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by "a naval court martial does not proceed immediately chapter from the Crown, and the communication is only made from XYIrL the Lords of the Admiralty (see p. 118), no address is necessary in answer to this indirect form of message. Oa royal The matters upon which the royal pleasure is usually &o., being signified need no address in answer, as immediate compliBigmfied. ance j8 giYen by the house; and the recommendation and consent of the Crown, as already explained, are only signified as introductory to proceedings in Parliament, or essential to their progress.

Addresses. These being the several forms of acknowledging communi- Addresses cations proceeding from the Crown, it now becomes necessary ^Zrs'oL. to describe those which originate with Parliament. It is by "f'"^5' addresses that the resolutions of Parliament are ordinarily communicated to the Crown. These are sometimes in answer to royal speeches or messages, but are more frequently in regard to other matters, upon which either house is desirous of making known its opinions to the Crown.

Joint ad Addresses are sometimes agreed upon by both houses,

dresses

and jointly presented to the Crown, but are more generally
confined to each house singly. When some event of
unusual importance 1 makes it desirable to present a joint
address, the Lords or Commons, as the case may be, agree
to a form of address, and, having left a blank for the in-
sertion of the title of the other house, communicate it,
formerly at a conference, but now by message,2 and desire
their concurrence. The blank is filled up by the other Joint ad-
house, and a message is returned, acquainting the house corrupt
with their concurrence, and that the blank has been filled
up. Such addresses are presented either by both houses »ee P- 661-
in a body,8 or by two peers and four members of the
House of Commons; * and they have been presented also

1 87 C. J. 421; 89 ib. 825; outrage 279.

upon the Queen, 1840, 95 ib. 422; < 85 C. J. 652; 112 ib. 428; 114 ib.

outrage upon the Queen, 1842,97 ib. 878; 187 ib. 94, <fcc. A joint address

824. having been agreed to, 2nd Sept.

2 Address, attempt against her 1880, when the Queen was at BalMajesty's life, 6th March, 1882, 187 moral, her Majesty dispensed with ib. 88. its formal presentation, see 112 L. J.

J 87 ib. 424; 72 L. J. 893; 74 ib. 891; 185 C. J. 428.

chapter by committees of both houses;1 by a joint committee of xvni. LordB and Commons,2 and by the lord chancellor and the Speaker of the House of Commons:3 but the Lords always learn his Majesty's pleasure, and communicate to the Commons, by message, the time at which he has appointed to be attended.

The addresses of the Commons in answer to the royal Separate

addresses.

speech at the commencement of the session (see p. 175), were formerly moved as a resolution unprefaced by the preliminary words "Most Gracious Sovereign,—We, Your Majesty's most dutiful and loyal subjects, the Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, in Parliament assembled, beg leave to offer," &c, whereby the resolutions are addressed to the sovereign; and the resolution was referred to a committee for due preparation. According to present usage addresses are now moved in due form for presentation to his Majesty; and this practice will be adopted on all other occasions when addresses are presented to the Sovereign, in accordance with the precedent of the address on the war with Russia of session 1854.4 Addrestcs Sometimes addresses are agreed to upon the report of money. ^. committees of the whole house, not only in relation to 570- matters involving public expenditure, but concerning other public affairs.5 Addresses, or resolutions for addresses, are ordered to be presented by the whole house;6 by the lords with white staves,7 or by privy councillors, or members of the royal household;8 and, in some peculiar cases, by members specially nominated.9

The subjects upon which addresses are presented are too Their sabvaried to admit of enumeration. They have comprised everyJect8'

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matter of foreign1 or domestic policy;2 the administration of justice ;8 the confidence of Parliament in the ministers of the Crown;4 the expression of congratulation or condolence (which are agreed to ncm. con.);8 and, in short, representations upon all points connected with the government and welfare of the country. But they ought not to be presented in relation to any bill depending in either house of Parliament.6 XVIII.

1 78 C. J. 278; 82 ib. 118; 88 ib. 471; assassination of President Lincoln, 1865, 120 ib. 229.

1 Removal of a judge, 89 ib. 235; appointment of a royal commission with power to examine witnesses on oath, 143 ib. 46. As to the administration of an oath by a royal commission, see 2 Todd's Parliamentary Government in England (new edition, 1892) 99; 147 Pari. Deb. 4 s. 1341.

s 85 C. J. 472.

4 7 ib. 826.

5 105 ib. 508; 108 ib. 371; 113 ib. 31; 120 ib. 344; 122 ib. 70; 128 ib. 142. 309. Death of Grand Duchess of Hesse (Princess Alice), 16th Dec. 1878. Assassination of the Emperor of Russia, 15th March, 1881. When this address was answered, a letter from the Russian ambassador to Earl Granville was communicated, by her Majesty's command, forwarding a telegraphic message from the Emperor of Russia, in acknowledgment of the address, 136 C. J. 141. Death of the Duke of Albany, 139 ib. 149. Death of Frederick William, German emperor, 148 ib. 293. The sympathy of the house was expressed on the death of the Prince Consort, on the death of Prince Albert Victor, and on the death of Prince Henry Maurice of Battenberg, in the address in answer to the royal speech, 117 ib. 7; 147 ib. 10; 151 ib. 13. The death of William, German emperor, was announced to the house, 9th March, 1888, by the first lord of the treasury, 328 H. D. 3 s. 706. Mr. Speaker read to the house, 10th April, 1888, a communication that he had received through the

secretary of state for foreign affairs, from the chancellor of the German empire, that the Imperial German Parliament had unanimously resolved that the veneration for their deceased monarch, and participation in the grief of the German people expressed by the House of Commons, had called forth the deepest sympathy and gratitude throughout Germany, 143 C. J. 142. Marriage of the Duke of York, 14th July, 1893,

148 ib. 434. Commemoration of the completion of the sixtieth year of her Majesty's reign, 21st June, 1897, agreed to, on division, 152 ib. 299. Assassination of the President of the French Republic, 26th June, 1894,

149 ib. 246. Assassination of the King of Italy, 31st July, 1900, 155 ib. 866. Death of the Duke of SaxeCoburg and Gotha, Duke of Edinburgh, 2nd August, 1900, 155 ib. 380. To the King on the death of Queen Victoria and his accession to the throne, 25th January, 1901, 156 ib. 6. Death of the German Empress Frederick, 7th August, 1901, 156 ib. 378. On the occasion of an explosion in the French Chamber of Deputies, the Speaker was instructed to communicate the sympathy of the house to the President of the Chamber, 11th Dec. 1893, 148 ib. 621,19 Pari. Deb. 4 s. 1050, 1178,4617. For messages from foreign countries of thanks, congratulation, and sympathy conveyed to the Speaker and communicated by him to the house, see 148 C.J. 628; 152 ib. 301; 153 ib. 216. 224. 230. 275; 156 ib. 5. 6. 7. 16. 48; ICO ib. 301.

• 12 L. J. 72. 81. 88; 8 C. J. 670; 1 Grey's Deb. 5.

Chapter When a joint address is to be presented by both houses, Mode of the lord chancellor and the House of Lords, and the Speaker Presentinsand the House of Commons, proceed in state to the palace at the time appointed. The Speaker's state coach and the carriages of the members of the House of Commons, are entitled, by privilege or custom, to approach the palace through the central Mall in St. James's Park.

On reaching the palace, the two houses assemble in a Joint adchamber adjoining the throne room, and when his Majesty is prepared to receive them, the doors are thrown open, and the lord chancellor and the Speaker1 advance side by side, followed by the members of the two houses respectively, and are conducted towards the throne by the lord chamberlain. The lord chancellor reads the address, and presents it to his Majesty, on his knee, to which his Majesty returns an answer, and both houses retire from the royal presence.

When addresses are presented separately, by either house, Separate the forms observed are similar to those already described, add^eS8e"• except that addresses of the Commons are then read by their Speaker. In presenting the address, the mover of the address in the Lords is on the right hand of the chancellor, and the seconder on his left: while the mover and seconder of the address, in the Commons, are on the left hand of the Speaker. When the lord chancellor or Speaker has read the address, he presents it to his Majesty, kneeling upon one knee. The lords attend his Majesty in levee dress: Dress of but the members of the House of Commons can assert their metablra. privilege of freedom of access to the throne, by accompanying the Speaker in their ordinary attire.2

When addresses have been presented by the whole house, Answers to the lord chancellor in one house, and the Speaker in the *ddressesother, report the answer of his Majesty; but when they have been presented in the ordinary way, the answer is reported generally, in the Lords, by the lord chamberlain, in levee dress, with his white staff; and in the Commons, by one of

1 The Speaker is always on the left presence with sticks or umbrellas,

hand of the chancellor. see 2 Hatsell, 890, n.; 8 Lord Col

• 50 Pari. Deb. 4 s. 456. They are Chester's Diary, 604-607. not permitted to enter the royal

Resolutions communicated.

Messages to the royal family.

Com muni* cations from the royal family.

the royal household, who appears at the bar, in uniform, and,
on being called by the Speaker, reads his Majesty's answer.1

Another mode of communication with the Crown, less
direct and formal than an address, has been occasionally
adopted; when resolutions of the house,2 and resolutions
and evidence taken before a committee,3 have been ordered
to be laid before the sovereign. In such cases the resolu-
tions have been presented in the same manner as addresses,
and answers have sometimes been returned.1

It is to the reigning sovereign, or regent, alone that addresses are presented by Parliament; but messages are frequently sent by both houses to members of the royal family, to congratulate them upon their nuptials, or other auspicious events;5 or to condole with them on family bereavements.0 Resolutions have also been ordered to be laid before members of the royal family. Certain members are always nominated by the house to attend those illustrious personages with the messages or resolutions; one of whom afterwards acquaints the house (in the Lords, in his place, or at the table; and, in the Commons, at the bar) with the answers which were returned.7

Communications are also made to both houses by members of the royal family, which are either delivered by members in their places,8 or are conveyed to the house by letters addressed to the Speaker.9

Chapter

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C. J. 149; to the German empress,
143 ib. 293 ; to the Duchess of Sazo-
Coburg and Gotha, Duchess of
Edinburgh, 155 ib. 380.

'53 L. J. 369; 72 ib. 53; 95 C. J.
95; 105 ib. 539; 52 H. D. 3 s. 343.
In the case of the messages of con-
dolence to the German Empress in
1888 and to the Duchess of Saze-
Coburg and Gotha, Duohess of Edin-
burgh in 1900, the Speaker was
directed to communicate the mes-
sages to her Majesty's ministers
resident at their oourts for presenta-
tion, 143 C. J. 293; 155 ib. 380.

■ 58 ib. 211; 75 ib. 288.

• 64 ib. 86; 68 ib. 253; 69 ib. 324. 433.

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