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ity. But Perrault's rendering of the tale natu- widow with one plain daughter. And the new ralized it in the polite world, gave it for cultured mistress of the house grievously ill-treated her circles an attraction which it is never likely to step-daughter, forbidding her to wash her face, lose. The supernatural element plays in it but a or brush her hair, or change her dress. And as subordinate part, for, even without the aid of a she became grimy with ashes, pepel, Mara refairy godmother, the neglected heroine might ceived the nickname of Pepelluga, that is, Cinhave been enabled to go to a ball in disguise, and derella, or Ashypet. Her step-mother also set to win the heart of the hero by the beauty of her her tasks which she could never have done, had features and the smallness of her foot. It is with not “the cow, which had once been her mother," human more than with mythological interest that helped her to perform them. When the stepthe story is replete, and therefore it appeals to mother found this out, she gave her husband no human hearts with a force which no lapse of time rest till he promised to put the cow to death. can diminish. Such supernatural machinery as The girl wept bitterly when she heard the sad is introduced, moreover, has a charm for children news, but the cow consoled her, telling her what which older versions of the tale do not possess. she must do. She must not eat of its flesh, and The pumpkin carriage, the rat coachman, the she must carefully collect and bury its bones lizard lackeys, and all the other properties of under a certain stone, and to this burial-place the transformation scene, appeal at once to the she must afterward come, should she find herself imagination and the sense of humor of every be- in need of help. The cow was killed and eaten, holder. In the more archaic forms of the narra- but Mara said she had no appetite and ate none tive there is no intentional grotesqueness. It is of its Aesh. And she buried its bones as she had probably because so many of the incidents in the been directed. Some days afterward, her steplife of “Cucendron” (as she was generally styled mother went to church with her own daughter, at home, “though the younger of her step-sisters, leaving Mara at home to cook the dinner, and to who was not so uncivil as the elder, called her pick up a quantity of corn which had been pur*Cendrillon'") were so natural, that some my- posely strewed about the house, threatening to thologists have attached such importance to the kill her if she had not performed both tasks by final trial by slipper. “The central interest in the time they came back from church. Mara the popular story of Cinderella,” says Professor was greatly troubled at the sight of the grain, de Gubernatis in his valuable work on " Zoologi- and fled for help to the cow's grave. There she cal Mythology," is “the legend of the lost slipper, found an open coffer full of fine raiment, and on and of the prince who tries to find the foot pre- the lid sat two white doves, which said, “ Mara, destined to wear it.” But, if the tale be sought choose a dress and go in it to church, and we for in lands less cultured than the France which birds will gather up the grain.” So she took the produced Perrault's “ Cendrillon " and the Count- robes which came first, all of the finest silk, and ess d'Aulnoy's “ Finette Cendron,” we shall see went in them to church, where the beauty of her that “the legend of the lost slipper" is no longer face and her dress won all hearts, especially that of “ central interest," being merely used to supply of the Emperor's son. Just before the service the means of ultimate recognition so valuable in was over, she glided out of church, ran home, ancient days not only to the story-teller but to and placed her robes in the coffer, which immedithe dramatist. Let us take, by way of example, ately shut and disappeared. When her relatives a Servian version of the story :*

returned, they found the grain collected, the dinAs a number of girls were spinning one day ner cooked, and Ashypet as grimy as usual. Next a-field, sitting in a ring around a cleft in the Sunday just the same happened ; only Mara's ground, there came to them an old man, who robes were this time of silver. On the third Sunsaid: “ Maidens, beware! for if one of you were day she went to church in raiment of pure gold to. let her spindle fall into this cleft, her mother with slippers to match. And when she left, the would be immediately turned into a cow." There- Emperor's son left too, and hastened after her. upon the girls at once drew nearer to the cleft But all he got for his pains was her right slipper, and inquisitively peeped into it. And the spindle which she dropped in her haste. By means of it of Mara, the fairest of their number, slipped out he at length found her out. In vain did her stepof her hand and fell into the cleft. When she mother, when he walked in with the golden test reached home in the evening, there was her in his hand, hide her under a trough, endeavor to mother turned into a cow, standing in front of force her own daughter's foot into the too small the house and mooing. Thenceforth Mara tend- slipper, and, when this attempt failed, deny that ed and fed that cow with filial affection. But her there was any other girl in the house. For the father married again, taking as his second wife a cock crowed out, “ Kikerike! the maiden is under

the trough!" There the prince in truth found * Vuk Karajich, No. 32.

her, clothed from head to foot in golden attire,



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but wanting her right slipper. After which all glass shoe was brought by the prince's messenwent well.

ger to the house wherein lived two sisters, “ the In a modern Greek variant of the story (Hahn, auld sister that was sae proud gaed awa' by herNo. 2), there is a similar but a still stranger open- sel', and came back in a while hirpling wi' the ing. According to it, an old woman and her shoe on.” But, when she rode away in triumph three daughters sat spinning one day. And they as the prince's bride, “a wee bird sung out o' a made an agreement that, if one of them broke her bush : thread or dropped her spindle, she should be

"Nippit fit and clippit fit ahint the king rides ; killed and eaten by the others. The mother's

But pretty fit and little fit ahint the caldron hides." spindle was the first to fall, and her two elder daughters killed, cooked, and ate her. But their The blinding of the pretenders, however, is a younger sister did all she could to save her moth- rare incident. But in one of the Russian stories er's life, and, when her attempts proved fruitless, (Afanasief, vi., 30) the step-sisters of Chornushutterly refused to have anything to do with eating ka—so called from her being always dirty and her. And, after the unfilial repast was over, she chorna, or black-lose their eyes exactly as in collected her mother's bones, and buried them in the German tale. the ash-hole. After forty days had passed, she The industry of many collectors has supplied wished to dig them up and bury them elsewhere. scores of variants of this most popular narrative. But, when she opened the hole in which she had But those which have been mentioned will be deposited them, there streamed forth from it a sufficient to throw a considerable light upon one blaze of light which almost blinded her. And of its most significant features. Its earlier scenes then she found that no bones were there, but appear to have been inspired by the idea that a three costly suits of raiment. On one gleamed loving mother may be able, even after her death, " the sky with its stars," on another “ the spring to bless and assist a dutiful child. In the Servian: with its flowers," on the third “the sea with its and the Greek variants, this belief is brought waves." By means of these resplendent robes prominently forward, though in a somewhat groshe created a great sensation in church on three tesque form. In the German it is indicated, but successive Sundays, and won the heart of the less clearly. In one of the Sicilian variants (Piusual prince, who was enabled to recognize her tré, No. 41), the step-daughter is assisted by a by means of the customary slipper. The German cow, as in the Servian story. Out of the hole in variant of the story given by Grimm (No. 21) which its bones are buried come “twelve damrepresents the grimy Aschenputtel—a form of sels" who array her “all in gold” and take her to Cinderella's name very like the Scotch Ashypet the royal palace. Here the link between the girl -as being assisted to bear up against the un- and her dead mother has been lost, and the kindness of her step-sisters by a white bird, which supernatural machinery is worked by fairy hands. haunted the tree she had planted above her In another (No. 43) the heroine receives everymother's grave. From this bird she received all thing she asks for, exactly as in the German that she asked for, including the dazzling robe story, from a magic date-tree. But nothing is and golden shoes in which she, for the third time, said about its being planted above her mother's won the prince's heart at a ball in the palace. grave, and its mysterious powers are accounted One of these shoes stuck in the pitch with which for only by the fact that out of it issue “a great the prince had ordered the staircase to be smeared number of fati" or fairies. In the romantic story in the hope of thereby capturing her when she of “ La Gatta Cennerentola,” told by Basile in his fled from the ball; and by it he after a time rec- “Pentamerone" (published at Naples about the ognized her. The story is of an unusually savage year 1637), she is similarly assisted by a fairy tone. For not only does one of the step-sisters who issues from a date-tree. This suggests the cut off her toes, and the other her heel, in order fairy godmother of Perrault's tale, from which to fit their feet to the golden slipper-acting in our version appears to have been borrowed. For accordance with the suggestion of their mother, among us Cinderella's slipper is almost always who says, “When you are a queen you need not of glass, a material never mentioned except in go afoot—but they ultimately have their eyes the French form of the story and its imitations. pecked out by the two doves which have previ- On this part of Cinderella's costume it may be ously called attention to the fact that blood is as well to dwell for a time, before passing on to streaming from their mutilated feet. The surgi- the further consideration of her fortunes. As cal adaptation of the false foot to the slipper, and yet we have dealt only with what may be called its exposure by a bird, occur in so many variants the “dead-mother” or“ step-mother" opening of that they probably formed an important part of the tale. We shall have to consider presently the original tale. Thus, in a Lowland Scotch va- a kindred form of the narrative, the opening of riant of the story quoted by Chambers, when the which may be named after the “hateful mar

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riage” from which the heroine flies, her adven- was unknown, substituted the more familiar but tures after her fight being similar to those of less probable verre, thereby dooming Cinderella the ill-used step-daughter. That is to say, she is to wear a glass slipper long before the discovery reduced to a state of degradation and squalor, was made that glass may be rendered tough. and is forced to occupy a servile position, fre- In favor of the correctness of this supposition we quently connected in some way with the hearth have the great authority of M. Littré, whose dicand its ashes. From this, however, she emergestionary affirms positively that in the description on certain festive occasions as a temporarily bril- of Cinderella's slipper, verre is a mistake for liant being, always returning to her obscure posi- vair. In this decision some scholars, especially tion, until at last she is recognized; after which those who detect in every feature of a fairy tale she remains permanently brilliant, her apparently a “solar myth,” refuse to acquiesce. Thus M. destined period of eclipse having been brought André Lefèvre, the accomplished editor of a reto a close by her recognition, which is accom- cent edition of Perrault's “Contes,” absolutely plished by the aid of her lost shoe or slipper. refuses to give up the verre which “convient

As to the material of the slipper there has parfaitement à un mythe lumineux.” * But the been much dispute. In the greater part of what fact that Cinderella is not shod with glass in the are apparently the older forms of the story, it is vast majority of the lands she inhabits outweighs made of gold. This may perhaps be merely a any amount of mythological probabilities. Befigure of speech, but there are instances on rec- sides, a golden shoe is admirably adapted to a ord of shoes, or at least sandals, being made of luminous myth. It was a golden sandal which precious metals. Even in our own times, as well Rhodopis lost while bathing, and which—accordas in the days of the Cæsars, a horse is said to ing to the evidently Oriental tale preserved for us have been shod with gold. And an Arab geog- by Strabo and Ælian—was borne by an eagle to rapher, quoted by Mr. Lane, vouches for the fact the Egyptian King, who immediately resolved to that the islands of Wák-Wák are ruled by a make that sandal's owner his royal spouse. In the queen who has shoes of gold.” Moreover, “no venerable Egyptian tale of “The Two Brothers," one walks in all these islands with any other kind of another monarch is equally affected by the sight shoe; if he wear any other kind, his feet are cut.” of a lock of the heroine's golden hair, that is It is true that his authority is a little weakened borne to him by the river into which it had fallen, by his subsequent statement that these isles have and he makes a similar resolve. In a Lesghian trees which bear "fruits like women.” These story from the Caucasus,t a supernatural female strange beings have beautiful faces, and are sus- being drops a golden shoe, and the hero is sent pended by their hair. They come forth from in search of its fellow, becoming thereby exposed integuments like large leathern bags. And when to many dangers. We may fairly be allowed, they feel the air and the sun, they cry •Wák! without any slur being cast upon mythological Wák!' until their hair is cut; and when it is cut interpretation, to give up the glassiness of Cinthey die.” Glass is an all but unknown material derella's slipper. If the substitution of verre for for shoemaking in the genuine folk-tales of any vair be admitted, it supplies us with one of the country except France. The heroine of one of few verbal tests which exist whereby to track a Mr. J. F. Campbell's Gaelic tales * wore “glass story's wanderings. For in that case we may shoes,” but this exception to the rule may be due always trace home to France, or at least detect to a French influence, transmitted through an a French element in, any form of the Cinderella English or Lowland Scotch channel. Even in story in which the heroine wears a glass slipper. France itself the slipper is not always of glass. A somewhat similar mistake to that which vitriMadame d'Aulnoy's Finette Cendron, for in- fied Cinderella's slipper caused a celebrated picstance, wore one “of red velvet embroidered ture by Rubens to be long known by an inapwith pearls.” The use of the word verre by propriate title. Many a visitor to the National Perrault has been accounted for in two ways. Gallery must have wondered why a portrait of a Some critics think that the material in question lady in a hat manifestly made, not of straw, but was a tissu en verre, fashionable in Perrault's of beaver or a kind of felt, should be designated time. But the more generally received idea is the chapeau de paille, before it was pointed out that the substance was originally a kind of fur by Mr. Wornum, in the catalogue, that paille called vaira word now obsolete in France, ex- was probably a mistake for poil, a word meaning cept in heraldry, but locally preserved in England among other things wool and the nap of a hat, as the name of the weaselt-and that some reciter or transcriber to whom the meaning of vair * An amusing article on this question appeared in the

“Daily Telegraph," December 27, 1878, in reply to the

support given by "X"in the “ Times" to the cause of * " West Highland Tales," i., 225.

vair. + “Spectator," January 4, 1879.

+ Schiefner's “ Awarische Texte," p. 68.

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and akin to the Latin pileus, a felt cap or hat, her knees beside the cradle, over which she bent as and indeed to the word felt itself.

she suckled the babe at her dead breast. The mo. As regards the identification of the heroine ment the light shone in the cottage she stood up, by means of the lost slipper, that seems to be, gazed sadly on her little one, and then went out of as has already been remarked, merely one of the the room without a sound, not saying a word to any

All those who saw her stood for a time terrormethods of recognition by which the stories of

struck. And then they found the babe was dead. brilliant beings, temporarily obscured, are commonly brought to a close. In ancient comedy a In the Indian story of “Punchkin," * the recognition was one of the most hackneyed con- seven ill-used little princesses “used to go out trivances for winding up the plot, a convenient every day and sit by their dead mother's tomb,” dramatic makeshift akin to that which proves the and cry, saying: “O mother, mother, can not you brotherhood of the heroes of “ Box and Cox.”

see your poor children, how unhappy we are, and Thus in the numerous tales which tell how a how we are starved by our cruel step-mother?" hero who is really brilliant and majestic, but And while they were thus crying one day, a tree, apparently squalid or insignificant, saves a fair covered with ripe fruit, “

grew up out of the princess from a many-headed dragon, but is grave," and provided them with food. And when robbed of his reward and reputation by an im- the tree was cut down, a tank near the grave bepostor, he usually proves his identity with her

came filled with “a rich, cream-like substance, rescuer by producing, in the final scene, the which quickly hardened into a thick, white cake,” tongues of the dead monster. Thus also the of which the hungry princesses partook freely. troubles of the golden-haired hero who, like Cin- A similar appeal to a dead mother is made by a derella, emerges at times from his obscurity and daughter in a Russian story (Afanasief, vi., 28). performs wonders, come to a close when he is When in great distress, “she went out to the recognized by some token, such as the king's cemetery, to her mother's grave, and began to handkerchief in the Norse tale of “The Widow's weep bitterly.” And her mother spoke to her Son." All this finale business appears to be of from the grave, and told her what to do in order very inferior importance to the opening of the to escape from her troubles. drama, that which refers to the dead mother's guardianship of her distressed child. The idea The last of these tales belongs to the prethat such a protection might be exercised is of viously mentioned second division of Cinderella great antiquity and of wide circulation. Accord- stories, that which comprises the majority of the ing to it, the dying parent's benediction was not tales in which an ill-used maiden temporarily ocmerely a prayer left to be fulfilled by a higher cupies a degraded position, appears resplendent power, but was an actual force, either working on certain brief occasions, but always returns to of its own accord, or exerted by the parent's her state of degradation, until at length she is spirit after death. In the Russian story of Va- recognized, frequently by the help of her lost silissa the Fair, a dying mother bequeaths to her slipper. But, instead of her troubles being caused little daughter her parental blessing and a doll

, by a step-mother or step-sisters, they are brought and tells her to feed it well, and it will help her upon her, in the stories now referred to, by some whenever she is in trouble. And therefore it member of her own family who wishes to drive was that Vasilissa would never eat all her share her into a hated marriage. From it she seeks of a meal, but always kept the most delicate refuge in flight, donning a disguise which is almorsel for her doll; and at night, when all were most invariably the hide of some animal. In at rest, she would shut herself up in the narrow some countries the “ step-mother" form of Cinchamber in which she slept, and feast her doll, derella appears be rare, whereas the “ hatefulsaying the while: “There, dolly, feed: help me marriage” form'is common. In Pitré's collection in my need !” And the doll would eat until of Sicilian tales, for instance, for one Cinderella “ its eyes began to glow just like a couple of tale of the step-mother class, there are four which candles," and then do everything that Vasilissa begin with the heroine's escape from an unlawful wanted. In another Russian tale, known also to marriage. In the Gonzenbach collection there is Teutonic lands, a dead mother comes every night but one good variant of the Cinderella tale, and to visit her pining babe. The little creature cries it belongs to the second class. The specimen of all day, but during the dark it is quiet. Anxious this second group, with which English readers to know the reason of this, the relatives conceal are likely to be best acquainted, is the German a light in a pitcher, and suddenly produce it in “ Allerleirauh" (Grimm, No. 65), though it is the middle of the night.

very probable that to the same division belonged

also the story of “Catskin,” which Mr. Burchell They looked and saw the dead mother, in the very same clothes in which she had been buried, on * Miss Frere's "Old Deccan Days," No. 1.


presented, with other tales, to the younger mem- also procured from the same source, she leaves bers of the family of the Vicar of Wakefield. home, carrying her wonderful dresses with her Perrault's “ Peau d'Ane" is a version of the in a bundle, and thus escapes from her abhorred same story, but as it is told in verse it has never suitor. To prevent him from noticing her abachieved anything at all approaching the success sence, she leaves two doves in her room together gained by its prose companions. Besides, the with a basin of water. As he listens at the door theme is not adapted for nurseries. It forms the he hears a splashing which is really due to the subject of the Lowland Scotch tale of “Rashie- birds, but which he supposes is caused by her Coat,” in which we are told that the heroine filed ablutions. Great is his rage when he at length because “her father wanted her to be married, breaks open the door, and finds that he has been but she didna like the man.” But the Gaelic tricked. We learn from another variant that he story of “ The King who wished to marry his was induced to knock his head against the wall Daughter" (Campbell, No. 14) states the case until he died, and so the dressmaking devil got more precisely. The heroine almost always de- his due. In one of the Russian forms of the mands from her unwelcome suitor three magnifi- same tale, the fugitive maiden has recourse to a cent dresses, and with these she takes to fight, still more singular means of concealing her abusually disguising herself by means of a hide or The story is valuable because it supplies other species of rough covering. In these dresses a reason for the introduction of the fatal ring. she goes to the usual ball or other festival, and That is said to be due to the malice of a maligcaptivates the conventional prince. The close of nant witch, who, out of mere spite, induced a the story is generally the same as that which ter- dying mother to give the ring to her son, and to minates the ordinary Cinderella tales which we charge him to marry that damsel whose finger it have already considered. Its special points of would fit. The ring is evidently of a superinterest are the reasons given for her fight from natural nature, for, when the heroine tries it on, home, and the disguise in which she effects her not only does it cling to her finger “just as if it escape.

had been made on purpose for it," but it begins Cinderella's troubles are brought to an end by to shine with a new brilliance. When Katerina the discovery that a slipper fits her foot; those hears to what a marriage it destines her, she of Allerleirauh, Catskin, Rashie-Coat, and the “melts into bitter tears ” and sits down in despair rest of her widely-scattered but always kindred on the threshold of the house. Up come some companions in adventure, are generally brought old women bent on a holy pilgrimage, and to about by the discovery that a certain ring or dress them she confides the story of her woes. Acting fits her finger or form. Cinderella's promotion on their advice, when the fatal marriage-day aris due to her dead mother's watchful care. Rashie- rives, she takes four kukolki, dolls or puppets of Coat's degradation is consequent upon her dying some kind, and places one in each of the comers mother's unfortunate imprudence. Thus, in the of her room. When her suitor repeatedly calls Sicilian tale of “ Betta Pilusa," * the hateful mar- upon her to come forth, she replies that she is riage from which the heroine flies, wrapped up coming directly, but each time she speaks the in a gray cloak made of catskin, would never dolls begin to cry“ Kuku," and as they cry the have been suggested to her had not her mother floor opens gently and she sinks slowly in. At obtained a promise from her husband on her last only her head remains visible. "Kuku" cry death-bed that he would marry again whenever the dolls again : she disappears from sight, and any maiden was found whom her ring would fit. the floor closes above her. Irritated at the delay, Some years later her own daughter finds the ring her suitor breaks open the door. He looks round and tries it on. It fits exactly, so she is con- on every side. No Katerina is there, only in each demned to the marriage in question. By the ad- corner sits a doll, all four singing “ Kuku! open vice of her confessor, she asks for three dresses, earth, disappear sister !” He snatches up an so wonderful that no mortal man can supply axe, chops off their heads, and flings them into them. But her suitor is assisted by the devil

, the fire. In a Little-Russian variant of the same who enables him to produce the desired robes, story, the despairing maiden flies for solace to her the first sky-colored, representing the sun, the mother's grave. And her dead mother “comes moon, and the stars; the second sea-colored, de- out from her grave," and tells her daughter what picting “all the plants and animals of the sea"; to do. The girl accordingly provides herself and the third “a raiment of the color of the earth, with the usual splendid robes, and with the likewhereon all the beasts and the flowers of the field wise necessary pig's hide or fell

. Then she takes were to be seen.” Hidden in her catskin cloak, three puppets and arranges them around her on


the ground. The puppets exclaim, one after * Gonzenbach, No. 38. Pilusa is the Sicilian form another, “Open, moist earth, that the maiden fair of pilosa, hairy.

may enter within thee." And when the third


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