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is absolutely treeless ; even towns of small dimen- whole of the lower part of the city has been denuded sions consist wholly of narrow streets with not a of them. The boulevards and new avenues in the green thing to enliven them save flowers in the win. extreme upper part of the city have all been set out dows. This very marked contrast between Ameri- with trees, but in all the newly built streets below can and European towns does not seem to have elic. Sixtieth Street there has been very little tree-plantited comment from our own people traveling abroad ing. Long blocks of fashionable houses are often more than it has from Europeans coming here. The without a single tree or bush to break the monotony American village with its broad avenues lined with of their gloomy stretch of brown-stone. In the trees, and its houses embowered in shrubbery, is fair. older parts of the city still occupied by domiciles ly idyllic, and Americans are entitled to be proud of there are some good trees, but their number yearly it. One of our painters, Mr. A. F. Bellows, has dis- decreases. Those that die or which fall before sum. tinguished himself by painting some of these village mer gales are rarely replaced, so that it is only a scenes, one of which has been engraved on steel, question of time as to when our city will become and makes a very good representative picture of life wholly shorn of these graceful, agreeable, and healthin New England.

ful denizens. If it is too costly to erect fountains There is little doubt that this distinctive feature and monuments, as we have often urged, we might of our towns will be preserved in all the smaller at least give a little attention to tree-culture, for places, but it is almost sure to disappear in New trees are certainly not a costly luxury, while no speYork unless an effort is made to prevent it. There cial art-training is necessary to lead one to underis now not a tree left in Broadway, and nearly the stand and appreciate their beauty.


Books of the Day.

THAT such work as is contained in Professor poetry. Thus," he says, “I have inserted several

Symonds's “Studies in the Greek Poets "* new translations in the chapters on the Lyric Poets should have attracted so little attention as it seems and the Anthology. The criticism of Euripides has to have done in England is an indication either of been enlarged, and the concluding chapter has been, great sluggishness on the part of the English read. in a great measure, rewritten. And each chapter has ing public or of an unsuspected richness in the cur- undergone such revision and alteration in minor de. rent literature of the higher order. In Germany or tails as might remove unnecessary repetitions and France, where interpretative criticism of the best bring the whole series of essays into harmony." kind ranks next in estimation to creative work, these As the starting-point of his work, Professor Sy“Studies" would have secured for their author im- monds defines the limits and states the characteristics mediate and widely extended fame ; but, if we are of the five great periods of Greek literature—the not mistaken, the slowly growing reputation of Pro- heroic, or prehistoric, or legendary period, of which fessor Symonds is due only in a small degree to a Homer and Hesiod are the chief monuments; the book which has scarcely a parallel in recent English period of transition from the heroic or epical to that literature, and which will bear comparison with the of artistic maturity in all branches of literature; the highest achievements of German scholarship and brilliant period of Athenian supremacy, from the criticism. Indeed, the “Studies" may almost be end of the Persian to the end of the Peloponnesian said to be unique in their combination of wide war; the second period of transition from maturity knowledge and minute research, with a mastery of to old age ; and the period of decline and decay, the literary art which alone would suffice to com- which is the longest of all, extending from B. C. 323 mand our warmest admiration.

to the final extinction of classical civilization. After As they appeared originally in England, the this preliminary survey of Greek literature as "Studies" were rather a series of disconnected es- whole, he devotes a chapter to Mythology," which says than a consecutive and homogeneous work. was the source and fountain-head of Greek art as They were published in two series, at an interval of well as of the Greek religion, and a knowledge of three or four years; and many of them bore the un- which is indispensable to a right understanding of mistakable marks of having been issued in separate Homer and Hesiod, or the lates and more conscious and independent form. In preparing them for the work of the Greek tragedians. In this chapter, ProAmerican edition, Professor Symonds has rearranged fessor Symonds discusses at considerable length and the chapters of both series in their proper order, and with much acuteness the whole question of the has made numerous additions, with the view of ren- genesis and nature of myths, as well as of the spedering the book more complete as a survey of Greek cial relation of Greek mythology to Greek culture

* Studies in the Greek Poets. By John Addington and thought. One or two paragraphs will convey a Symonds. In two volumes. New York: Harper & hint of his conclusions upon this important point, Brothers. Square cómo. Pp. 488, 419.

as well as of his method of treatment:

a art.

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In this childhood of the world, when the Greek myths much. Need we ask ourselves again the question whether came into existence, the sun was called a shepherd, and he existed, or whether he sprang into the full possession the clouds were his sheep; or an archer, and the sun- of consummate art without a predecessor ? That he had beams were his arrows. It was easier then to think of no predecessors, no scattered poems and ballads to build the sea as a husky-voiced and turbulent old man, whose upon, no well-digested body of myths to synthesize, is an true form none might clearly know, because he changed absurd hypothesis which the whole history of literature so often and was so secret in his ways, who shook the refutes. That, on the other hand, there never was a earth in his anger, and had the white-maned billows of Homer-that is to say, that some diaskeuast, acting unthe deep for his horses, than to form a theory of the der the orders of Pisistratus, gave its immortal outline tides. The spring of the year became a beautiful youth, to the colossus of the “Iliad,” and wove the magic web of beloved by the whole earth, or beloved, like Hyacinthus, the “Odyssey"-but that no supreme and conscious artist by the sun, or, like Adonis, by the queen of beauty, over working toward a well-planned conclusion conceived and whom the fate of death was suspended, and for whose shaped these epics to the form they bear, appears to the loss annual mourning was made. Such tales the Greeks spirit of sound criticism equally untenable. The very statetold themselves in their youth; and it would be wrong to ment of this alternative involves a contradiction in terms; suppose that deliberate fiction played any part in their for such a diaskeuast must himself have been a supreme creation. To conceive of the world thus was natural to and conscious artist. Some Homer did exist. Some great the whole race; and the tales that sprang up formed the single poet intervened between the lost chaos of legendasubstance of their intellectual activity. Here, then, if ry material and the cosmos of beauty which we now posanywhere, we watch the process of a people in its en. sess. His work may have been tampered with in a thoutirety contributing to form a body of imaginative thought, sand ways, and religiously but inadequately restored. projecting itself in a common and unconscious work of Of his age and date and country, we know nothing.

But this we do know, that the fire of molding, fusing, To discuss the bearings of the linguistic and solar and controlling genius in some one brain, has made the theories of mythology may be reserved for another part “Iliad” and “Odyssey" what they are. of this essay. It is enough, at this point, to bear in mind that there was nothing in the consciousness of the

By this, the author is not to be understood as Greeks which did not take the form of myth. Conse- meaning that one poet must have composed both quently their mythology, instead of being a compact sys. epics, but that each bears upon it the mark of unity tem of polytheism, is really a whole mass of thought, in conception and execution. Whether the same belonging to a particular period of human history, when poet produced both is a different question, and he is it was impossible to think except by pictures, or to record inclined to regard the “ Odyssey" as a later work. impressions of the world except in stories. That all

Following the brilliant discussion of the Homeric these tales are religious or semi-religious concerned, poems, chapters on Hesiod, Parmenides, Empedothat is to say, with deities-must be explained by the tendency of mankind at an early period of culture to con

cles, the Gnomic (or didactic) Poets, the Satirists, ceive the powers of nature as persons, and to dignify the Lyric Poets, and Pindar, lead up to what are them with superhuman attributes. To the apprehension perhaps the most interesting and suggestive chapters of infantine humanity everything is a god. Viewed even in the book-those on Æschylus, Sophocles, Euripias a Pantheon, reduced to rule and order by subsequent des, and Aristophanes. Greek poetry—it may fairly reflection, Greek mythology is, therefore, a mass of the be said that Greek genius-culminated in the splendid most heterogeneous materials. Side by side with some productions of the Athenian dramatists; and no fewof the sublimest and most beautiful conceptions which the mind has ever produced, we find in it much that is monds's work are devoted to a consideration of what

er than seven chapters (about a third) of Professor Syabsurd and trivial and revolting. Different ages and conditions of thought have left their products imbedded remains to us of this stupendous legacy. Discussion in its strange conglomerate. While it contains fragments of the kind furnished in these chapters is only too of fossilized stories, the meaning of which has either apt to be technical and dull ; and it is perhaps the been misunderstood or can only be explained by reference crowning testimony to the author's skill that there to barbaric customs, it also contains, emergent from the is scarcely a page in them which the ordinary reader rest and towering above the rubbish, the serene forms of would not peruse with pleasure, or an exposition of the Olympians. Those furnish the vital and important which the scholar would complain as inadequate. elements of Greek mythology. To perfect them was the work of poets and sculptors in the brief, bright, blooming on “ Ancient and Modern Tragedy "; and another

There is a very instructive and valuable chapter time of Hellas.

" The Comic Fragments,” in which the author After disposing of these preliminary questions, traces the history of the later Greek drama, and disProfessor Symonds begins his work proper with cusses the points of similarity and difference between Homer, devoting a chapter to Achilles, whom he ancient and modern comedy. Theocritus, Bion, and regards as " the central subject ” of the “Iliad,” and Moschus are treated of in a most luminous and apthe "true type of the Hellenic genius," and another preciative chapter on “The Idyllists,” whose works to the “Women of Homer." With regard to the gilded with a sunset radiance the decline of the anmuch-debated and never-settled problem of criticism, cient literature, and a little later ushered in the dawn whether Homer actually existed, or whether, as in of the modern. One chapter is devoted to the “An. the case of Mrs. Harris, "there never was no sich thology"; another to the different versions of the person,” he entertains very decided opinions, and tale of “Hero and Leander "; and two final chapgives them vigorous expression. He says :

ters discuss the “Genius of Greek Art," the essen.

tial relation of all spiritual movement to Greek culIf of Homer we know nothing, we have heard too ture, and the contrast between the Greek, the meof the book as a print-collector's vade mecum, Mr. being thus defined, we can best convey an idea of its Hoe has added an appendix which nearly doubles its * The Print-Collector : An Introduction to the Knowl


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diæval, and the modern or scientific conception of special contents by analyzing the successive chapters Nature.

of which it is composed. The first chapter treats of We have not space even to summarize the con- collecting in general and print-collecting in particutents of these chapters, much as there is in them to lar, discusses the “proper motive for collecting,” invite comment; but our notice would be incom- and points out “the advantages of print-collecting plete without a cordial word of praise for ofessor as compared with other subjects, such as pictures, Symonds's spirited and elegant translations of select statues, coins and medals, gems, and drawings,” and passages. It need not be said that these add incal. this with reference to the several points of “expense, culably to the value and interest of his work. space, preservation, portability, ascertainment of

quality and of genuineness, price, and pleasure de

rivable and communicable.” The second chapter A BETTER proof of the widening interest in ev. ference between wood-engraving and engraving on

treats of the classification of prints ; defines the difery department of the fine arts in this country could metal; and explains the modes of working by burin, hardly be found than is afforded by the publication etching, dry point, mezzotinto, dotting, stippling, in sumptuous and greatly enlarged form of Mr. Ma

aquatinta, lithography, etc. Chapter three gives berly's “Print-Collector."* Ten years ago an edi.

minute instructions regarding the tests to apply in tion of the Targum or of the Pandects would have selecting specimens, explaining what is meant by been considered by publishers quite as likely to

"states," proofs," “ early impressions," "good improve profitable ; yet there can be little doubt that


,” “burr," "shake,” copies," and other at the present time the book will be welcomed by a

technicalities of the art. Chapter four gives ample large and highly appreciative circle of readers. For information as to the prices of prints and the progone thing, it is both more valuable and more inter

ress in value of ancient engravings; also regarding esting than such treatises usually are. It is the

what may be called the customs and usages of the work of a man who, though enthusiastic in his love trade. Chapter five discusses the various considerafor the special art of which he treats, did not make tions which should be kept in mind in deciding upon it a hobby; who collected prints because he really the extent or limit of a proposed collection ; and admired them, and not because collecting had be chapter six contains some highly useful suggestions come a mania; whose tastes were controlled by his

as to the care, keeping, mounting, handling, exhibitjudgment, not warped by his feelings or by commercial considerations; and who was enabled by his of the mode of commencing collector," the “ex

ing, and cleaning of prints. Chapter seven treats own experience to deal with just those difficulties

tent of expense," "chronology," and the “different which are most likely to beset the print-collector, and

manners and processes," and then explains the charto impart the precise information which the print-collector is always in search of, and which it usually with notices of the principal engravers in each.

acteristics of the various “schools of engravers, costs him much labor and pains to acquire. In plan and scope Mr. Maberly's book was de engraving; and, finally, chapter nine discusses the

Chapter eight compares the old and new systems of signed to meet the wants of amateurs rather than of merits and deficiencies of the best-known books on connoisseurs and specialists. Presupposing on the

engraving. part of the reader only a genuine feeling for art, it aimed to stimulate and cultivate that feeling, to fur- and while the greater part of the material which it

Mr. Maberly's little book was published in 1844. nish good reasons for its gratification, to prove that contains is as fresh and as useful to-day as when it engravings or “ prints” combine greater advantages

was first written, there are many details as to prices, and opportunities for the average collector than do the products of any of the sister arts, and to show in etc., which are no longer correct

, and which might detail how the collector must set about and prose. viate this disadvantage, Mr. Robert Hoe, Jr., the

mislead instead of assisting the beginner. To obcute his work. It possesses all the attractions which American editor, has added a series of notes which pertain to a record of personal experiences; it is written in a thoroughly genial and graceful spirit; supplement Mr. Maberly's text in many important and, besides describing the enjoyment which the au: particulars; and which, for one thing, enable us to thor had derived from the study and collection of present resting-place of nearly all the more impor

trace the history, prices, successive ownership, and etchings and engravings, it undertakes to "communicate such knowledge to others as might lead an learn not only where to look for the special objects

tant and valuable prints-so that the collector will appreciative reader through the same pleasant paths of his search, but just what he will probably have to of art he himself had trodden." The general purpose and character of the book pay for them. Still further to increase the adequacy

size and quite doubles its value. In this appendix edge necessary for forming a Collection of Ancient Prints. he has reproduced the substance of T. H. Fielding's By J. Maberly. With an Appendix containing Fielding's excellent treatise on "The Art of Engraving, with “Treatise on the Practice of Engraving." Edited by the Various Modes of Operation," in which the Robert Hoe, Jr. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co. Svo, theory and practice of the art are combined; he has Pp. 336.

written an account of the principal etchers and en




gravers who have risen to eminence since Mr. Ma- Skill of a very high order is displayed, for examberly's book appeared ; he has arranged tabular lists ple, in Miss Nora Perry's “ Her Lover's Friend, and of the works of the leading artists of the past, with Other Poems.”* The verse is varied and musical ; references to the descriptions of them in the cala- the sound is always happily wedded to the sense ; logues raisonnés of Adam Bartsch, Wilson, Blanc, the movement is ilowing and graceful; and there are and others; and has compiled a bibliography of en- a certain precision of phrase and polish of style which graving which fills twenty-four pages, and includes show that the author has thought sufficiently of her notices of nearly three hundred separate works. own work to take pains with it. In theme, Miss

Among the illustrations, which are very interest- Perry's poetry is less varied than in versification ; it ing, are three plates of “ Marks and Monograms," is always love, in some one of its Protean forms, that and one showing the “ Tools used in Engraving and inspires and permeates her song. Moreover, she Etching." The style of the volume is substantial does not merely sing about love: she manages to exand elegant, and altogether this American edition press the very feeling itself, and there is a fervor and of Mr. Maberly's work is far more valuable than an intensity about her more impassioned pieces which the original English edition, which has become very accelerates the pulse of the reader and sets his blood scarce, and consequently expensive.

to tingling. It is this emotional warmth, indeed, which constitutes the distinguishing merit of Miss

Perry's work, and lifts her out of the rank of mere In a thoroughly sensible article on “ The Litera- verse-makers. The feeling itself always dominates ry Calling and its Future,” in one of the current the expression of the feeling; and the author is selEnglish magazines, Mr. James Payn, the novelist, dom caught in the act of searching around for a makes a vigorous attack upon the laus temporis acti thought or a sentiment to fit into a preconceived aras applied to literature, and asserts categorically of rangement of words. The following specimen of her modern periodical literature that," however small work has been chosen, not because it illustrates the may be its merits, it is at all events ten times as good special characteristic of which we have been speakas ancient periodical literature (that of the early ing, but because it exhibits the author's skill in vers • Edinburgh Review,' for example) used to be." In de sociétda department of poetry in which entire the matter of poetry, in particular, is the improve- success is rarely achieved: ment very remarkable. “Of course," says Mr. Payn, “there is to-day a great deal of rant and

IF I WERE YOU, SIR. twaddle published under the name of verse in maga

If I were you, sir, zines; yet I could point to scores of poems that

I would not sue, sir, have thus appeared during the last ten years which

For any woman's love day after day: half a century ago would have made—and deserved.

I'd never stand, sir,

At her command, sir, ly made-a high reputation for their authors. . .

Year in and out in this fond, foolish way. Those who are acquainted with such matters will, I am sure, corroborate my assertion that there was

Across my face, sir, never so much good poetry in our general literature

I'd have the grace, sir, as at present. Persons of intelligence do not look

Or mother-wit, to pull a gayer mask,

And wait to find, sir, for such things perhaps, while persons of culture are

What was her mind, sir, too much occupied with old china and high art ; but

Before I'd grovel at her feet to ask. to humble folks, who take an interest in their fellow creatures, it is very pleasant to observe what high

All very well, sir, thoughts, and how poetically expressed, are now to

For you to tell, sir, be found about our feet, and, as it were, in the lit

Of that grand old poet in the olden time,

Whose fine advice, sir, erary gutter."

Was so concise, sir, Some such reflections as these must occur to every

In that immortal strain of gallant rhyme. critic who finds upon his table a number of volumes of recent verse. Unless the contents of these vol.

It does not fit, sir, umes are very much below the current average, each

Your case a bit, sir : of them will contain verse which is quite as elevated

He never meant a man should pray and pray

With such an air, sir, in sentiment and finished in expression as that which

Of poor despair, sir, finds its way into the ordinary collections of the Brit

For any woman's love day after day. ish Poets ; and now and then the reader comes upon a poem of which it is difficult to say why it does not

If you will read, sir, entitle its author to a place in the choir of the im

The verse with heed, sir, mortals. In what we may call the art of verse

You'll see it runs as clearly as it may,

That every man, sir, making, as distinguished from that profound applica

Should take his answer, tion of ideas to life which Matthew Arnold declares

With manly courage, be it yea or nay. to be the distinctive mark of true poetry, the general proficiency is very surprising ; and this has long

* Her Lover's Friend, and Other Poems. By Nora seemed to us perhaps the most conclusive evidence Perry. Boston : Houghton, Osgood & Co. 16mo. Pp. of the growing refinement of taste.



Then cease your sighs, sir :

volume ; but one is puzzled to make out why a No man's a prize, sir,

rondeau " or "rondel" should so closely resemble In any woman's sight, just let me say,

the oracles of a sibyl. The ballad of “King SigWho's not too high, sir,

mund's Woe,” recast from an incident in William To sigh and die, sir,

Morris's Sigurd the Volsung, is much the best piece For any woman's love, day after day.

in the collection. It is spirited, vigorous, and resoIn Mrs. Dodge's “Along the Way"* the tone nant; and several of the sonnets are neatly conis graver and more reflective, the subjects are more structed. varied, and the artistic skill is not inferior. Mrs. Dodge is known chiefly as a writer for children, and several of the most pleasing pieces in the present

It has been truly said that, if there had been collection have childhood for their theme ; but the preserved to us even one novel describing Greek tone of most of them is thoughtful, almost didactic, social life at say the period of the Athenian supremand her predominant mood appears to be somewhat acy, with the graphic realism with which Mr. Anpensive. With a keen susceptibility to the beauties thony Trollope's novels depict the England of our of nature, and great skill in portraying them, she is day, we should have a better and more accurate idea seldom content to regard Nature objectively, but en

of what the Greeks really were than can be obtained deavors to associate it in some way with human life from all the existing relics of their literature and art. and human destiny. The subjoined is a fair speci- Regarded from this view-point, such stories as “Di men of her usual manner, though it contains no hint Cary"* have a definite and high value, whatever of those quaint conceits which she manages so skill- may be their deficiencies in other respects. Miss fully :


Thornton's story is a picture of Southern plantation life at the period just following the close of the war,

when society was painfully readjusting itself to the The wind drove the moon

new order of things; when the incidents, at once To a sky-built cave, And closed it up

grotesque and pathetic, connected with so complete As it were her grave.

a social catastrophe, were more pronounced than they The cave threw wide

now are ; and when the passions and prejudices A silver portal

aroused by the conflict had not yet had time to subAnd forth she came,

side. At some future time this period will possess Serene, immortal!

a peculiar interest for the student of American his

tory, and Miss Thornton's picture of it will have He piled black clouds

value on account of its minutely faithful delineation. In angry might,

As an example of rigid realism the story is almost as Till lost in gloom

notable as “L'Assommoir"-not that it contains any Was all her light. The clouds a moment

of the horrors of that work, or exhibits the least tenHeld her under ;

dency to deal with improper things, but the author's Then, glorified,

whole concern has been to depict men and women They burst asunder!

with photographic accuracy, and to relate with the

utmost exactness the ordinary incidents that make The wind, that night,

up their daily life. It evident that the author, in Bemoaned and whistled

her desire to be wholly realistic, misses some of the Till all the forest Stirred and bristled ;

finer aspects of the social life she paints so mi. While moonbeams stole

nutely. To tear-wet pillows,

It is a long step which Miss Fothergill has taken And found their way

from “The First Violin" to "Probation,"t and one Through graveyard willows.

which, we fear, is not altogether in the right direc

tion. The earlier story was a picture of the BoheThe “Idylls and Poems" of Anna Maria Fay mian phase of art-life in Germany, and was written show respectable skill in versification, but they lack with enthusiasm, sympathy, and knowledge ; “Prospontaneity, and have too much the air of deliberate bation" has for its background the terrible “cotton and even laborious manufacture. Most of them, famine" in Lancashire, produced by the closing of moreover, are written in a riddle-my-riddle style, Southern ports during our civil war, and is written which seems designed to baffle rather than to reveal, with sympathy and knowledge, but without that aland a certain haziness or indefiniteness of thought most lyrical fervor and intensity which gave its most is reflected in verse whose utterance is scarcely artic. distinctive feature to its predecessor. The differulate and whose meaning can only be guessed. This ence between the two stories appears to be that is not so objectionable, perhaps, in avowed allegories, such as the first two and longest poems in the little * Di Gary. A Novel By M. Jacqueline Thornton.

Appletons' Library of American Fiction. New York: * Along the way. By Mary Mapes Dodge. New D. Appleton & Co. 8vo, pp. 231. York: Charles Scribner's Sons. 16mo, pp. 136.

+ Probation. A Novel. By Jessie Fothergill. Lei+ Idylls and Poems. By Anna Maria Fay. New sure Hour Series. New York: Henry Holt & Co. Ihmo, York: G. P. Putnam's Sons. 16mo, pp. 103.

Pp. 434.

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