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the chief substitute for writing was the We find, for instance, that the representaQuipų, or knotted cord. This consisted of tion of the vault of heaven, with a star susa main cord, with strings of different co- pended from it, typifies darkness or night; lours and lengths attached. The colour, that the arms of a man holding a spear and the mode of making the loops, knots, or shield are the symbol of to fight, and that tufts, their distance from the main cord or thirst is typified by a calf running. The from each other, had all of them their mean- next stage would appear to have been syling. Each Quipu had its own keeper or labic, when a certain sign represented a interpreter, and by their means all public syllable, though often with a second more accounts were kept. The Wampum in truly literal sign affixed, denoting the final North America was of a somewhat similar consonant of the syllable. To prevent mischaracter; and in Polynesia, also, the same takes, the signs representing words were sort of Quipu is in use. One kept by the often accompanied by other signs, which

, principal tax-gatherer in Hawaii is a knot of were merely determinative of the meaning. cord of 400 or 500 fathoms in length, sub- Thus three horizontal zigzag lines repredivided again and again for the different senting water showed that the previous symdistricts and families.

bol designated something connected with There is a tradition among the Chinese liquids--or two legs walking, that the word of a similar system of recording events by bore reference to locomotion. Many hieromeans of a knotted cord having been in use glyphics, however, appear to be purely liteamong them previous to the invention of ral—though, in the case of consonants, often writing. The Chinese system of writing, having some vowel-sound implied. These though far superior to that of the Mexicans, literal hieroglyphics stand for the initial letis still not alphabetical, but syllabic. At ters of the objects or ideas they represent. the outset, the characters seem to have been For instance, a goose flying is the equivapictorial; but the representations of the ob- lent of P, the initial of Pai, to fly; an owl jects have now become so much conven- stands for M, the first letter of Mulag, the tionalized and changed, partly in conse- Egyptian name of the bird. quence of the method of writing by means The more careful pictorial representaof a brush, that there is much difficulty in tions of the objects such as are to be seen recognizing them. In the characters repre-in sculptured hieroglyphics and in formal senting the words Sun or Day, Moon, Door, inscriptions required, however, too much Carriage, Boy, the original pictorial origin time for their execution to be adopted as is evident-as, indeed, it is in several other an ordinary means of writing. In conseinstances.

quence, the signs became conventionalized, In some cases, compound characters are and the salient characteristics of the object formed by the junction of others of a simple were seized on for the more cursive form of kind. The Sun and Moon together repre-writing known as the hieratic. From this, . sent the word Ming, bright or clear. Water again, was derived the writing known as and Eye together symbolize tears.

demotic, in which many of the symbols With a monosyllabic language, the words have become so much changed and simpliof which are of necessity limited in number, fied, that it is with difficulty that they can one sound has often to represent more than be identified as descendants of originally one sense, and the Chinese characters have pictorial forms. therefore been divided into phonetics or ra- A modified form of hieroglyphic writing is dicals—those which give the sound—and still in use among us, more especially in conthe classificatory or determinatives, or those nection with the science of astronomy; and which give the sense.

the conventional forms which now represent Thus, the sign for a door, with the deter- the signs of the Zodiac are very instructive minative an ear, means to listen ; with that as to the amount of modification such symof a corpse or of the heart, means sorrow, bols are liable to undergo. &c.

In Aries (P) and Taurus (8) the heads of The Egyptian hieroglyphics present much the ram and the bull may still be recognized. analogy in character with the Chinese me- Gemini is represented by the twin straight thod of writing. In their earliest form they lines, II; Cancer by its claws, do; and Leo seem to have been principally pictorial, by its head and tail, 8. In the symbol for though also at the same time symbolic. Virgo, there appears to have been some con

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fusion between Astræa and the Virgin Mary, readily be traced. It must, however, be rethe sign being symbolized by the letters mo 11. membered that the letters of the latter are

. The scales of Libra, the sting of Scorpio, written from right to left, or in the same and the arrow of Sagittarius, can still be manner as Hebrew, and not, as is the case traced in the symbols, s, m, f. The with us, from left to right. In the early twisted tail of Capricornus survives in 1, Greek inscriptions it appears to have been

Wo and Aquarius is represented by two wavy

a matter of indifference in which direction lines of water, he

The remaining sign of the letters were placed. In some the lines Pisces has been much metamorphosed; but are alternately in either direction, and this the two fishes, back to back, with head and form of writing was known as Boustrophetail alternating, can readily be reconstructed don, or that which turned backwards and from the symbol H.

forwards, like an ox in ploughing. The gradual simplification of form ex- In tracing the correspondence between hibited in these signs, and in the Chinese the Roman, Greek, and Phænician alphabets, and hieratic systems of writing, must be but little need be said with regard to most borne in mind when studying the develop of the letters. . ment of other systems.

As to the original identity of the three With regard to the origin of the alphabet alphabets which have been discussed, there in common use in Europe, there can be no can be no doubt; neither can any exist as doubt; the testimony of classical historians, to the order in which the letters were origias well as that of the letters themselves, nally arranged. For in the Hebrew Scripbeing conclusive as to its Phænician source. tures, the language of which may practically The Greek myth of letters having been in- be regarded as the same as the Phænician, troduced by Cadmus, the Phænician, seems there are several instances in which a sucsimply to embody this truth; for there is cession of passages, each commencing with much probability in the view which connects a different letter of the alphabet, present the name of Cadmus with the Semitic word them in this order. A well-known example Kedem, the East.

is afforded by the 119th Psalm, each of the At what date letters were first in use in twenty-two sections of which commences Greece is by no means certain, but Grote with a different letter, the name of which thought that they were absolutely unknown forms the heading to each in the English in the days of Homer and Hesiod (B.C. version of the Bible. 850–776). It seems, however, probable Taking the forms of the letters, as given that they were introduced at a somewhat on the Moabite Stone, in conjunction with earlier date. If the date which has been the meaning of their names, such a simiassigned to the famous Moabite Stone, of larity can in all cases be traced, thougha about 900 B.C., be correct, the correspond-more certainly intentional in some letters ence in form between the archaic Greek than in others. This will be best shown in letters and those on the stone raises a strong the following form:presumption in favour of letters having been

x. Aleph-an ox. The head of an ox. That this imported into Greece at the time when the letter was known to embody this symbol is recorded Phoenician alphabet was in that stage of by Hesychius about A.D. 380. The correspondence development in which it occurs

on the

of a small a or a with the sign for Taurus when

placed horizontally is worth notice, a. stone.

a Beth--a house, or possibly a tent. A house, Even the name of the alphabet preserves showing one wall and the ridged roof. the memory of its Phoenician origin, for , Gimel --- a camel. The head and neck of a

camel. Alpha and Beta, the names of the two let

7 Daleth --a door. ters from which the word is derived, are not

The triangular door of a

tent. really Greek, but merely the Hellenized a He-a lattice or window. A lattice? The forms of the Phænician Aleph and Beth. meaning of the name of this letter 'is somewhat The same is the case with the names of all


Vau—a peg or nail. A peg: the other Greek letters down to Tau; the

→ Zain—a weapon.

An arm holding a spear? last five letters, Y, 0, X, Y, 12, being of later a Cheth--an enclosure, or field. An enclosure. introduction.

Much like the Chinese figure for the same meanThe correspondence in form between the ing. Roman, the Greek, and the early Phoenician

Teth--a serpent. A coiled snake. This letter

does not occur on the Moabite Stone. alphabet, as given on the Moabite Stone, can • Jod—the hand. The hand and wrist in profile,

similar to what may be seen on some early Hindu some extraneous source, such names having coins. > Caph-the palm of the hand. An open hand,

the proper initial letter, and also some suitas in some drawings of the North American In: ability to describe its shape—the same as if dians.

in English we called 5 Lamed |--an ox-goad. An ex-goad?

The meaning of the name somewhat doubtful.

A--Arch or Arrowhead. » Mem- water. A wavy line. Like the repre- B-Bow or Butterfly. sentation of water on early coins and sculpture, and 0-Curve or Crescent. as in the sign Aquarius non

, Nun--a fish. The head, gill, and back of a fish. This, however, is contrary to all analogy

o Samech-a support. A kind of prop supporting a trellis for vines. Mr. Hensleigh Wedgwood has among methods of writing of which we know pointed out the similarity of this letter to the figure the development; and, moreover, several of of a sculptor's bench or easel in Egyptian pictures.

the names of the Hebrew letters are not y Ain-the eye. The pupil of th: eye, as in actual words in common use in the Hebrew Egyptian hieratics.

Pe-the mouth. The two lips open at an angle, writings, but words which have become ob much like the mouth as represented on some ancient solete, and of which, in one or two cases, it British coins.

is hard to recover the meaning. The letters, * Tsade-a reaping hook. A reaping hook or moreover, cannot originally have been mere scythe attached to its handle.

arbitrary signs, or there would have been p Koph-the back of the head. The head and neck?

greater distinctions between some of them, Resh--the head. The head in profile.

such as it was subsequently found desirable » Shin--a tooth. A tricuspid tooth.

to introduce. n Tau-a mark. A cross, like the mark still If, too, the Phænician letters came from made by those who cannot write.

an extraneous source, we may well ask where This correspondence in form can hardly it was, and how does it happen that no traces be appreciated without diagrams, but in of the original names of the letters have been many instances is striking, and in none preserved. absolutely forced. There have, however, In the Greek alphabet, which is undoubtbeen numerous objections raised to such a cdly derivative, the names of the letters view of the derivation of the forms of the would alone suffice to show the source Phænician letters.

from which it came; and the case of the Lenormant and De Rougé would rather Runic alphabet, derived from the same trace them to Egyptian hieratic characters; source, though with the letters rearranged but the resemblances they point out between and with new names given at a comparathem are but slight, and in no instance does tively recent date, seems hardly to apply. the Phænician name of the letter agree with The Runic names, moreover, exhibit no atthat of the object represented by the Egyp- tempt to denote the forms of the letters, to tian hieratic. Moreover, the resemblances, which they are as inapplicable as the names when traced, are rather with later forms of in one of the Irish alphabets, in which Phænician letters than with those on the each letter is called by the name of some Moabite Stone.

tree. Mr. E. B. Tylor also considers that the It seems, on the contrary, far more protheory maintained by Gesenius of the Phæ- bable that the Phænicians, possibly in the nician letters being pictorial, can be shown first instance borrowing the idea from the to be unsafe. He thinks the resemblances | Egyptians, struck out for themselves a more between the letters and the objects to be purely literal, and therefore a more simple but small, and the bond which attaches the and useful alphabet. A classification of name to the letter to be but slight; that the sounds once established, and a system of coincidences are not primary and essential, syllabic symbols once invented, the transibut secondary and superficial. In support tion to a pure literal alphabet is compara of this view he instances the old Slavonic tively easy, especially when once the syllaalphabet, and the Runic Futhorc, in which bic symbols have, from the introduction of the letters have names unlike those of our foreign words or from other causes, been alphabet, but each with a meaning-the employed for the initial sound only of the initials of the names giving the power of syllables they represent. the letters. He suggests that in a similar Such a change, involving a departure from manner Hebrew words may have been old practice, might perhaps more readily chosen as names for letters derived from take place in an adjacent country to that in which the syllabic system prevailed, than in seem to have been at least equal to that of the country itself; and we may readily con- the bronze-using people of the Swiss lakeceive a practical people like the Phænicians dwellings. importing from Egypt a system of pictorial writing thus modified.

ANTHONY TROLLOPE. Certainly their alphabet, unlike the letters of the later class of Egyptian hieroglyphics; THE.subject of our cartoon nis the welldoes

known novelist. The name of . survivors from a whole army of symbols. lope was as familiar to the last generation of On the contrary, it seems to present some readers as it is to the present. Mrs. Fanny traces of arrangement; for the objects re- Trollope—she married, in 1809, Anthony presenting the letters appear to be grouped Trollope, barrister-at-law-having lost her in pairs, each comprising two objects in husband, applied herself to literature. In some manner associated with each other; 1832, the year of the Reform Bill in Engand between each pair is inserted a third land, she published her first book. It was letter, represented by an object not so about the United States, where she had immediately connected with those preced-lived for some time, and was called “Doing it, but still not absolutely alien from mestic Life of the Americans.” them.

In England, it was read and enjoyed. In Thus the ox and the house are followed the States, the people did not like it—they by the camel-an animal, by the way, not did not appear to advantage in the book; represented in Egyptian hieroglyphics. The but it made the reputation of the lady who door and the window are followed by the had written it; and Mrs. Fanny Trollope peg; the weapon and enclosure by the ser continued to apply herself to the manufacpent; the hand and the palm by the ox- ture of interesting and clever books, her goad; the water and the fish by the sup-chef-dæuvre being “The Widow Barnaby.” port; the eye and the mouth by the reaping- The authoress died at Florence in 1863; and hook; the head and the back of the head by in the outskirts of that city her eldest son, the tooth; and the alphabet concludes with | Thomas Adolphus Trollope, has made his the final mark, X.

home. It would be superfluous to attempt to

Her second son, the subject of this article, point out the bearings of this question of has made England his home, and the Engthe .origin and development of the Phoe-lish people his study. nician alphabet on the history of civilization Anthony Trollope seems to have "thrown in Europe and Western Asia.

back" one generation. His grandfather was Future discoveries may possibly bring us a parson; and it is in delineating the phases nearer the cradle of this alphabet; but it of clerical life, from the bishop to the curate, seems probable that on the Moabite Stone that this popular writer excels. Bishop we find the letters still retaining enough of Proudie, Archdeacon Grantley, the Rev. their original pictorial character to justify a Obadiah Slope, Mr. Crawley of Hogglebelief that they there occur in a compara- stock, are creations of his genius that have tively early stage, and not removed by many their originals in life. They are photocenturies from the time when they were graphic portraits of men his readers know: merely delineations of the objects, the nature clothed with the form of art: and names of which they have preserved. As from this exquisite truthfulness they derive suming this to have been the case, what their interest. is the stage of culture to which the in- The conversations of the characters in his ventors of this alphabet appear to have books are exactly the dialogues one hears attained?

in everyday life. One man turns to Trollope They were not mere nomads or hunters, for his recreation, because “it is exactly like but a people with fixed dwellings for them- life, you know.” Another man says: “When selves and enclosures for their cattle. They I pick up a novel, I want to be taken above were acquainted with agriculture, and had everyday life. I want the ideal. I don't find domesticated animals, and employed the ox this in Trollope.” And so he does not read as a beast of draught to cultivate fields, the his books. These readers are types: the produce of which they reaped with metallic realist loving reality--which he finds; the sickles. In fact, their civilization would idealist seeking for the noble, unselfish,

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