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is a cunninger animal than they, so surely will the the needy or the venal, of men who are willing to animal that is cunninger or stronger than he, sit bear the mortification of contiguous tyranny for upon his shoulders in turn. Since then it is en-bread. Thus each very opulent man generally tailed upon humanity to submit, and some are born gathers round him a circle of the poorest of the to command, and others to obey, the question is, as people; and the polity abounding in accumulated there must be tyrants, whether it is better to have wealth, may be compared to a Cartesian system, them in the same house with us, or in the same each orb with a vortex of its own. Those, howvillage, or still farther off, in the metropolis. Now, ever, who are willing to move in a great man's sir, for my own part, as I naturally hate the face vortex, are only such as must be slaves, the rabble of a tyrant, the farther off he is removed from me, of mankind, whose souls and whose education are the better pleased am I. The generality of man- adapted to servitude, and who know nothing of libkind also are of my way of thinking, and have erty except the name. But there must still be a unanimously created one king, whose election at large number of the people without the sphere of once diminishes the number of tyrants, and puts the opulent man's influence, namely, that order tyranny at the greatest distance from the greatest of men which subsists between the very rich and number of people. Now the great who were ty- the very rabble; those men who are possessed of too rants themselves before the election of one tyrant, large fortunes to submit to the neighbouring man are naturally averse to a power raised over them, in power, and yet are too poor to set up for tyranand whose weight must ever lean heaviest on the ny themselves. In this middle order of mankind subordinate orders. It is the interest of the great, are generally to be found all the arts, wisdom, and therefore, to diminish kingly power as much as virtues of society. This order alone is known to possible; because whatever they take from that, is be the true preserver of freedom, and may be called naturally restored to themselves; and all they have the people. Now it may happen that this middle to do in the state, is to undermine the single ty-order of mankind may lose all its influence in a rant, by which they resume their primeval authori- state, and its voice be in a manner drowned in ty. Now the state may be so circumstanced, or that of the rabble: for if the fortune sufficient for its laws may be so disposed, or its men of opulence qualifying a person at present to give his voice in so minded, as all to conspire in carrying on this state affairs be ten times less than was judged sufbusiness of undermining monarchy. For in the ficient upon forming the constitution, it is evident first place, if the circumstances of our state be such that greater numbers of the rabble will be thus inas to favour the accumulation of wealth, and make troduced into the political system, and they ever the opulent still more rich, this will increase their moving in the vortex of the great, will follow where ambition. An accumulation of wealth, however, greatness shall direct. In such a state, therefore, must necessarily be the consequence, when as at all that the middle order has left, is to preserve the present, more riches flow in from external com- prerogative and privileges of the one principal gomerce, than arise from internal industry; for ex vernor with the most sacred circumspection. For ternal commerce can only be managed to ad- he divides the power of the rich, and calls off the vantage by the rich, and they have also at the great from falling with tenfold weight on the midsame time all the emoluments arising from internal die order placed beneath them. The middle order industry; so that the rich, with us, have two may be compared to a town, of which the opulent sources of wealth, whereas the poor have but one. are forming the siege, and of which the governor For this reason, wealth, in all commercial states, from without is hastening the relief. While the is found to accumulate, and all such have hitherto besiegers are in dread of an enemy over them, it is in time become aristocratical. Again, the very but natural to offer the townsmen the most specious laws also of this country may contribute to the ac- terms; to flatter them with sounds, and amuse cumulation of wealth; as when, by their means, them with privileges; but if they once defeat the the natural ties that bind the rich and poor together governor from behind, the walls of the town will are broken, and it is ordained, that the rich shall be but a small defence to its inhabitants. What they only marry with the rich; or when the learned are may then expect, may be seen by turning our eyes held unqualified to serve their country as counsel to Holland, Genoa, or Venice, where the laws govern lors, merely from a defect of opulence, and wealth the poor, and the rich govern the law. I am then for, is thus made the object of a wise man's ambition; and would die for monarchy, sacred monarchy; for by these means, I say, and such means as these, if there be any thing sacred amongst men, it must be riches will accumulate. Now the possessor of ac- the anointed SOVEREIGN of his people; and every cumulated wealth, when furnished with the neces-diminution of his power in war, or in peace, is an saries and pleasures of life, has no other method to infringement upon the real liberties of the subject. employ the superfluity of his fortune but in pur- The sounds of liberty, patriotism, and Britons, chasing power. That is, differently speaking, in have already done much; it is to be hoped that the making dependants, by purchasing the liberty of true sons of freedom will prevent their ever doug



more. I have known many of those pretended my stay for some days: and as their niece, my champions for liberty in my time, yet do I not re- charming pupil, whose mind in some measure had member one that was not in his heart and in his been formed under my own instructions, joined in family a tyrant." their entreaties, I complied. That night I was shown to a magnificent chamber, and the next morning early Miss Wilmot desired to walk with

My warmth I found had lengthened this harangue beyond the rules of goood breeding: but the impatience of my entertainer, who often strove me in the garden, which was decorated in the moto interrupt it, could be restrained no longer. dern manner. After some time spent in pointing "What," cried he, "then I have been all this out the beauties of the place, she inquired, with while entertaining a jesuit in parson's clothes! but seeming unconcern, when last I had heard from by all the coal-mines of Cornwall, out he shall my son George? "Alas, madam," cried I, "he has pack, if my name be Wilkinson." I now found I now been nearly three years absent, without ever had gone too far, and asked pardon for the warmth writing to his friends or me. Where he is I know with which I had spoken. "Pardon!" returned not; perhaps I shall never see him or happiness he in a fury: "I think such principles demand ten more. No, my dear madam, we shall never more thousand pardons. What? give up liberty, pro- see such pleasing hours as were once spent by our perty, and, the Gazetteer says, lie down to be sad-fire-side at Wakefield. My little family are now dled with wooden shoes! sir, I insist upon your dispersing very fast, and poverty has brought not marching out of this house immediately, to prevent only want, but infamy upon us." The good-naworse consequences: sir, I insist upon it." I was go- tured girl let fall a tear at this account; but as I ing to repeat my remonstrances; but just then we saw her possessed of too much sensibility, I foreheard a footman's rap at the door, and the two bore a more minute detail of our sufferings. It ladies cried out, “As sure as death there is our was, however, some consolation to me, to find that master and mistress come home." It seems my time had made no alteration in her affections, and entertainer was all this while only the butler, who, that she had rejected several offers that had been in his master's absence, had a mind to cut a figure, made her since our leaving her part of the country. and be for a while the gentleman himself: and, to She led me round all the extensive improvements say the truth, he talked politics as well as most of the place, pointing to the several walks and arcountry gentlemen do. But nothing could now ex-bours, and at the same time catching from every ceed my confusion upon seeing the gentleman and object a hint for some new question relative to my his lady enter; nor was their surprise at finding son. In this manner we spent the forenoon, till such company and good cheer less than ours. the bell summoned us in to dinner, where we found "Gentlemen," cried the real master of the house the manager of the strolling company that I mento me and my companion," my wife and I are tioned before, who was come to dispose of tickets your most humble servants; but I protest this for the Fair Penitent, which was to be acted that is so unexpected a favour, that we almost sink evening, the part of Horatio by a young gentleunder the obligation." However unexpected our man who had never appeared on any stage. He company might be to them, theirs, I am sure, was seemed to be very warm in the praises of the new still more so to us, and I was struck dumb with performer, and averred that he never saw any who the apprehensions of my own absurdity, when bid so fair for excellence. Acting, he observed, whom should I next see enter the room but my was not learned in a day; "but this gentleman," dear Miss Arabella Wilmot, who was formerly de- continued he, "seems born to tread the stage. His signed to be married to my son George, but whose voice, his figure, and attitudes, are all admirable. We match was broken off as already related. As soon caught him up accidentally in our journey down." as she saw me, she flew to my arms with the ut-This account, in some measure, excited our curiosimost joy.-"My dear sir," cried she," to what ty, and, at the entreaty of the ladies, I was prevailed happy accident is it that we owe so unexpected a upon to accompany them to the play-house, which visit? I am sure my uncle and aunt will be in rap- was no other than a barn. As the company with tures when they find they have the good Dr. Prim- which I went was incontestably the chief of the rose for their guest." Upon hearing my name, place, we were received with the greatest respect, the old gentleman and lady very politely stepped and placed in the front seat of the theatre; where up, and welcomed me with the most cordial hospi-we sat for some time with no small impatience to tality. Nor could they forbear smiling, upon being see Horatio make his appearance. The new perinformed of the nature of my present visit; but the former advanced at last; and let parents think of anfortunate butler, whom they at first seemed dis- my sensations by their own, when I found it was posed to turn away, was at my intercession for- my unfortunate son. He was going to begin, given. when, turning his eyes upon the audience, he perMr. Arnold and his lady, to whom the house be-ceived Miss Wilmot and me, and stood at once longed, now insisted upon having the pleasure of speechless and immovable, The actors behind the

scene, who ascribed this cause to his natural timidi- at one time, the more I expected from her another, ty, attempted to encourage him; but instead of go- and being now at the bottom of her wheel, every ing on, he burst into a flood of tears, and retired new revolution might lift, but could not depress me. off the stage. I don't know what were my feelings I proceeded, therefore, towards London in a fine on this occasion, for they succeeded with too much morning, no way uneasy about to-morrow, but rapidity for description; but I was soon awaked cheerful as the birds that caroled by the road, and from this disagreeable reverie by Miss Wilmot, comforted myself with reflecting, that London was who, pale, and with a trembling voice, desired me the mart where abilities of every kind were sure of to conduct her back to her uncle's. When got home, meeting distinction and reward. Mr. Arnold, who was as yet a stranger to our extra- "Upon my arrival in town, sir, my first care was ordinary behaviour, being informed that the new to deliver your letter of recommendation to our performer was my son, sent his coach and an in- cousin, who was himself in little better circumvitation for him: and as he persisted in his refusal stances than I. My first scheme, you know, sir, to appear again upon the stage, the players put an- was to be usher at an academy, and I asked his adother in his place, and we soon had him with us. vice on the affair. Our cousin received the propoMr. Arnold gave him the kindest reception, and sal with a true Sardonic grin. Ay, cried he, this I received him with my usual transport; for I could is indeed a very pretty career that has been chalked never counterfeit false resentment. Miss Wilmot's out for you. I have been an usher at a boardingreception was mixed with seeming neglect, and yet school myself; and may I die by an anodyne neckI could perceive she acted a studied part. The lace, but I had rather be an under-turnkey in Newtumult in her mind seemed not yet abated: she gate. I was up early and late: I was browbeat by said twenty giddy things that looked like joy, and the master, hated for my ugly face by the mistress, then laughed loud at her own want of meaning. worried by the boys within, and never permitted to At intervals she would take a sly peep at the glass, stir out to meet civility abroad. But are you sure as if happy in the consciousness of irresistible you are fit for a school? Let me examine you a beauty, and often would ask questions without giv- little. Have you been bred apprentice to the busiing any manner of attention to the answers. ness? No. Then you won't do for a school. Can you dress the boys' hair? No. Then you won't do for a school. Have you had the small-pox? No. Then you won't do for a school. Can you lic three in a bed? No. Then you will never do for a


The History of a Philosophic Vagabond, pursuing Novelty, school. Have you got a good stomach? Yes. Then but losing Content. you will by no means do for a school. No, sir, if AFTER We had supped, Mrs. Arnold politely of you are for a genteel easy profession, bind yourself fered to send a couple of her footmen for my son's seven years as an apprentice to turn a cutler's baggage, which he at first seemed to decline; but wheel; but avoid a school by any means. Yet upon her pressing the request, he was obliged to come, continued he, I see you are a lad of spirit and inform her, that a stick and a wallet were all the some learning, what do you think of commencing moveable things upon this earth that he could boast author, like me? You have read in books, no of. "Why, ay, my son," cried I, "you left me but doubt, of men of genius starving at the trade. At poor, and poor I find you are come back; and yet I present I'll show you forty very dull fellows about make no doubt you have seen a great deal of the town that live by it in opulence; all honest jog-trot world."—"Yes, sir," replied my son, "but travel- men, who go on smoothly and dully, and write hisling after fortune is not the way to secure her; and, tory and politics, and are praised: men, sir, who, indeed, of late I have desisted from the pursuit."—had they been bred cobblers, would all their lives “I fancy, sir,” cried Mrs. Arnold, "that the ac- have only mended shoes, but never made them. count of your adventures would be amusing: the first part of them I have often heard from my niece; but could the company prevail for the rest, it would solved to accept his proposal; and having the highbe an additional obligation."—"Madam," replied est respect for literature, hailed the antiqua mater my son, "I promise you the pleasure you have in of Grub-street with reverence. 1 thought it my hearing will not be half so great as my vanity in glory to pursue a track which Dryden and Otway repeating them; and yet in the whole narrative I trod before me. I considered the goddess of this can scarcely promise you one adventure, as my ac- region as the parent of excellence; and however an count is rather of what I saw than what I did. intercourse with the world might give us good The first misfortune of my life, which you all sense, the poverty she entailed I supposed to be the know, was great; but though it distressed, it could nurse of genius! Big with these reflections, I sat not sink me. No person ever had a better knack down, and finding that the best things remained to st hoping than I. The less kind I found fortune be said on the wrong side, I resolved to write a bou

"Finding that there was no great degree of gentility affixed to the character of an usher, I re

for bread?"

that should be wholly new. I therefore dressed up grace their calling as to make a vile traffic of praise three paradoxes with some ingenuity. They were false, indeed, but they were new. The jewels of truth have been so often imported by others, that nothing was left for me to import but some splendid things that at a distance looked every bit as well. Witness, you powers, what fancied importance sat perched upon my quill while I was writing! The tempt; and none but those who are unworthy prowhole learned world, I made no doubt, would rise tection, condescend to solicit it. to oppose my systems; but then I was prepared to oppose the whole learned world. Like the porcupine, I sat self-collected, with a quill pointed against every opposer."

"O no, sir," returned he, "a true poet can never be so base; for wherever there is genius, there is pride. The creatures I now describe are only beg gars in rhyme. The real poet, as he braves every hardship for fame, so he is equally a coward to con

"Having a mind too proud to stoop to such indignities, and yet a fortune too humble to hazard a second attempt for fame, I was now obliged to take a middle course, and write for bread. But I was unqualified for a profession where mere industry alone was to ensure success. I could not suppress my lurking passion for applause; but usually consumed that time in efforts after excellence which takes up but little room, when it should have been more advantageously employed in the diffusive productions of fruitful mediocrity. My little piece

"Sir," replied my son, "the learned world said nothing to my paradoxes; nothing at all, sir. would therefore come forth in the midst of periodi Every man of them was employed in praising his cal publications, unnoticed and unknown. The friends and himself, or condemning his enemies: public were more importantly employed than to and unfortunately, as I had neither, I suffered the observe the easy simplicity of my style, or the harcruelest mortification, neglect. mony of my periods. Sheet after sheet was thrown off to oblivion. My essays were buried among the

"As I was meditating one day in a coffee-house on the fate of my paradoxes, a little man happening essays upon liberty, eastern tales, and cures for the to enter the room, placed himself in the box before bite of a mad dog; while Philautos, Philalethes, me, and after some preliminary discourse, finding Philelutheros and Philanthropos all wrote better me to be a scholar, drew out a bundle of proposals, because they wrote faster than I.

"Well said, my boy," cried I, "and what subject did you treat upon? I hope you did not pass over the importance of monogamy. But I interrupt; go on: you published your paradoxes; well, and what did the learned world say to your paradoxes?"

begging me to subscribe to a new edition he was going to give to the world of Propertius with notes, This demand necessarily produced a reply that I had no money; and that concession led him to in- tion we found in every celebrated writer's attempts, quire into the nature of my expectations. Finding was inversely as their merits. I found that no gethat my expectations were just as great as my nius in another could please me. My unfortunate purse, I see, cried he, you are unacquainted with paradoxes had entirely dried up that source of comthe town; I'll teach you a part of it. Look at these fort I could neither read nor write with satisfacproposals,-upon these very proposals I have sub-tion; for excellence in another was my aversion, sisted very comfortably for twelve years. The mo- and writing was my trade. ment a nobleman returns from his travels, a Crcolian arrives from Jamaica, or a dowager from her country seat, I strike for a subscription. I first besiege their hearts with flattery, and then pour in my proposals at the breach. If they subscribe readily the first time, I renew my request to beg a dedication fee. If they let me have that, I smite them once more for engraving their coat of arms at the top. Thus, continued hc, I live by vanity, and laugh at it. But between ourselves, I am now too well known: I should be glad to borrow your face a bit: a nobleman of distinction has just returned from Italy; my face is familiar to his porter; but if you bring this copy of verses, my life for it you succeed, and we divide the spoil."

"In the midst of these gloomy reflections, as I was one day sitting on a bench in St. James's park a young gentleman of distinction, who had been my intimate acquaintance at the university, ap proached me. We saluted each other with some hesitation; he almost ashamed of being known to one who made so shabby an appearance, and 1 afraid of a repulse. But my suspicions soon vanished; for Ned Thornhill was at the bottom a very good-natured fellow."


"What did you say, George?" interrupted I."Thornhill, was not that his name? It can certainly be no other than my landlord."-" Bless me," cried Mrs. Arnold, "is Mr. Thornhill so near a neighbour of yours? He has long been a friend in "Bless us, George," cried I, "and is this the em- our family, and we expect a visit from him shortly." ployment of poets now! Do men of their exalted My friend's first care," continued my son, talents thus stoop to beggary! Can they so far dis-"was to alter my appearance by a very fine suit of


"Now, therefore, I began to associate with none but disappointed authors, like myself, who praised, deplored, and despised each other. The satisfac

his own clothes, and then I was a Imitted to his ta- him; and so you would expect a reward hom me ble, upon the footing of half-friend, half-underling. for being the instrument of his vices. I wish, sin My business was to attend him at auctions, to put cerely wish, that my present refusal may be some him in spirits when he sat for his picture, to take punishment for your guilt; but still more, that it the left hand in his chariot when not filled by ano-may be some inducement to your repentance."— ther, and to assist at tattering a kip, as the phrase The severity of this rebuke I nore patiently, bewas, when we had a mind for a frolic. Besides cause I knew it was just. My whole expectations this, I had twenty other little employments in the now, therefore, lay in my letter to the great man. family. I was to do many small things without As the doors of the nobility are almost ever beset bidding; to carry the corkscrew; to stand godfather with beggars, all ready to thrust in some sly petition, to all the butler's children; to sing when I was bid; I found it no easy matter to gain admittance. Howto be never out of humour; always to be humble; ever, after bribing the servants with half my worldand, if I could, to be very happy. ly fortune, I was at last shown into a spacious

"In this honourable post, however, I was not apartment, my letter being previously sent up for without a rival. A captain of marines, who was his lordship's inspection. During this anxious informed for the place by nature, opposed me in my terval I had full time to look round me. Every patron's affections. His mother had been laundress | thing was grand and of happy contrivance; the to a man of quality, and thus he early acquired a paintings, the furniture, the gildings petrified me Caste for pimping and pedigree. As this gentleman with awe, and raised my idea of the owner. Ah, made it the study of his life to be acquainted with thought I to myself, how very great must the pos lords, though he was dismissed from several for his sessor of all these things be, who carries in his stupidity, yet he found many of them who were as head the business of the state, and whose house dull as himself, that permitted his assiduities. As displays half the wealth of a kingdom: sure his flattery was his trade, he practised it with the genius must be unfathomable!-During these aweasiest address imaginable; but it came awkward ful reflections, I heard a step come heavily forward. and stiff from me: and as every day my patron's Ah, this is the great man himself! No, it was only desire of flattery increased, so every hour being a chambermaid. Another foot was heard soon afbetter acquainted with his defects, I became more ter. This must be he! No, it was only the great unwilling to give it. Thus I was once more fair-man's valet de chambre. At last his lordship acly going to give up the field to the captain, when tually made his appearance. Are you, cried he, my friend found occasion for my assistance. This the bearer of this here letter? I answered with a was nothing less than to fight a duel for him, with bow. I learn by this, continued he, as how thata gentleman whose sister it was pretended he had But just at that instant a servant delivered him a used ill. I readily complied with his request, and card, and without taking further notice, he went though I see you are displeased with my conduct, out of the room, and left me to digest my own hapyet it was a debt indispensably due to friendship piness at leisure: I saw no more of him, till told I could not refuse. I undertook the affair, dis- by a footman that his lordship was going to his armed my antagonist, and soon after had the plea- coach at the door. Down I immediately followed sure of finding that the lady was only a woman of and joined my voice to that of three or four more, the town, and the fellow her bully and a sharper. who came, like me, to petition for favours. His This piece of service was repaid with the warmest lordship, however, went too fast for us, and was professions of gratitude: but as my friend was to gaining his chariot door with large strides, when I leave town in a few days, he knew no other me- hallooed out to know if I was to have any reply. thod of serving me, but by recommending me to He was by this time got in, and muttered an anhis uncle Sir William Thornhill, and another swer, half of which only I heard, the other half was nobleman of great distinction who enjoyed a post lost in the rattling of his chariot wheels. I stood under the government. When he was gone, my for some time with my neck stretched out, in the first care was to carry his recommendatory let-posture of one that was listening to catch the gloter to his uncle, a man whose character for every virtue was universal, yet just. I was received by his servants with the most hospitable smiles; for "My patience," continued my son, Ce was now the looks of the domestic ever transmit their mas- quite exhausted: stung with the thousand indigniter's benevolence. Being shown into a grand apart-ties I had met with, I was willing to cast myself ment, where Sir William soon came to me, I de-away, and only wanted the gulf to receive me. I livered my message and letter, which he read, and regarded myself as one of those vile things that naafter pausing some minutes, "Pray, sir," cried he, ture designed should be thrown by into her lumber"inform me what you have done for my kinsman room, there to perish in obscurity. I had still, howto deserve this warm recommendation: but I sup-ever, half a guinea left, and of that I thought for pose, sir, I guess your merits: you have fought fortune herself should not deprive me: bit in order to

rious sounds, till looking round me, I found myself alone at his lordship's gate.

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