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origin, are said to surpass the Russians in endur- way, not in front, but through a court, a back ing cold; and there is a marvelous story told door, and up a staircase, very much in the style about a Rommany who for a wager undertook of certain dwellings in the Potteries in London. to sleep naked against a clothed Muscovite on But, having entered, I was led through one or the ice of a river during an unusually cold night. two neat rooms, where I saw lying sound asleep In the morning the Russian was found frozen on beds, but dressed, one or two very dark Romstiff, while the gypsy was snoring away un- manies, whose faces I remembered. Then we harmed. As we returned, I saw in the town passed into a sitting-room, which was very well something which recalled this story in more than furnished. I observed hanging up over the chimone moujik, who, well wrapped up, lay sleeping ney-piece a good collection of photographs, nearin the open air, under the lee of a house. Pass- ly all of gypsies, and indicating that close reseming through silent Moscow on the early Christ- blance to Hindoos which comes out so strongly mas morn, under the stars, as I gazed at the in such pictures, being, in fact, more apparent in marvelous city which yields neither to Edin- the pictures than in the models; just as the phoburgh, Cairo, nor Prague in picturesqueness, and tographs of the old Ulfilas manuscript revealed thought over the strange evening I had spent curious characteristics not visible in the original. among the gypsies, I felt as if I were in a melo- In the center of the group was a cabinet-size pordrama with striking scenery. The pleasing finale trait of Sarsha, and by it another of an Englishwas the utter amazement and almost speechless man of very high rank. I thought this odd, but gratitude of Vassili at getting an extra half-ruble asked no questions. as an early Christmas gift.
My hosts were very kind, offering me promptAs I had received a pressing invitation from ly a rich kind of Russian cake, begging to know the gypsies to come again, I resolved to pay what else I would like to eat or drink, and apthem a visit on Christmas afternoon in their own parently deeply concerned that I could really house if I could find it. Having ascertained that partake of nothing, as I had just come from the gypsy street was in a distant quarter, called luncheon. They were all light-hearted and gay, the grouszini, I engaged a sleigh, standing be- so that the music began at once, as wild and as fore the door of the Slavanski-Bazaar Hotel, and bewitching as ever.
And here I observed, even the usual close bargain with the driver was ef- more than before, how thoroughly sincere these fected with the aid of a Russian gentleman, a gypsies were in their art, and to what a degree stranger passing by, who reduced the ruble (one they enjoyed and were excited by their own singhundred kopecks) at first demanded to seventy ing. Here in their own home, warbling like kopecks. After a very long drive we found our- birds and frolicking like children, their performselves in the gypsy street, and the istvostshik ance was even more delightful than it had been asked me, " To what house ? "
in the concert-room. There was evidently a "I don't know," I replied. “Gypsies live great source of excitement in the fact that I here, don't they?"
must enjoy it far more than an ordinary stranger, “Gypsies, and no others."
because I understood Rommany and sympa“Well, I want to find a gypsy.”
thized with gypsy ways, and regarded them not as The driver laughed, and just at that instant I the Gaji or Gentiles do, but as brothers and sissaw, as if awaiting me on the sidewalk, Sarsha, ters. I confess that I was indeed moved by the Liubasha, and another young lady with a good- simple kindness with which I was treated, and I looking youth, their brother.
knew that, with the wonderfully keen perception “ This will do," I said to the driver, who ap- of character in which gypsies excel, they perpeared utterly amazed at seeing me greeted like fectly understood my liking for them. It is this an old friend by the Zigani, but who grinned with ready intuition of feelings which, when it is raised delight, as all Russians of the lower class inva- from an instinct to an art by practice, enables riably do, at anything like sociability and frater- shrewd old women to tell fortunes with so much nity. The damsels were faultlessly attired in skill. Russian style, with full fur-lined glossy black- I was here introduced to the mother of the satin cloaks and fine Orenberg scarfs, which are, girls. She was a neat, pleasant-looking woman, I believe, the finest woolen fabrics in the world. of perhaps forty years, in appearance and manThe party were particularly anxious to know if ners irresistibly reminding me of some respectaI had come specially to visit them, for I have ble Cuban lady. Like the others, she displayed passed over the fact that I had also made the an intelligent curiosity as to my knowledge of acquaintance of another very large family of gyp- Rommany, and I was pleased at finding that she sies who sang at a rival café, and who had also knew much more of the language than her chiltreated me very kindly. I was at once conducted dren did. Then there entered a young Russian to a house, which we entered in a rather gypsy gentleman, but not “Prince Paul.” He was,
however, a very agreeable person, as all Russians proceeded to examine and predict. When I afcan be when so minded, and they are always so terward narrated this incident to the late G. H. minded when they gather from information or Lewes, he expressed himself to the effect that conjecture the fact that the stranger whom they to tell fortunes to gypsies struck him as the very meet is one of education or position. This young ne plus ultra of cheek—which shows how exgentleman spoke French, and undertook the part tremes meet, for verily it was with great modesty of occasional translator.
and proper diffidence that I ventured to foretell I asked Liubasha if any of them understood the lives of these little ladies, having an antipathy fortune-telling
to the practice of chiromancing as to other ro“ Nomwe have quite lost the art of dorriki* mancing. None of us know anything about it. But we I have observed that as among men of great hear that you Romanichals over the Black and varied culture, and of extensive experience, Water understand it. Oh,rya,” she cried, eager- there are more complex and delicate shades and ly, “ you know so much-you're such a deep half-shades of light in the face, so in the palm Rommany—can't you tell fortunes?"
the lines are correspondingly varied and broken. “ I should indeed know very little about Rom- Take a man of intellect and a peasant of equal many ways," I replied gravely, “ if I could not excellence of figure according to the literal rules pen dorriki. But I tell you beforehand, terni of art or of anatomy, and this subtile multiplicity pen, dorrikipen hi hokanipen' (Little Sister), of variety shows itself in the whole body in fafortune-telling is deceiving. Yet what the lines vor of the “gentleman," so that it would almost say, I can read."
seem as if every book we read is republished in In an instant six as pretty little gypsy hands the person. The first thing that struck me in as I ever beheld were thrust before me, and I these gypsy hands was the very remarkable fewheard as many cries of delight. “Tell my for- ness of the lines, their clearly defined sweep, and tune, rya! tell mine! and mine!” exclaimed their simplicity. In every one the line of life was the damsels, and I complied. It was all very unbroken, and, in fine, one might think from a well to tell them there was nothing in it—they drawing of the hand, and without knowing who knew a trick worth two of that. I perceived at its owner might be, that he or she was of a type once that the faith which endures beyond its own of character unknown in most great European knowledge was placed in all I said. In England cities, a being gifted with special culture, and in the gypsy woman, who at home ridicules her own a certain simple sense refined, but not endowed fortune-telling and her dupes, still puts faith in with experience in a thousand confused phases a gusveri mush, or some“ wise man,” who with of life. To avoid mistakes I told the fortunes in crystal or magical apparatus professes occult French, which was translated into Russian. I knowledge, for she thinks that her own false art need not say that every word was listened to with is an imitation of a true one. It is really amus- earnest attention, or that the group of dark but ing to see the reverence with which an old gypsy young and comely faces, as they gathered around will look at the awful hieroglyphics in Cornelius and bent over, would have made a good subject Agrippa's “Occult Philosophy," or, better still, for a picture. After the girls, the mother must “Trithemius," and, as a gift, any ordinary fortune- needs hear her dorriki also, and last of all the telling book is esteemed by them beyond rubies. young Russian gentleman, who seemed to take It is true that they can not read it, but the precious as earnest an interest in his future as even the volume is treasured like a fetich, and the owner gypsies. As he alone understood French, and is happy in the thought of at least possessing as he appeared to be un peu gaillard, and finaldarksome and forbidden lore, though it be of no ly, as the lines of his hand said nothing to the earthly use to her. After all the kindness they contrary, I predicted for him in detail a fortune had shown me, I could not find it in my heart to in which bonnes fortunes were not at all wanting. refuse to tell these gentle Zingari their little for- I think he was pleased, but when I asked him if tunes. It is not, I admit, exactly in the order of he would translate what I had said of his future things that the chicken should dress the cook, or into Russian, he replied with a slight wink and a the Gorgio tell fortunes to gypsies, but he who scarcely perceptible negative. I suppose he had wanders in strange lands meets with strange ad- his reasons. ventures. So, with a full knowledge of the legal Then we had singing again, and Christopher, penalties attached in England to palmistry and the brother, a wild and gay young gypsy, became other conjuration, and with the then pending so excited that while playing the guitar he also Slade case knocking heavily on my conscience, I danced and carolled, and the sweet voices of the
girls rose in chorus, and I was again importuned * In Old English Rommany this is called dorrikin, in for the Rommany song, and we had altogether a common parlance, dukkerin. Both forms are really old. very Bohemian frolic. I was sorry when the early twilight faded into night, and I was obliged, of a young Russian noble and diplomate who was notwithstanding many entreaties to the contrary, well informed on all current gossip, and learned to take my leave. These gypsies had been very from him some curious facts. The first young friendly and kind to me in a strange city where I gentleman whom I had seen among the Romhad not an acquaintance, and where I had ex- manies of Moscow was the son of a Russian pected none. They had given me of their very prince by a gypsy mother, and the very noble best-for they gave me songs which I can never Englishman whose photograph I had seen in forget, and which were better to me than all the Sarsha's collection had not long ago (as rumor opera could bestow. The young Russian, polite averred) paid desperate attentions to the belle of to the last, went bareheaded with me into the the Rommanies without obtaining the least sucstreet, and hailing a sleigh-driver began to bar- cess. My informant did not know her name. gain for me. In Moscow, as in other places, it Putting this and that together, I think it highly makes a great difference in the fare, whether one probable that Sarsha was the young lady, and takes a public conveyance from before the first that the latcho bar, or diamond, which sparkled hotel or from a house in the gypsy quarter. I on her finger had been paid for with British gold, had paid seventy kopecks to come, and I at once while the donor had gained the same “unluck" found that my new friend and the driver were which befell one of his type in the Spanish gypsy engaged in wild and fierce dispute whether I song as given by George Borrow: should pay twenty or thirty to return. “Oh, give him thirty," I exclaimed. “It's
“Loud sang the Spanish cavalier, little enough."
And thus his ditty ran“Non," replied the Russian, with the air of a ‘God send the gypsy maiden here, man of principles. "Il ne faut pas gåter ces
But not the gypsy man.' gens-la.” But I gave the driver thirty all the same when we got home, and thereby earned the “On high arose the moon so bright, usual shower of blessings.
The gypsy 'gan to sing,
I must be on the wing.'"
FIRST IMPRESSIONS OF THE NEW WORLD.
passage in the good ship Scythia, few of these first and fresh impressions I desire of the Cunard line, with most agreeable to give some account in the pages which follow. fellow passengers, both English and American, In one great feature of landscape the States landed me at New York on June 3, 1879. Such and the Provinces of North America differ very a ship, under such a hospitable and pleasant com- much from any expectation I had formed. That mander as Captain Hains, is a sort of ark to feature is the nature and disposition of the woods. which every bird would willingly return, and so They are not the woods that stand round the by the same vessel I reëmbarked for Liverpool "stately homes of England ”; neither is there on July 16th. A visit of only six weeks to the any hedgerow timber such as, from every elevacontinent of America can give nothing more than tion in the midland counties, gives to the whole first impressions, and these, too, of only a very country, even to the verge of a distant horizon, small portion of the country. My visit was purely the appearance of one rich and continuous forest. personal and private. I saw little of men and Still less are they woods of France or of Gernothing of institutions. From politics of all kinds, many, where arboriculture is a regular branch of whether Eastern or Western, it was my great study, where the maximum of produce to the object to escape. But to the forests, to the hills, acre is carefully considered, and where every to the rivers, to the birds, to the general aspects scrap, even the “lop and top," is neatly collected of nature in the New World, I went with a fresh and piled in “cords." In America, with the exeye, and in these I found much of which no de- ception of the trees which are planted with adscription had given me any accurate idea. Of a mirable effect in the streets of cities and towns, there is hardly any indication of the cultivation is not under the plow or divided into fields caof trees being attended to at all. I saw nothing pable of arable cultivation. The truth is, that in that could be called fine timber, and no woods our island there is, properly speaking, no waste which showed any care in thinning, with a view land at all. The roughest pastures are all utilto the production of such timber in the future. ized. Even the rugged mountains are the supAnd yet the woods of North America are very port of great flocks of sheep, which may or may varied in form and very beautiful in composition. not be seen by the tourist from Cheapside. There They are by no means mere patches of original is, indeed, abundance of land which, under other forest left in the midst of “clearings," nor is the conditions of demand, might be, and some day cultivated country generally bare, with the re- will be, capable of a higher cultivation. This, mains of that forest standing in ragged edges however, is as true of the land which now yields round it. There are, indeed, some districts where the finest crops of wheat, or turnips, or potatoes, this is the aspect of the land, and a very dreary as it is of the hillside which yields only grass and aspect it is; but the general character of all the heather. It is conceivable that the whole soil country which has been long settled is very dif- may at some future time be under the conditions ferent. It is not a land of “brown heath,” but of a market-garden, when abundance of manure, it is emphatically a land of “shaggy wood"; a cheapness of labor, and great demand for prodland in which clumps, and thickets, and lines, uce by vast consuming populations combine to and irregular masses of the most beautiful foliage render such cultivation possible and remuneravary and adorn the surface. This is what I had tive. But in the middle of the oldest States of not expected, and what it delighted me much to North America there are immense areas of counsee. The secret of it lies in one circumstance, try which in the strictest sense may be said to which is the secret also of much else that is be waste. On the line of railway between Boscharacteristic of the American Continent-the ton and Fall River, a line which connects the over-abundance of land as compared with the most renowned city with one of the most fashcultivating and occupying power of the settled ionable watering-places of New England, Newpopulation. It is not worth while to cultivate port, I was not a little surprised to see the great any land but the best. Every acre which is of extent of land occupied by the wildest jungle of inferior quality or in an inconvenient situation, shaggy wood, in some places not unlike the lovely every rocky knoll too hard, every bank and brae clothing which covers the rocks of Loch Katrine too steep to plow, the sides of every stream, the or Loch Lomond. Marshy ground, carpeted with banks of every dell, and frequent tracts on ev- a plant which, in general effect, reproduces our ery hillside, are left in a state of nature. But own “bog myrtle," abounded also. The scenery throughout the Eastern States and Provinces, of the Hudson—the beauty of which far exceeded the soil being full of the seeds of trees, the state my expectations—depends largely on the beauty of nature is a state of woodedness. Even where of the woods. Everywhere, even in the midst the whole face of the country has been burned of the villas which are the retreat of the citizens by forest-fires, and the settler has appropriated of New York, there are the most beautiful thickets whatever portion of it was best and most easily of wood, climbing the steep banks, hanging over worked, the after-growth which has sprung up the swampy hollows, and fringing the rocky promis a beautiful tangle of birch and oak and elmontories which form the margin of that magnifiand maple ; and these tangles, wholly uncared cent estuary. In truth, the woodedness of the for, are left to flourish as they may. To a large landscape is in excess. A mountain-range loses extent these woods are of no value for any eco- in picturesque effect when it is covered to the nomical purpose, except firewood and fencing. top with wood, when no rocks appear upon the The fine trees have disappeared with the original surface, and no bald top rises above the vegetaforest, and there has been no time, so young are tion of the base ; yet this is the uniform character even the oldest settled countries of America, for of all the mountains and hills which I happened the new growth to attain any size. The struggle to see on the American Continent. The Catskill for existence is allowed to go on among the con- Mountains, which are a conspicuous feature in tending species, and it requires a long time under the scenery of the Hudson, seem to be everysuch conditions to develop even fair-sized timber. where covered to the very summits by trees, It astonished me to see, even in the close neigh- which, though larger than those which we should borhood of the oldest cities of New England, call copsewood, are yet not large enough to have the extent of land which is abandoned to what the aspect of fine timber. The hills round and may be called “ bush.” Cockney travelers and above West Point, the great military seminary cockney economists are accustomed to talk of of the United States, are one vast wood. And the "waste lands" of England and Scotland—a there is another feature of these woods which phrase under which they designate all land which surprised me, and that is, the very small proportion of the pine tribe as compared with deciduous that best pleased him, or which he thought would trees. In the valley of the Hudson there are afford the most agreeable shade to the open portico hardly enough to give variety; and even farther at his door, which was surrounded by seats, and north, and throughout the settled parts of Cana- ascended by a few steps. It was in these that each da, where portions of the original forests survive domestic group was seated in summer evenings to on the plains or on the hills, nowhere do we meet enjoy the balmy twilight or serenely clear moon. with the monotonous aspect of a purely pine light. vegetation. The woods and forests are all largely The valley of the Mohawk, into which the composed of elm, ash, and maple, with frequent railway passes to the north of Albany, has a tracts of birch and aspen.*
character and a beauty of its own, very different It was with much regret that I passed through from that of the valley of the Hudson. In the Albany without stopping to see it in detail. The first place, the Mohawk is a true river, and not charming picture given by Mrs. Grant of Lag- an estuary; in the second place, it is a small gant of the life led by the early settlers there, river as compared with the mighty streams of about a hundred years ago, is the picture of a the American Continent; a river not like a lake condition of society which has passed away. But or an inland sea, but a river that the eye can some features remain, and among these there is take in, and understand as such—a river like the one which especially strikes a stranger in all the Thames, only greatly more rapid, winding among towns and villages of New England. Where green meadows, round pleasant islets, under wiltrees are rare in Europe, they are most striking lowy banks, with here and there a few stately in America. Planting, superfluous, and therefore elms. The breadth of the valley, too, is comneglected elsewhere in the New World, has been paratively small, not unlike some parts of the carefully attended to in the cities. Their streets valley of the Thames above Maidenhead, but are almost all avenues of handsome trees, the with sides rising in longer slopes and to far greatboughs meeting over the ample roadway, their er elevations. These slopes are occupied by foliage everywhere conspicuous among the houses, farms, in which grass seemed to predominate and often giving a comfortable rural aspect even over crops, and they are adorned by ample reto the most crowded seats of industry. The view mains of the ancient forests, beautifully disposed of Albany from a distance on the railway is very in irregular clumps, and lines, and masses of evstriking, the State-House, like most of the public ery conceivable size and form, the sky-line being buildings in America, being large and handsome, generally a line of unbroken wood, with an inand seen rising out of a most picturesque inter- creasing proportion of pine. Nowhere did I obmixture of tiles and leaves. This peculiar fea- serve a more favorable specimen of the wooditure of American towns is, like so many other ness of American landscape-the mixture of evthings in that country, a consequence of its wealth ergreen with deciduous trees was perfect. There of land. No economy of its surface is ever needed, are, of course, in America no stiff plantations and none is attended to. Mrs. Grant's descrip- such as too frequently mar the landscapes of the tion of Albany, as it existed in her day, is the Old World. All had the appearance of natural description, more or less accurate, of all the towns wood, and not even the most skillful planting in and villages of New England:
the great places of England or of Scotland could
show a more beautiful variety of foliage or a The town (she says), in proportion to its popula- more picturesque intermixture of field and wood. tion, occupied a great space of ground. The city, It is impossible to pass through the beautiful in short, was a kind of semi-rural establishment; valley of the Mohawk without having one's mind every house had its own garden, well, and a little turned to the many curious and interesting quesgreen behind ; before every door a tree was planted, tions on the history and fate of the Indian tribes rendered interesting by being coeval with some be- of North America. It is but as yesterday that loved member of the family. Many of these trees it was the home of one of the most remarkable were of prodigious size and extraordinary beauty,
of those tribes. Hardly a vestige of them now but without regularity, every one planting the kind
remains. Within the compass almost of a single
human life there has disappeared from the world * Might I suggest to my friends in America the possibility of limiting the nuisance of advertisements on the a people who, though savage in some respects, lovely banks of the Hudson ? Every available surface of had nevertheless either the vestiges or the germs rock is covered with the hideous letters of some pill, or of an ample civilization. It is very difficult in some potion, or some embrocation, or of some applica- America to recollect how young everything there tion still more offensive, for the ills of humanity. To is, and how rapidly the culture of the Old World such an extent is this nuisance carried, that it seemed to me to interfere seriously with the beauty of one of the has overflowed and submerged all that remained most beautiful rivers in the world.
of, or all that might have come from, the culture + " Memoirs of an American Lady," New York. of the native races. This youth of America as