« 이전계속 »
By section 504, it is provided that the constituent units of the National Housing Agency shall be: (1) the Federal Home Loan Bank Administration, (2) the Federal Housing Administration, and (3) the Federal Public Housing Authority, with a Commissioner appointed by the President by and with the advice of the Senate at the head of each unit.
Section 505 prescribes the functions of each constituent unit. These functions are existing functions, statutory in origin. Some are of permanent nature, while others are temporary in character, such as functions with respect to defense or war housing.
Section 505, which reflects part 5 of the reorganization plan, is within the limitations imposed by section 5 of the Reorganization Act, and in particular, subsections 3 and 4, paragraph (a) of that section.
Mr. WHITTINGTON. And you said it did not bring forward any of the matters temporary under that act; is that about what you say about the exceptions?
Mr. WASHINGTON. Part 5 of the reorganization plan does not continue any agency beyond the period authorized by law for its existence, or beyond the time when it would have terminated if the reorganization had not been made.
The part does not continue at all the National Housing Agency established under Executive Order 9070 which was issued under the authority' of the First War Powers Act. What it actually does is to consolidate numerous existing functions related to housing into a permanent agency which is given the same name as the Housing Agency established by the Executive order. It is immaterial that the name of the new agency is the same as that of the old, although, in general, the functions and the organization of the new permanent agency are similar to those of the existing agency bearing the same name. Nevertheless, there are important differences.
Under section 507 of the plan, several offices or agencies of the existing National Housing Agency are abolished; namely, the Office of the Federal Housing Administrator, the Federal Home Loan Bank Board, the Board of Trustees of the Federal Savings and Loan Insurance Corporation, the Board of Directors of the Home Owners' Loan Corporation, the Office of the Administrator of the United States Housing Authority, and the United States Housing Corporation.
Part 5 of the plan does not continue any function beyond the period authorized by law for its exercise, or beyond the time when it would have terminated if the reorganization plan had not been made, or beyond the time when the agency in which it was vested before the reorganization would have terminated if the reorganization had not been made. The plan merely vests existing statutory functions in the three constituent units of the Federal Housing Authority established by the plan. It likewise vests in the National Housing Administrator certain statutory functions with respect to housing, some of which are of permanent and others are of temporary nature. The provisions of the plan do not in any way affect, or purport to affect, the nature of the functions vested in the National Housing Authority or the officers or constituent units thereof; nor does it in any way affect the life of such functions. The nature and longevity of the functions remain the same as they are at the present time.
The plan does make permanent, of course, the consolidation of housing functions into the new National Housing Agency. This being true, the housing functions which were transferred under title
I of the First War Powers Act by Executive Order No. 9070 to the National Housing Agency established thereby will not revert to their former status when title I of that act ceases to be effective. This is not in derogation of the provisions of the Reorganization Act. On the contrary, one of the main purposes of that act was to give the President authority to make such transfers permanent. This is clearly shown by the legislative history of the act.
The President in his message to Congress of May 24, 1945, requesting passage of a reorganization act, stated that an important purpose of the act would be to permit making permanent certain of the reorganization actions taken by Executive order under the authority of title I of the First War Powers Act. The necessity for such action was discussed at length in the message. The report of the House committee considering the bill (Rept. No. 971 of the Committee on Expenditures in the Executive Departments) also makes it clear that a chief purpose of the Reorganization Act was to make it possible for the President to give permanent status, when deemed desirable, to temporary transfers made under the First War Powers Act. The report states, after referring to the temporary nature of transfers made by Executive order under the First War Powers Act and to the “automatic reversion" under the terms of the act, that
Under the terms of the bill will be possible for the President, in such cases as he deems desirable, to include in the reorganization plan provisions making the transfers permanent-subject, of course, to the provisions of the bill prohibiting any reorganization plan from continuing any agency beyond the period authorized by law for its existence or beyond the time it would have terminated if the reorganization plan had not been made, or continuing any function beyond the period authorized by law for its exercise or beyond the time it would have terminated if the reorganization had not been made, or beyond the time when the agency in which vested before the reorganization would have terminated if the reorganization had not been made.
If I may sum that up, it is simply this, that the functions which are to be performed by the new National Housing Agency are permanent functions already reflected in the statutes. The agencies to be consolidated are not temporary ones. The new agency will perform those functions until the Congress either repeals the acts establishing the functions which are now performed by the constituent agencies, or until the statutes expire by their own terms, or until Congress abolishes the new agency.
There is no attempt here to evade any statutory provisions, or to violate in any way the policy expressed in section 5 of the Reorganization Act.
The CHAIRMAN. In other words, you do not make any effort under this reorganization plan to continue a function of the National Housing Agency under the Lanham Act that expires 6 months after the termination of the war? As I recall that act, it said, “termination of hostilities.”
Mr. WASHINGTON. That act of course would be governed by its own terms.
The CHAIRMAN. When we wrote that act-I had a little part in writing it—we hoped that “termination of hostilities” meant the termination of the shooting, but we found it did not mean that.
Mr. WASHINGTON. The Congress, of course, can always terminate the Lanham Act, or any other act involved here, by specific legislation.
The CHAIRMAN. Of course, they have been appropriating no more money to build those defense homes.
Mr. WASHINGTON. That is correct. The Congress also can exercise authority through its power to appropriate.
The CHAIRMAN. There is one provision in here, on page 12, section 508, which reads as follows: Interim appointments.-Pending the initial appointment hereunder of any officer provided for in this part, the functions of such offices shall be temporarily performed by such officer of the existing National Housing Agency as may be designated by the President.
Mr. WASHINGTON. I think that is a very desirable provision. I believe a somewhat similar provision was included in Executive Order 9070, which established the original National Housing Agency. It will enable the President to provide for the continuation of operations pending the time an appointment is made and confirmation is had in the Senate.
The CHAIRMAN. Of course my main objection to plan 5 is not based on any question of legality, it is a question of policy, placing the lending agencies under the building agencies. Do you gentlemen concur in the statement which Mr. Washington has made ?
Mr. KEMP. Yes.
The CHAIRMAN. Do you have any additional information to present? Mr. WASHINGTON. No sir; that is our position. The CHAIRMAN. Are there any questions? Mr. WHITTINGTON. Mr. Washington, the President's Reorganization Act named the head of the consolidating agency as provides for the operation of that agency, but under the guise of doing that, he cannot, as you state, violate section 5 of the Reorganization Act by continuing a temporary agency. Is that true as such ?
Mr. WASHINGTON. Section 5 (a) (3), of course, provided that no reorganization plan shall provide for, and no reorganization under this act shall have the effect of, continuing any agency beyond the period authorized by law for its existence or beyond the time when it would have terminated if the reorganization had not been made. In other words, there is a double check. The plan shall not provide for, and in any event, the reorganization plan cannot have the effect of, continuing any agency beyond the period authorized by law.
Mr. WHITTINGTON. Under this Reorganization Act, this act established by Executive order could not be continued as such?
Mr. WASHINGTON. If you will recall, the National Housing Agency established by Executive Order 9070 was a consolidation of the functions of several existing agencies—a framework which the President could adopt under the First War Powers Act.
Mr. WHITTINGTON. It is a question of continuing that after the agency expires ?
Mr. WASHINGTON. However, that desirable framework could be continued under the Reorganization Act of 1945. The continuation of some of the temporary wartime reorganizations is one of the main purposes of the 1945 act. The President surely could have established an agency to be called “the United States Housing Agency,” and no one would question the legality of that, under the Reorganization Act,
to perform exactly the functions of the National Housing Agency under Executive Order 9070. Mr. WHITTINGTON. Could that be brought forward as such under the Reorganization Act? Mr. WASHINGTON. Surely. Mr. WHITTINGTON. In other words, notwithstanding the expiration of that temporary institution, that temporary agency under the War Powers Act, and notwithstanding the inhibitions of section 5, you maintain that it could have been brought forward? Mr. WASHINGTON. Let me explain the purpose. Mr. WHITTINGTON. Did I understand you to say that or not, then you may make any explanation you want. You are a good lawyer; you are an assistant to the Attorney General. Mr. WASHINGTON. Some of these questions must be answered at fairly good length. First of all, it is clear that the President has broad power to establish, within his Executive Office, new agencies for the preformance of Presidential functions. Congress has recognized that for many years. Mr. WHITTINGTON. I have asked you a simple question; whether or not under the guise of doing that he can continue this agency as such, established by Executive order. Mr. WASHINGTON. He does not do that in this case. Mr. WHITTINGTON. Well, can he? I say, could he do it? I think that is a simple question. Mr. WASHINGTON. If the gentleman please, I would like permission to answer that in this fashion: The purpose of section 5 (a) (3) is to prevent the evasion of any act of Congress which imposes a time limit upon the duration of an agency or the duration of a function. Mr. WHITTINGTON. I am familiar with the purpose of it, please; I am thoroughly familiar with it, and you have repeated it three times. Mr. WASHINGTON. Let me add that the Reorganization Act of 1945 had, as one of its purposes, the purpose of permitting the perpetuation of reorganizations made under the First War Powers Act of 1941. Mr. WHITTINGTON. I do not agree with you at all. On the contrary, when that bill was sent down here, section 13 was in the bill, title I of the First War Powers Act of 1941 is hereby repealed, and that provision was left out of the bill we passed so as to provide expression that we did not touch the agencies established temporarily under the First War Powers Act and the Executive orders of the President. Now I agree that if the President desires and the consolidation, to bring forward independently and not as such, the fine points of any of these agencies, why he could do it. However, I do not agree he could i.". these agencies under the guise of reorganization. I asked you a simple question whether or not you agree with that Statement. Mr. WASHINGTON. The President has in effect formed a new agency under part V of the reorganization plan. He is not continuing the old National Housing Agency. He is setting up, as I firmly believe he may under the act, a new agency which, for purposes of convenience, bears the same title as the old agency. But it is a new agency. It is a fresh start in this field. Mr. WHITTINGTON. I think that is about as strong a statement as you can make, but I think it is rather unfortunate that in the guise of establishing the new agency the same language was used of an agency that could not be continued and perpetuated. Mr. RICH. Mr. Whittington, is not the National Housing Agency being made permanent, now, under this bill? Mr. WHITTINGTON. That's what I am trying to find out. Mr. Washington, let me ask you this: What power, what authority, possessed the National Housing Agency, under Executive order issued under the War Powers Act, is eliminated from the agency set up under part Vo Secondly, name the powers and their authority. Mr. WASHINGTON. It is my understanding that the powers are substantially the same. There might be exceptions. Perhaps Mr. Kemp knows of some. Mr. WHITTINGTON. I think it is rather essential to have an answer to that question, under the guise here of setting up an independent agency. If such be true, you bring forward bodily, all of the power and all of the authority conferred upon the temporary agency that the Congress declined to give the President the power to perpetuate. Mr. WASHINGTON. Mr. Congressman, I would not agree that this was the type of action which was contemplated by section 5 (a) (3). Section 5(a) (3), it seems to me, contemplates the situation, for example, where a governmental corporation has a charter which expires at the end of the year. Obviously, the President should not be allowed to keep that governmental corporation alive, beyond the time that the Congress has set, by making it into an administration or agency, rather than a governmental corporation. When Congress has established its framework and set a definite time for its life, an agency in the executive branch should go to the Congress and request that the time be extended, if extension is desired. But that is not this case. Mr. WHITTINGTON. I will repeat my question: What powers, what functions that were conferred upon the National Housing Agency under the Executive orders issued under the War Powers Act, were not brought forward and made permanent, and made permanent under part Vo h." WASHINGTON. I do not know of any. I would be glad to check that. Mr. WHITTINGTON. Therefore, actually, this agency that would expire under the War Powers Act, is made a permanent agency, in fact and in truth, using the same name and giving the same powers. If that is not a fact, you may make any explanation you want. Mr. WASHINGTON. Under the First War Powers Act, what terminates is the form of the reorganization, the wartime grouping of functions. In other words, under sections 4 and 5 of the First War Powers Act, the functions will revert, at the time indicated in the act, to the agencies which formerly performed those functions. Mr. WHITTINGTON. I am rather aware of that, please, sir. Mr. WASHINGTON. That does not mean that the temporary agency itself terminates automatically upon the termination of the First War Powers Act. Mr. WHITTINGTON. When will it terminate? Mr. WASHINGTON. In any event, as soon as Congress stops approlong for it under the provisions of the so-called Russell amendInent.