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order of the house, it is open to grave objections. It was
therefore ordered, 20th March, 1871, that papers are to

"be laid upon the table in such a form as to ensure a Uupri»'ei speedy delivery thereof to members ; " 1 and this order was ^5+3' *** communicated to the several public departments. Papers to When accounts and papers are presented, they are ordered the table *° **e uPon table, when an order has been made, that the paper be taken into consideration on a future day; and on the consideration thereof a motion has been founded.3 If necessary, the papers are ordered to be printed, or are referred to committees, or abstracts are ordered to be made and printed. Sometimes papers of a former session are ordered to be printed or reprinted. Distribu- Papers printed by order of the Lords are, on application,

tion of distributed gratuitously to members of the House of Corn-
papers. 0 *

Lords mons, and to other persons with orders from peers. They
Commons, are also accessible to the public by sale. The Commons
have more fully applied the principle of sale, as the best
mode of distribution to the public.8 Each member, under
the regulations now in force, can, on application, receive
a copy of every paper printed by the house: but he is not
entitled to more than one copy, without obtaining an order
from the Speaker.4 Certain reports and papers, viz. reports
of royal commissions and of select committees, and all
papers relating to the estimates, are distributed to every
member as a matter of course, without application.5
Deiirciy to The Vote Office is charged with the delivery of printed
by'theTM PaPers *° members of the house, who should leave their
Vote office, addresses at the office, in order that papers may be for-
warded to them, either during the session or in the recess.
Transmis- To facilitate the distribution of parliamentary papers,
sion by they are sent through the post-office, to all places in the

post.

1 126 C. J. 96. at the Vote Office.

4 125 ib. 8. 27. 4 In sessions 1888,1889,1890, and

3 Reports of Printed Papers com- 1894, select committees were ap

mittee, 1885 (61. 892); 90 ib. 544. pointed in the Commons, " to super

'This rule is not strictly enforced, intend the form, and to regulate

as regards bills and estimates before the distribution of parliamentary

the house, which may generally be papers," 143 ib. 485; 144 ib. 20; 145

obtained by members, on application ib. 64; 149 ib. 52.

Chapter United Kingdom, at a rate of postage not exceeding one halfXXI' penny for every two ounces in weight, whether prepaid or not, provided they be sent without a cover, or with a cover open at the sides, and without any writing or marks upon them. The members of both houses are also entitled, during a session, to send, free of postage, all Acts of Parliament, bills, minutes, and votes, by writing their names upon covers provided for that purpose, in the proper offices.

By these various regulations, the papers laid before Par- Arrangeliament are effectually published and distributed, and each pariiapaper is distinguished by a sessional number at the foot of TMj£"7 the page, and by the date at which the order for printing is made; and they are classified and arranged in volumes at the end of each session.

Papers which are not printed are open to the inspection Unprinted of members in the library of the house. In some cases, papeis" papers of a local or private character have been ordered to be printed at the expense of the parties if they think fit.1 In other cases, they have been ordered to be returned to a public department.2 Sometimes part of a return only has been ordered to be printed.3 The orders of a former session, that a return do lie upon the table, and be printed, have been discharged; and papers have been withdrawn that have been laid upon the table.4 See also Administrative orders and regulations relating to prisons, Orders and p. 217, n. i. education, charities, endowed schools, and other matters are ^"before* presented to both houses, in pursuance of Acts of Parlia- Parlia

ment, which come into operation, unless disapproved of by
either house, within a certain number of days.5 These days

ment.

1 101 C. J. 990; 113 ib. 42. 363;
115 ib. 505; 116 ib. 125.
* 100 ib. 880; 125 ib. 80.

3 124 ib. 209; 125 ib. 70.

4 128 ib. 10; 134 ib. 18; 135 ib. 232; 160 ib. 21.

4 By statute 34 & 35 Vict c. 63, s. 2, a copy of any application for a charter for the foundation of a college or university referred for

consideration and report to a com-
mittee of the privy council shall,
with a copy of the charter applied
for, be laid before both houses of
Parliament for a period of not less
than thirty days before any such
report shall be submitted to his
Majesty. See also Education Act,
1902, 2 Edward VTL, c. 42 a. 11 (8).

are calculated, in the absence of any statutory direction to chapter

the contrary,1 not according to the days on which the

House of Commons actually sits, but of days during the session of Parliament.2 Unless it be otherwise expressly enacted by statute,3 this period must be comprised in the same session,4 a prorogation or dissolution being conclusive of such proceedings or business pending at the time (see p. 44). If such a paper be laid in dummy (see p. 541) the time during which proceedings under the statute might be taken has been held by the Speaker to run from the day upon which a full, though not necessarily a printed, copy of the paper was available for members.5 Disap- The method by which either house of Parliament sigthereof. nines its disapproval, or proposes an alteration, of these orders and regulations should, unless otherwise directed by statute, be the presentation of an address to his Majesty, fnodat

on an

1 See 40 & 41 Viot. o. 57, s. 69; Vict. o. 48, s. 50. ^is?"

2 Edward VII. c. 42, s. 11 (8), &c. 4 See Speaker's ruling (Eduoa

1 Letter from the Clerk of the tional Endowments, Scotland), 28th

house to the secretary of the Home Feb. 1887, 311 H. D. 3 s. 852.

Office, 28rd March, 1866 (No. 36720- s 69 Pari. Deb. 4 s. 627. 647; 96

45). ib. 1007.

'See University Act, 40 & 41

Copter CHAPTER XXII.

XXII.

Table of PARLIAMENT, AND CHARGES UPON PEOPLE.

Contents,

Parti. The Crown.
Part II. The House of Lords (p. 578).
Part III. The House of Commons (p. 586).
Part IV. Procedure in the Committees of Supply,
and Ways and Means, &c. (p. 603).

r»rt I.— The Sovereign, being the executive power, is charged Control of Crown. management of all the revenue of the state, and with over public

all payments for the public service. The Crown, therefore, "j*nanj acting with the advice of its responsible ministers, makes revenue, known to the Commons, the pecuniary necessities of the government; the Commons, in return, grant such aids or supplies as are required to satisfy these demands; and they provide by taxes, and by the appropriation of other sources The post- of the public income, the ways and means to meet the sup*Lo^dlteh^ plies which they have granted. Thus the Crown demands !j^^9 money, the Commons grant it, and the Lords assent to the money, see grant: but the Commons do not vote money unless it be p" required by the Crown; nor do they impose or augment

taxes, unless such taxation be necessary for the public
service, as declared by the Crown through its constitutional
advisers (see p. 564).

The demand by the Crown for grants of aid and supply Demand for the service of each financial year is made in the speech a°rthePpIy from the throne at the opening of Parliament. The sove- °[^nhg reign addresses the Commons, demands the annual supply financial

year.

for the public service, and acquaints them that estimates will be laid before them of the amount that will be required. Prooeed- The form in which the Commons vote those supplies is conTMwmittee sequently a resolution that each sum "be granted to his »{e^6H Majesty;" nor is a grant of supply, even when endowed with the force of law, available for use until the sovereign The royal puts it at the disposal of the treasury by a royal order under

order , .' XXII

(supply the sign manual.1

grants). other demands for a supply from the sovereign may also ^ ^ be made during the progress of the session by messages garding desiring pecuniary aid, by a demand for a vote of credit (p. 554), or by the presentation of an estimate. n.a,p.»i Presenta- Presentation of the annual estimates.—In accordance with

tion of the

annual the royal direction, estimates are laid before the House of
estimates. commonSj stating the specific grants of money which will,
during the current year, be required for the army, navy, and
civil services; and by resolution, 19th February, 1821, the
house directs that whenever Parliament assembles before
Christmas, the estimates for the naval and military services
should be presented before the 15th day of January then
next following, if Parliament be then sitting; and that such
estimates should be presented within ten days after the
opening of the committee of supply, when Parliament does
not assemble till after Christmas.8 The directions given
by this resolution are observed, as far as possible, by the
army, navy, and civil service departments.
Estimates Until 1854, estimates were not presented in respect of
revenue de- the revenue departments. Prior to that year, the charges
partments. Q^ gQjfe^jjjg the revenue were deducted by each depart-
ment from the gross sums collected. This practice, which
withdrew the full produce of the taxes, and the cost of
collection, from the immediate control of Parliament, was
condemned by a resolution of the house, 30th May, 1848;
and, pursuant to an Act passed in the year 1854, the whole
of the net revenue derived from taxation is paid into the
exchequer, and the cost of the revenue departments is
included among the annual estimates.3
Militia The rule that estimates of public expenditure cannot

estimates. _ *

be presented to Parliament, save by royal command, was
formerly set aside in the case of the charge for the dis-
embodied militia. The Commons there took the initiative:
the estimate was prepared by a committee, and was

1 Public Income, &c, Pari. Paper • 76 C. J. 87.
[366], seas. 1869, part ii. p. 651. » 103 ib. 580; 109 ib. 467.

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