay, 52; operations
in the Delaware, 53–55, and
coastwise, 56; purpose of
d'Estaing to intercept, in
Delaware, 59; serious ex-
posure of, through inadequate
force, 62, 66; extricates him-
self by rapid movements, 62–
64; preparations to defend
entrance to New York, 65–
68; inferiority of force to
d'Estaing, 66; follows French
Fleet to Narragansett Bay,
70, and by his presence there
induces d'Estaing to abandon
siege of Newport, and put
to sea, 73; manoeuvres of,
with inferior force, 73–75;
fleet of, scattered by gale, 75;
returns to New York, 76,
and again follows French
Fleet to Boston, 77; admir-
able qualities of, as illustrated
in this campaign, 78; fu-
tile contemporary criticism
of, 79; relinquishes command,
and returns to England, 1778,
81; not employed again, un-
til change of Ministry, 1782,
81, 227; appointed to com-
mand Channel Fleet, 1782,
and primary operations there,
227–229; successful evasion
of very superior Franco-Span-
ish Fleet, 229; skilful conduct
of relief of Gibraltar by, 1782,
229–231; engagement with
251; reinforced by Bicker-
ton, 251 ; contrasted with
Suffren, as a general officer,
254.

Howe,

Allied Fleet, 232; special
qualities of, again illustrated,
232; French eulogy of, 232,
and of force under his com-
mand, 233.
Sir William (brother of Earl),
British General, failure of to
support Burgoyne, 1777, 28,
51, 52; evacuates Boston,
1776, and retires to Halifax,
29, 30; extent of regions under
his command-in-chief, 30; ap-
pointed peace commissioner,
jointly with Lord Howe, 39;
goes from Halifax to New
York, 39; fruitless peace
negotiations, 39; reduction
of New York by, 42–45;
subsequent operations of, to
Battle of Trenton, 45–49;
constitutional sluggishness of,
45, 47; occupies Narragansett
Bay, 48; injudicious exten-
sion of front of operations, 48;
small results after New York,
49; rewarded with the Order
of the Bath, 49; takes the
greater part of his force to
Chesapeake Bay, 52; effect
of this upon Burgoyne's oper-
ations, 52, 53, 55; occupies
Philadelphia, 53; this suc-
cess worse than fruitless, 56;
relieved in command by Clin-
ton, and returns to England,
56, 63.

Hudson River, a link in the chain

of water communications from
Canada to New York, 7, 30,
45; mentioned, 28, 41, 44,
45, 46, 49, 50, 51, 53; al-
ternative name, North River,
41; Washington retreats
across, into New Jersey, 45;
British advance up valley of,
1777, 55.

Hughes, Sir Edward, British Ad-

miral, commander-in-chief in
East Indies, 1779, 235; enter-
prise of, 235; engagements
with French Fleet under Suf-
fren, 240, 242, 244, 247, 253;
loses Trincomalee, 247, and
compelled thereby to leave
Coromandel coast for Bombay

Hughes, Sir Richard, succeeds to
West India command at peace
of 1783, 226; subsequent
controversy with Nelson, 226.

Hyder, Ali, Sultan of Mysore, at
war with British, 1779, 235;
French Admiral d’Orves re-
fuses coöperation with, 235;
Suffren acts with, 240, 242;
captures Cuddalore, 1782,
244; death of, 1782, 252;
succeeded by Tippoo Saib,
252.

Inflexible, British cruiser built by
Sir Charles Douglas on Lake
Champlain, 1776, 16; in
herself sufficient to control
the lake, 17.

Jamaica, British West India Island,
38, 110, 149, 153, 159, 176,
177, 185, 224, 226; conquest
of, intended by France and
Spain, 1782, 206; attempt
leads to defeat of de Grasse
by Rodney, 208, 209; Rod-
ney repairs to, after his vic-
tory, 225.
Japan, significance of contrast of
population of, to square mile,
with that of the United States,
5.
Johnstone, George, British Com-
modore, commands squadron
despatched to take Cape of
Good Hope from Dutch, 236;
attacked by Suffren in Porto
Praya Bay, 237; arrives at
Cape too late, Suffren having
strengthened it, 238; returns
to England, 238; profes-
sional capacity of, 239; at-
tacks made by, upon profes-
sional conduct of Howe and
Keppel, 239. (See also p. 80.)
John Paul, American naval
captain, serves as a volunteer
in French Fleet, 1782, 212.

Jones,

Kempenfelt, Richard, British Ad-

miral, captures in Bay of
Biscay great part of French
convoy going to West Indies,
1781, 195, 196; commands
a division in Channel Fleet
under Howe, 1782, 227, 228;
lost in sinking of the Royal
George, 229.

Keppel, Augustus, British Admiral,
refuses to serve against Ameri-
cans, 81; commander-in-chief
of Channel Fleet, 1778, 61,
82; encounter with French
Brest Fleet, 83–91; com-
ments on the conduct of,
92, 97; controversy with
Palliser, third in command
under, 95; returns to port
with fleet, 96; court martial
upon, 93; and cited from,
87, 88, 95; resigns command,
97; becomes first Lord of the
Admiralty, 97, 225; quoted,
107 (note).

La Motte Picquet, French Com-
modore, 115; action with a
British division off Marti-
nique, 1779, 128; encounter
with squadron under Corn-
wallis, 1780, 153–155; cap-
tures great part of a British
convoy returning from West
Indies, 1781, 188; quoted,
229 (note).

Leeward Islands Station, extent of,
99; under command of Bar-
rington when war begins, 1778,
99; Byron succeeds to com-
mand, 1779, 105; held tem-
porarily by Hyde Parker,
1779, 113; Rodney takes
command, 1780, 121, 128;
Hood in temporary charge
of, 1782, 177, 185, 196–
205; Rodney relieved by
Pigot, 225.

Les Saintes, small West India Islands,
between Dominica and Guade-

loupe, scene of Rodney's
battle with de Grasse, 209,
211, 213.

Manners, Lord Robert, British naval

captain (killed in the battle

of April 12, 1782), encomiums
of, upon Hood, quoted, 202,

205.
Martinique, French West India
Island, 99, 104, 128, 130,

140, 141, 142, 144, 147, 149,
153, 167, 206, 207; principal
French depot in West Indies,
100; action off, between de
Grasse and Hood, 162–167.
Mathews, Thomas, British Admiral,
Influence in British Navy of
court martial upon, in 1744,
93, 139.
Minorca, Mediterranean Island in
British possession, Byng's ac-
tion off, 1756, 93, 94 ; recovery
of, a primary object with
Spain, 120; supplied by Rod-
ney, 1780, 125, 126; by
Darby, 1781, 187; attack
upon by France and Spain,
1781, 188; capitulates, 1782,
189.
Mobile, Farragut's attack in en-
tering, cited in illustration,
66 (note).
Monroe Doctrine, in last analysis
is the formulation, in terms,
of a purpose to prevent the
propagation to the American
continents of wars arising
elsewhere, 4; recognition of
same danger in unchecked
Asiatic immigration, 4; neces-
sity of adequate force in order
to maintain, 29.
Montgomery, Richard, American
General, sent by the Congress
to conduct invasion of Can-
ada, 9; killed in assault on
Quebec, 10.
Moultrie, Fort, Description of, 33.
Moultrie, William, American officer,
commands Fort Moultrie
when attacked by British
squadron, 32-36.

Narragansett Bay, occupation of by

British, 1777, 47; value of,
47, 56; Rodney's opinion
of, 48, 115; description of,

69; military and naval situa-
tion in, 1778, 72, 73; aban-
donment of, by British, 1779,

Navy,

because of improper disper-
sion of their army, 113, 114,
115; occupied by French
squadron and troops, 1780,
149, 150, 155–157; Rodney
neglects to attack, 150;
French division in, watched
by British from Gardiner's

Bay, 151, 170; but starts,
1781, for Chesapeake Bay,
170; returns to, unsuccess-
ful, 173; sails again from,

177, and joins main fleet in
the Chesapeake, 184.
and Navies, Washington's
remark that to them belonged
“the casting vote” in the
War of American Independ-
ence, 4, 147; exercised on
two decisive occasions, by
Arnold on Lake Champlain,
1776, and by de Grasse at
Yorktown, 1781, 4, 7, 9, 168,
176, 178, 179, 184; decisive
influence also in American
War of Secession, 4; present
and future dependence upon,
of Monroe Doctrine and of
question of Asiatic Immigra-
tion, 4, 5; military explana-
tion for this “casting vote,”
5; Pacific question essen-
tially one of, 5; military rea-
sons for general dominant
effect of, in War of Independ-
ence, 6, 114; British, saves
Canada for Great Britain, 12;
specific effect, on ultimate
result of the general war,
exerted by American, on
Lake Champlain, 1776, 12,
13, 14, 25; inadequacy of
British, to demands upon it, 29,
30, 59, 62, 79, 82, 99, 116, 117,
120, 127, 148, 189, 193, 226;

British, in operations at
New York, 1776, 40, 44,
47; in Burgoyne's advance,

1777, 51; misuse of British,
to divide the land forces, 51,
52, 114, 115, 152; subsidiary
operations of British, 56, in

the Carolinas, 151, in Vir-
ginia, 170; under Howe,
though inadequate, saves
Army under Clinton, 63, 64,
and also New York, 64–68,
and subsequently Narragan-
sett Bay with army division
at Newport, 72, 77; tone of
French, as indicated by Gov-
ernment instructions, and
action of officers, 83, 89,91, 92,
166, 235; effect of seasonal
conditions upon operations of,
in Europe and in America,
98, 100, 113, 115, 147, 149,
159; in East Indies, 251 ;
inefficiency of Spanish. 116,
125, 147, 189, 231, 232.
Nelson, mentioned or quoted, 38,
39, 109, 126, 132, 140, 155,
160, 202, 225, 226, 243.

New Jersey, Washington crosses
from New York into, 45;
operations in, 1776, 46–49;

impracticable to British, in
1777, and consequent effect
upon Howe's course, 51, 52,
56; retreat of British from
Philadelphia through, 1778,
63, 64.
Newport, Rhode Island, taken pos-
session of by British, 47;
importance of, 48; siege of,
by Americans and French,
70, 73, 77; abandoned by
British, 115; occupied by
French, 150, 155, 170, 173, 174,
179. See Narragansett Bay.
New York, water communications
between St. Lawrence and,
7, 8; British occupy harbor
of, 1776, 38; operations
around, 1776, 39–46; har-
bor, approaches, and forti-
fications about, 40–42; Wash-
ington abandons, 45, 46;
British occupy, 45; British
forces in, unable to coöperate
with those in Philadelphia, 56,
63; Lord Howe's prepara-
tions to defend, 64–67; d'Es-
taing's failure to attack, 67,
68; Rodney goes from West
Indies to, 150, 152, 159.

Order, of Battle, 93 (and note), 137–
140, 191; comparison be-
tween Keppel's, off Ushant,

and Byron's, off Grenada, 1.12;
Graves', off Cape Henry,
179–183, criticized by Hood,
181, 182; Hood's at anchor
off St. Kitts, 202, 203.

Palliser, Sir Hugh, British Admiral,
third in command at Battle of
Ushant, 84, 87, 90, 91, 93–96;
court of inquiry upon, 95–97.
Parker, Sir Hyde, (1) British Ad-
miral, left in temporary com-
mand at New York by Howe,
1778, 80 (and note); in like
position in Leeward Islands
by Byron, 1779–1780, 113,
128; biographical summary
of, 113; quoted, 129, 130;
nickname of, 130; implied
censure of, by Rodney, in
battle of April 17, 1780, 136;
returns to England, 136;
commands at Battle of the
Dogger Bank, 189–193; his
reply to George III, 193;
ordered to East Indian com-
mand, and lost at sea, 194.
Parker, Hyde, (2) British Naval
captain (afterwards Admiral
Sir Hyde), in operations about
New York, 1776, 39, 44, 46;
in expedition against Savan-
nah, 1778, 113, 114; bio-
graphical summary of, 113
(note). (In 1801, commander-
in-chief over Nelson, at Copen-
hagen, 39, 80, note).
Parker, Sir Peter, British Admiral,

commands naval force in
expedition against Charles-
ton, 1776, 31; attack of,

upon Fort Moultrie, 33–38;
gives promotion to Nelson,
Collingwood, and Saumarez,
38; at operations around
New York, 38, 43, 45, and at
Narragansett Bay, 48; com-
mands Jamaica Station, 149,
153, 155, 159, 176, 177, 185:
superseded at Jamaica by
Graves, 1781, 185.
Pellew, Edward, (afterwards Ad-
miral Lord Exmouth), Brit-
ish midshipman, at Lake
Champlain, 1776, 22; in
Burgoyne's advance to Sara-
toga, 1777, 51.
Philadelphia, occupation of, by Brit-
ish, 52–55; brief tenure of,
55; inutility of, to British,
56; evacuation of, by British,
and hazardous retreat from,
to New York, 63, 64.

Quebec, attack upon by Americans,
under Montgomery, 1775, 9,
10; blockade of, by Arnold,
1776, 10, 11; relieved by
British navy, 10–12; utility
of, to British preparations
to control Lake Champlain,
15–17, 26.

Raids, by British navy, 56, 114.
Rhode Island, 47, 48, 69, 70, 72,
77, 78, 79, 115, 150, 155.
See Narragansett Bay.
Riedesel, Baron, commander of Ger-
man troops in Canada, 1776;
testimony of, to effects of
delay by Arnold's flotilla on
Lake Champlain, 13, 25;
quoted, 21, 23.
Rochambeau, French general, com-
manding forces in America,
requests coöperation of de

Grasse against Cornwallis,
168.
Rodney, Sir George (afterwards

Lord), British Admiral, ap-
pointed to command Leeward
Islands Station, 1779, 115,
121; sails to relieve Gibraltar,
122; on the way, destroys
two Spanish squadrons, 122–
125; relieves the place, and
sails for West Indies, 125,
126; actions with de Guichen,
April and May, 1780, 130–
135, 142–144; censures offi-
cers of the fleet, 135–139, 145;
further proceedings in West
Indies, 1780, 146–150; takes
fleet to New York, 150, and
turns to West Indies, 159;
capture of Dutch islands, 1781,
160; proceedings of, at St.
Eustatius, 161, 162; sends
Hood off Martinique to in-
tercept de Grasse, 162; suc-

cesses of de Grasse against,
167, 168; sends Hood to
New York with fleet, 176,
177, and returns to England
on leave, 177; returns to
West Indies, 1782, and re-
joins Hood, 205; pursuit of
French armament against Ja-
maica, 207-212; victory of,
in battle of April 12, 213–220;
failure of, to improve his
success, 220–225; superseded
by Pigot, and returns finally
to England, 225.

Rowley, Joshua, British Admiral,
brilliant conduct of, in Byron's
action, 106, 107, 109; im-
plicitly censured by Rodney,
136.

Sandy Hook, at entrance to New
York Harbor, 52, 63, 64, 65,
66, 76, 113, 150, 177, 184,
185. Lord Howe's prepara-
tions at, for defence of New
York, 1778, 65, 66.
Lucia, French West India
Island, capture of, by Brit-
ish, 1778, 100–102; d'Es-
taing's ineffectual attempt to
retake, 103, 104; military
value of, 104, 207; de
Guichen seeks to retake, 142;
mentioned, 105, 106, 128, 141,
144, 148, 165, 167, 168, 206.
Saratoga, surrender of Burgoyne
at, why decisive, 3, 6; capitu-
lation there, determined by
Arnold's defence of Lake
Champlain, 3, 7, 13, 14, 25;
Burgoyne's surrender at, 28,
50–53.
Saumarez, James (afterwards Lord
de), British naval officer, mid-
shipman at attack upon Fort
Moultrie, 1776, 35, 38; lieu-
tenant at the battle of the
Dogger Bank, 1781, 192
(note); captain in West Indies,
1782, 196; biographical sum-

Santa

mary of, 196 (note); in
Rodney's victory, 1782, 218,
221.

Savannah, capture of, by British,
1778, 113; disastrous effect

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